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*  ATP-binding cassette transporter
... different types of drugs can be used or the ABC transporters themselves must be inhibited. For other types of drugs to work ... "Crystal structures of the ATPase subunit of the glucose ABC transporter from Sulfolobus solfataricus: nucleotide-free and ... ABC-type uptake permeases 3.A.1.1 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1 (CUT1) 3.A.1.2 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-2 (CUT2) 3.A ... The type II ABC importer fold is observed in the twenty TM helix-domain of BtuCD and in Hi1471, a homologous transporter from ...
*  Glucose transporter
GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they ... Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. ... Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, ... Thorens B (1996). "Glucose transporters in the regulation of intestinal, renal, and liver glucose fluxes". Am. J. Physiol. 270 ...
*  Astrocyte
Marty N (2005). "Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose transporter type 2 (glut2) and astrocyte-dependent glucose sensors ... GluT type: these express glutamate transporters (EAAT1/SLC1A3 and EAAT2/SLC1A2) and respond to synaptic release of glutamate by ... astrocytes can fuel neurons with glucose during periods of high rate of glucose consumption and glucose shortage. Recent ... GluR type: these express glutamate receptors (mostly mGluR and AMPA type) and respond to synaptic release of glutamate by ...
*  GLUT2
Glucose Transporter Type 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... GLUT2 could reasonably be referred to as the "diabetic glucose transporter" or a "stress hyperglycemia glucose transporter." ... It is the principal transporter for transfer of glucose between liver and blood, and has a role in renal glucose reabsorption. ... Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a ...
*  SLC2A10
2001). "Sequence and functional analysis of GLUT10: a glucose transporter in the Type 2 diabetes-linked region of chromosome ... 2003). "Genetic variation of the GLUT10 glucose transporter (SLC2A10) and relationships to type 2 diabetes and intermediary ... SLC2A10 is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family, which plays a significant role in maintaining glucose ... Wood IS, Hunter L, Trayhurn P (2003). "Expression of Class III facilitative glucose transporter genes (GLUT-10 and GLUT-12) in ...
*  Remogliflozin etabonate
... which are responsible for glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter causes blood glucose to be eliminated ... improves serum glucose profiles in type 1 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 35: 2198-200. doi:10.2337/dc12-0508. PMC 3476920 . PMID ... a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose transporter 2, ... Early studies in diabetics improved plasma glucose levels. ... Remogliflozin etabonate (RE) was shown to enhance urinary glucose excretion in rodents and humans. ...
*  Ataxia
... glucose transporter type 1 deficiency, episodic ataxia type 2, gluten ataxia, glutamic acid decarboxylase ataxia. The movement ... Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis) will cause the type of ... The three types of ataxia have overlapping causes, and therefore can either coexist or occur in isolation. ... Spinal disorders of various types may cause sensory ataxia from the lesioned level below, when they involve the dorsal columns ...
*  SLC30A8
Sep 2009). "Insulin storage and glucose homeostasis in mice null for the granule zinc transporter ZnT8 and studies of the type ... 2007). "The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen in human type 1 diabetes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Feb 2010). "New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk". Nature ... Solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8, also known as SLC30A8, is a human gene that codes for a zinc transporter ...
*  GLUT4
Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a ... GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. The ... GLUT4, however, is still believed to be the primary transporter for glucose. Much like in other tissues, GLUT4 also responds to ... In order to increase glucose levels in the cell, GLUT4 is the primary transporter used in this facilitated diffusion. Although ...
*  SLC2A11
... facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT-10/11) is a protein that ... "Cloning and characterization of glucose transporter 11, a novel sugar transporter that is alternatively spliced in various ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 11". Sasaki T, Minoshima S, Shiohama A, Shintani A, Shimizu A, Asakawa S, Kawasaki K, ... Shimizu N (December 2001). "Molecular cloning of a member of the facilitative glucose transporter gene family GLUT11 (SLC2A11) ...
*  Nutriepigenomics
... glucose transporter (GLUT)-4, POMC, 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and corticotrophin releasing hormone. Epigenetic ... Altered glucose utilization was detected in the grand-offspring of maternal rats fed a PR-diet during pregnancy and lactation, ... Type I diabetes mellitus. A chronic autoimmune disease. N Engl J Med. 1986 May 22;314(21):1360-8 doi:10.1056/ ... Offspring that were exposed to a high-fat or high-caloric maternal diet had increased levels of insulin, glucose and leptin. It ...
*  SLC2A14
... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A14 gene. Members of the glucose ... GLUTs show tissue and cell-type specific expression. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173262 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14". Retrieved 2011-10-23. Wu X, Freeze HH (December 2002). "GLUT14, a duplicon of ... are highly conserved integral membrane proteins that transport hexoses such as glucose and fructose into all mammalian cells. ...
*  Sodium-glucose transport proteins
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found ... SGLT2 inhibitors, also called gliflozins, are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples include dapagliflozin (Farxiga ... glucose is excreted in urine (glucosuria) because SGLT are saturated with the filtered glucose. Glucose is never secreted by a ... These co-transporters are an example of secondary active transport. Members of the GLUT family of glucose uniporters then ...
*  Gliflozin
Glucose is later reabsorbed by passive transfer of endothelial cells into the interstitial glucose transporter protein. The use ... Scheen, André J. (14 January 2014). "Drug-Drug Interactions with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, New ... The results are decreased kidney reabsorption of glucose, glucosuria effect increases with higher level of glucose in the blood ... glucose from the glomerular filtrate and subsequently lower the glucose level in the blood and promote the excretion of glucose ...
*  SLC37A4
1999). "Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) gene in patients with glycogen storage diseases type 1b and 1c ... 1999). "Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (9): ... 1999). "Glycogen storage disease type Ib: structural and mutational analysis of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter ... 1999). "The putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase gene is mutated in essentially all cases of glycogen storage disease type ...
*  Empagliflozin
... is an inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), and causes sugar in the blood to be excreted by ... a novel strategy for achieving glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Endocrine Practice. 14 (6): 782-90. doi:10.4158/ep ... Empagliflozin is an inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), which is found almost exclusively in the ... "Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors and cardiovascular outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis". European ...
*  Lipid raft
Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enters cell via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1); Ebola virus and Marburg virus uses ... In some cell types the virus can enter the caveosomes directly from lipid rafts in non-coated vesicles. EV1 uses α2β1-integrin ... One type of microdomain is constituted by cholesterol and sphingolipids. They form because of the segregation of these lipids ... Both types have similar lipid composition (enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids). Flotillin and caveolins have the ability ...
*  Human T-lymphotropic virus 2
HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1. HTLV-II has not been clearly linked to any disease ... Roucoux DF, Murphy EL (2004). "The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II". AIDS Rev. 6 (3): ... Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ... November 2008). "Long-term increases in lymphocytes and platelets in human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection". Blood. 112 ...
*  Glycogen storage disease type XI
January 2002). "The mutation spectrum of the facilitative glucose transporter gene SLC2A2 (GLUT2) in patients with Fanconi- ... It is associated with GLUT2, a glucose transport protein which, when functioning normally, allows glucose to exit several ... Glycogen storage disease type XI is a form of glycogen storage disease. It is also known as "Fanconi-Bickel syndrome", for ... Santer R, Steinmann B, Schaub J (March 2002). "Fanconi-Bickel syndrome--a congenital defect of facilitative glucose transport ...
*  MAPK8IP1
This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription ... This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 ... 2000). "The gene MAPK8IP1, encoding islet-brain-1, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes". Nat. Genet. 24 (3): 291-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 55 (2): 202-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5641. PMID 9933567. Yasuda J, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, et al. (2000). "The JIP Group of ...
*  Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase A
"Dietary and genetic control of glucose transporter 2 glycosylation promotes insulin secretion in suppressing diabetes". Cell. ... It has been proposed that the MGAT4A isoenzyme acts as a toggle for developing of type 2 diabetes. Mice that lack MGAT4A are ... If this mechanism also operates in human islets, MGAT4A may represent a link between type 2 diabetes and high-fat diet. GRCh38 ... Thorens B (Apr 2006). "A toggle for type 2 diabetes?". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (15): 1636-8. doi:10.1056/ ...
*  Canagliflozin
Blocking this transporter causes up to 119 grams of blood glucose per day to be eliminated through the urine. It was developed ... Canagliflozin (trade name Invokana or Sulisent) is a medication used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is of the ... Canagliflozin is an anti-diabetic drug used to improve glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. In extensive clinical ... This mechanism is associated with a low risk of hypoglycaemia (too low blood glucose) compared to sulfonylurea derivatives and ...
*  Major facilitator superfamily
These include a fungal phosphate transporter PiPT, plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1, and the human glucose transporter GLUT1. ... Atypical MFS Transporter Families), suggesting there are at least 64 different families including SLC proteins of MFS type. Pao ... Deng D, Xu C, Sun P, Wu J, Yan C, Hu M, Yan N (June 2014). "Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1". Nature. ... Pascual JM, Wang D, Lecumberri B, Yang H, Mao X, Yang R, De Vivo DC (May 2004). "GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter ...
*  Metabolism
Bouché C, Serdy S, Kahn C, Goldfine A (2004). "The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes". Endocr Rev. ... Metal micronutrients are taken up into organisms by specific transporters and bind to storage proteins such as ferritin or ... Reaction centers are classed into two types depending on the type of photosynthetic pigment present, with most photosynthetic ... Three types of photosynthesis occur in plants, C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation and CAM photosynthesis. These differ by ...
*  Insulin
Glucose enters the β-cells through the glucose transporters, GLUT2. These glucose transporters have a relatively low affinity ... This results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose concentrations, and ... If the carbohydrates include glucose, then that glucose will be absorbed into the bloodstream and blood glucose level will ... at high blood glucose concentrations large quantities of glucose enter these cells. The glucose that enters the β-cell is ...
*  Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
... p53 and glucose transporter-1 as predictors of malignancy in the development of gallbladder carcinomas". Bosn J Basic Med Sci. ... may have benefit in the prevention and treatment of these types of cancer. COX-2 expression was found in human idiopathic ... PGHS-2 is a sequence homodimer. Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) ... Wang Q1, He Y, Shen Y, Zhang Q, Chen D, Zuo C, Qin J, Wang H, Wang J, Yu Y. (2014). "Vitamin D inhibits COX-2 expression and ...
*  HNF1A
It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that is ... The participation of HNF-1α in glucose metabolism and diabetes has been reported, including the involvement in GLUT1 and GLUT2 ... HNF-1α is involved in the promotion of hepatic organic cation transporters, which uptake certain classes of pharmaceuticals; ... HNF1A mutations can cause maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3, one of the forms of "monogenic diabetes", as well as ...