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*  Directed differentiation
During differentiation, pluripotent cells make a number of developmental decisions to generate first the three germ layers ( ...
*  Embryoid body
... germ layer specification and axial organisation in aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells". Development. 141 (22): 4231-4242 ... "Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies compromising the three embryonic germ layers". Molecular ... Subsequent differentiation proceeds to form derivatives of the three germ lineages. In the absence of supplements, the "default ... EB formation is often used as a method for initiating spontaneous differentiation toward the three germ lineages. EB ...
*  Germ layer
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis. The three germ layers in vertebrates are particularly ... produce two or three primary germ layers. Animals with radial symmetry, like cnidarians, produce two germ layers (the ectoderm ... The top layer is now called the ectoderm. The endoderm is one of the germ layers formed during animal embryogenesis. Cells ... This early embryonic form undergoes gastrulation, forming a gastrula with either two or three layers (the germ layers). In all ...
*  Embryology
The gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily ... Karl Ernst von Baer and Heinz Christian Pander proposed the germ layer theory of development; von Baer discovered the mammalian ... "Germ layer." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 06 Nov. 2009 . Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona ( ... The middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton if any, and blood system. The outer layer of cells, or ...
*  Tuberous sclerosis
TSC affects tissues from different germ layers. Cutaneous and visceral lesions may occur, including adenoma sebaceum, cardiac ...
*  Histogenesis
A germ layer is a collection of cells, formed during animal and mammalian embryogenesis. Germ layers are typically pronounced ... Animals with bilateral symmetry produce a third layer in-between called mesoderm, making them triploblastic. Germ layers will ... The mesoderm germ layer forms in the embryos of animals and mammals more complex than cnidarians, making them triploblastic. ... It emerges first and forms from the outermost of the germ layers. The proceeding graph represents the products produced by the ...
*  Early stages of embryogenesis of tailless amphibians
The three germ layers form a characteristic shape. The ectoderm is the outermost layer, the mesoderm is the middle one, and the ... The differentiation of the germ layers also occurs. What is worth noticing is that cells communicate between one another, which ... endoderm forms the inside layer. Only in the locations of the future body openings (the mouth and the anus), the endoderm ...
*  Endocrine gland
... s derive from all three germ layers.[citation needed] The natural decrease in function of the female's ovaries ...
*  Diploblast
The way the germ layers themselves developed is disputed. Eumetazoa are a very similar proposed clade, but they traditionally ... They feature diploblasty, i.e. they have two germ layers. Basal Diploblasts are the Ctenophora and the ParaHoxozoa, which, ...
*  Triploblasty
The germ layers form during gastrulation of the blastula. Additionally, the term may refer to any ovum in which the blastoderm ... Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm ... possess two germ layers. Even simpler animals, such as sponges within the formally termed Porifera phylum, contain no true ... The body wall of Porifera consists mainly of two layers, pinacoderm and choanoderm, and a non-cellular structure between these ...
*  Human embryogenesis
In general, all germ layers will derive from the epiblast. The upper layer of ectoderm will give rise to the outermost layer of ... The inner cells will turn into the hypoblast layer, which will surround the other layer, called the epiblast, and these layers ... The three germ layers are the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, and are formed as three overlapping flat discs. It is from these ... The formation of the hypoblast and epiblast, which are the two main layers of the bilaminar germ disc, occurs at the beginning ...
*  Lefty (protein)
Carlson, Bruce M. "Formation of Germ Layers and Early Derivatives." Human Embryology and Developmental Biology. Philadelphia, ... Carlson, Bruce M. "Formation of Germ Layers and Early Derivatives." Human Embryology and Developmental Biology. Philadelphia, ...
*  Coelom
2008). "Animals Based on Three Germ Layers and a Coelem". Strickberger's evolution: the integration of genes, organisms and ... The space between the parietal layer and the visceral layer is known as the coelom or body cavity. Examples of protostome ... forming the parietal layer and the second surrounds the endoderm or alimentary canal forming the visceral layer. ... The archenteron initially forms, and the mesoderm splits into two layers: the first attaches to the body wall or ectoderm, ...
*  Animal
These germ layers then differentiate to form tissues and organs. All animals are heterotrophs, meaning that they feed directly ... It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber, and two separate germ layers-an external ectoderm and an ... There are only two main germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, with only scattered cells between them. As such, these animals ... The body is triploblastic, i.e. all three germ layers are well-developed, and tissues form distinct organs. The digestive ...
*  Sirenomelia
Gastrulation establishes the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. It seems that complications such as defects in ...
*  Edmund Beecher Wilson
Baxter, A. L. (1977). "E. B. Wilson's "destruction" of the germ-layer theory". Isis; an international review devoted to the ...
*  Bilaminar blastocyst
Gastrulation is when the three germ cell layers develop as well as an organism's body plan. During gastrulation, cells of the ... As the two layers become evident, a basement membrane presents itself between the layers. The final two layers of the ... However, eventually gastrulation finishes and the three germ layers are complete. The Third Week Of Life: Bilaminar Disc ... The epiblast is the outer layer that consists of columnar cells.The inner layer is called the hypoblast, or primitive endoderm ...
*  Cellular differentiation
... is created as the cellular blastomere differentiates from the single-layered blastula to the three primary layers of germ cells ... PcG knockout ES cells do not differentiate efficiently into the three germ layers, and deletion of the PRC1 and PRC2 genes ... Differential regulation of Oct-4 and SOX2 levels have been shown to precede germ layer fate selection. Increased levels of Oct4 ... "Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers". Cell. 145 (6): 875-89. doi:10.1016/j. ...
*  Oct-4
"Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers". Cell. 145 (6): 875-89. doi:10.1016/j. ... Oct-4 has been implicated in tumorigenesis of adult germ cells. Ectopic expression of the factor in adult mice has been found ... identifies cells with pluripotent potential in human germ cell tumors". Cancer Research. 63 (9): 2244-50. PMID 12727846. Wang P ... identifies cells with pluripotent potential in human germ cell tumors". Cancer Research. 63 (9): 2244-50. PMID 12727846. ...
*  SOX2
... inhibits differentiation into the mesendoderm germ layer and promotes differentiation into neural ectoderm germ layer. ... "Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers". Cell. 145 (6): 875-89. doi:10.1016/j. ... Loss of pluripotency is regulated by hypermethylation of some Sox2 and Oct4 binding sites in male germ cells and post- ...
*  Pharyngeal slit
In vertebrates, the pharyngeal arches are derived from all three germ layers. Neural crest cells enter these arches where they ...
*  Embryogenesis
... germ layers. The embryo during this process is called a gastrula. The germ layers are referred to as the ectoderm, mesoderm and ... For many mammals, it is sometime during formation of the germ layers that implantation of the embryo in the uterus of the ... At some point after the different germ layers are defined, organogenesis begins. The first stage in vertebrates is called ... while the inner layer, the cytotrophoblast or "Layer of Langhans", consists of well-defined cells. As already stated, the cells ...
*  Mucous membrane
Germ Layers and Their Derivatives - Review of Medical Embryology Book - LifeMap Discovery". discovery.lifemapsc.com. Retrieved ... It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It is mostly of endodermal ... The mucosa of organs are composed of one or more layers of epithelial cells that secrete mucus, and an underlying lamina ...
*  Gastrulation
In triploblastic organisms the gastrula is trilaminar ("three-layered"). These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, ... Gastrulation is followed by organogenesis, when individual organs develop within the newly formed germ layers. Each layer gives ... as well as the place where cells will ingress and migrate during the process of gastrulation and germ layer formation. The ... germ layer specification and axial organisation in aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells". Development. 141 (22): 4231-4242 ...
*  Organogenesis
Organoid Ectoderm Embryogenesis Endoderm Eye development Gastrulation Germ layer Germ line development Gonadogenesis Heart ... The germ layers in organogenesis differ by three processes: folds, splits, and condensation. Developing early during this stage ...
*  Baba Hari Dass
He learned temple masonry from a local brick-layer and used those skills in building temples, ashrams, statues of deities, and ... Some authors, evaluating various opinions about the origin of Yoga, state that "It can certainly be argued that the germs of ...
*  Primitive knot
This differentiates the embryo into the three germ layers - endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. The primitive knot migrates ... Posterior to the node is the primitive pit, where the cells of the epiblast (the upper layer of embryonic cells) initially ... This invagination expands posteriorly into the primitive groove as the cells layers continue to move into the space between the ... primitive knot starts as a regional knot of cells that forms on the blastodisc immediately anterior to where the outer layer of ...