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*  Germ cell
Unlike animals, plants do not have germ cells designated in early development. Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells ... Primordial germ cells, germ cells that still have to reach the gonads, also known as PGCs, precursor germ cells or gonocytes, ... The lineage of germ cells is called germ line. Germ cell specification begins during cleavage in many animals or in the ... The somatic cells on the path of germ cells provide them attractive, repulsive, and survival signals. But germ cells also send ...
*  Glossary of Asteraceae-related terms
a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant; develops into a seed after fertilization a tiny outgrowth on the ... A strap-shaped corolla any appendage to a plant that is shaped like a strap Ovary (plants) The dictionary definition of ovary ... Beentje, H.; Williamson, J. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, ... The closely matted hair or downy nap covering the leaves or stems of some plants. filamentous hairlike growth on a plant The ...
*  Sex organ
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the union of the male and female germ cells, sperm and egg cells respectively ... In most flowering plants the female gametophyte within the ovule consists of only seven cells. Thus there are no sex organs as ... The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and egg cells, but the sex organs themselves are inside the gametophytes within ... The seed plants, which include conifers and flowering plants have small gametophytes that develop inside the pollen grains ( ...
*  Transversion
These mutations occur in different stages of the germ cell lineage and are distributed throughout the chromosomes. Transition ... Aristolochic acid, a natural plant chemical causing A:T transversions in humans Futuyma, D.J. (2013). Evolution (3rd ed.). ... During DNA replication in the germ line of mice, the oxidized base 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) causes spontaneous and heritable G to ...
*  PHD finger protein 7
This gene is expressed in the testis in Sertoli cells but not germ cells. The protein encoded by this gene contains plant ... The protein, which localizes to the nucleus of transfected cells, has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of ... complex process regulated by extracellular and intracellular factors as well as cellular interactions among interstitial cells ... of the testis, Sertoli cells, and germ cells. ...
*  DNA demethylation
In mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) between E8.5-11.5 day old embryos; Possibly in amphibia - during midblastula transition. ... Examples of specific DNA demethylation: Genomic imprinting during plant reproduction; Electroconvulsive stimulation-induced ... Cell. 145 (3): 423-34. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.03.022. PMC 3088758 . PMID 21496894. Grin, I; Ishchenko, AA (May 2016). "An ... compete by transcription factors during cell development Hydroxymethylation has been associated with pluripotency of stem cells ...
*  Microbiota
... and may even occur through the germ cell line. In plants, the colonizing process can be initiated below ground in the root zone ... Microorganisms on plants can be epiphytes (found on the plants) or endophytes (found inside plant tissue). Oomycetes and fungi ... Berlec, Aleš (2012-09-01). "Novel techniques and findings in the study of plant microbiota: Search for plant probiotics". Plant ... Revisiting the Ratio of Bacterial to Host Cells in Humans". Cell. 164 (3): 337-40. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.013. PMID ...
*  Fruit tree propagation
Perennial plants can be propagated either by sexual or vegetative means. Sexual reproduction begins when a male germ cell ( ... from one flower fertilises a female germ cell (ovule, incipient seed) of the same species, initiating the development of a ... Plant 20 ft (6.1 m) apart, makes a tree of 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6.1 m) or more height and spread, eventually yielding 200 to 400 ... Early bearing). Planting depth of this rootstock is critical. The union should be no higher than 1 to 2 inches above the final ...
*  Rachis
... a rachis is the central cell-free core or axis of the gonadal arm of both adult males and hermaphrodites where the germ cells ... In plants, a rachis is the main axis of a compound structure. It can be the main stem of a compound leaf, such as in Acacia or ... Stipe (botany) Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ράχις Tim Schedl (9 August 2012). Germ Cell ... one type of shattering in crop plants. ...
*  Fertilisation
... plants may be related to the immediate benefit of efficient recombinational repair of DNA damage during formation of germ cells ... and the egg cell, and in flowering plants a second fertilisation event involves another sperm cell and the central cell which ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... In flowering plants there are two sperm from each pollen grain. In seed plants, after pollination, a pollen grain germinates, ...
*  Vascular plant
Only the germ cells and gametophytes are haploid. By contrast, the principal generation phase in non-vascular plants is the ... and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species ) that are defined as those land plants ... Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant. This feature allows vascular plants to ... Transpiration assists the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil as soluble salts. Living root cells passively absorb water ...
*  Piwi
... (or PIWI) genes were identified as regulatory proteins responsible for stem cell and germ cell differentiation. Piwi is an ... Piwi proteins are highly conserved RNA-binding proteins and are present in both plants and animals. Piwi proteins belong to the ... to control germ cell formation so much so that in the absence of PIWI proteins there is a significant decrease in germ cell ... The role of the piwi-piRNA pathway in transposon silencing may be responsible for the reduction in dsDNA breaks in germ cells. ...
*  Multicellular organism
In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell ... Although such symbiosis is theorized to have occurred (e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts in animal and plant cells- ... Jamin, M, H Raveh-Barak, B Podbilewicz, FA Rey (2014) "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, ... true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells (i.e. sperm and egg cells ...
*  Cell nucleus
In flowering plants, this condition occurs in sieve tube elements. Multinucleated cells contain multiple nuclei. Most ... In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity. The function of the ... Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ...
*  Synchytrium
After the zoospore attaches to a host cell, a narrow germ tube forms and penetrates the host cell, which is usually an ... An exception to this is S. minutum; it uses the stomata to enter the host plant and penetrate a sub-epidermal cell. After ... These galls can be the result of the infected cell enlarging or a combination of enlargement of the infected cell with the ... Sporangia can also be transported from plant to plant through rain splashing. The resting spores of Synchytrium endobioticum ...
*  Chromosome
Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei such as those found in plants, fungi, and animals) possess multiple large linear chromosomes ... Gametes are produced by meiosis of a diploid germ line cell. During meiosis, the matching chromosomes of father and mother can ... red blood cells. Chromatin allows the very long DNA molecules to fit into the cell nucleus. During cell division chromatin ... Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell ...
*  Plant virus
... the seed is infected in the generative cells and the virus is maintained in the germ cells and sometimes, but less often, in ... Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Plant cells are surrounded ... To transmit from one plant to another and from one plant cell to another, plant viruses must use strategies that are usually ... Plant viruses have had to evolve special techniques to allow the production of viral proteins by plant cells. For translation ...
*  Somatic cell
... germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes, and stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into ... land plants, most algae, many invertebrates). Like all cells, somatic cells contain DNA arranged in chromosomes. If a somatic ... any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell. In contrast, gametes are cells that fuse ... There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body. Theoretically, these cells are not germ cells (the source ...
*  QRICH1
Health states such as germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, and chondrosarcoma have also reported high QRICH1 expression. ... The gene has some conservation among insects, but there were no orthologs found in plants, fungi, or yeast. QRICH1 has five ...
*  Epigenetic regulation of transposable elements in the plant kingdom
Given the lack of distinction between germ-line and somatic cells in the plant kingdom, this is doubly so, since alterations to ... Plants lack distinct divisions between somatic cells and reproductive cells, and also have, generally, larger genomes than ... While transposable elements may affect any number of different cell-types in an animal, be a skin cell, a liver cell, a brain ... In plants, however, there is no such distinction; a flower develops from a meristem, which is a form of somatic cell, and which ...
*  Endogeny (biology)
Endogenous viral elements are DNA sequences derived from viruses that are ancestrally inserted into the genomes of germ cells. ... Endogenous processes include senescence, the menstrual cycle and the self-sustained circadian rhythms of plants and animals. In ... Endogenous transcription factors are those manufactured by the cell, as distinguished from cloned transcription factors. The ... Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell. ...
*  Oidium mangiferae
Germ tube length is dependent on relative humidity, and hyphal cells are 40-80 μm long. As with most pathogens of plants, there ... This fungus is ectophytic, existing primarily on the surface of plant tissues. It draws nutrients from the plant via haustoria ... In plant species and cultivars with little or no powdery mildew resistance, the small amount of pathogen growth may cause an ... Diseases of perennial crops such as mango are devastating due to the long time period to maturity for the plants, as a tree ...
*  Reproduction
... or within a single monoecious Gymnosperm plant. Mitosis and meiosis are types of cell division. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells ... "Differentiation of female chicken primordial germ cells into spermatozoa in male gonads". 39 (3). June 1997: 267-71. doi: ... This results in cells with half the number of chromosomes present in the parent cell. A diploid cell duplicates itself, then ... The number of chromosomes in the offspring cells is the same as that of the parent cell. Meiosis The resultant number of cells ...
*  Sequential hermaphroditism
Those that change gonadal sex can have both female and male germ cells in the gonads or can change from one complete gonadal ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Klinkhamer, P.G.L., de Jong, T.J. (1990). "Effects of plant size, plant density ... In the context of the plant sexuality of flowering plants (angiosperms), there are two forms of dichogamy: protogyny-female ... plants, which are incapable of inbreeding, were as likely to be dichogamous as were self-compatible (SC) plants (Bertin, 1993 ...
*  Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance
... while in plants and fungi somatic cells may be incorporated into the germ line. Life history patterns may also contribute to ... Epigenetic variation within multicellular organisms may be endogenous, generated by cell-cell signaling (e.g. during cell ... In the primordial germ cells (PGC) there is a more extensive erasure of epigenetic information. However, some rare sites can ... Surani MA, Hajkova P (2010). "Epigenetic reprogramming of mouse germ cells toward totipotency". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on ...
*  Mitochondrial DNA
... most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. In humans, ... "The mitochondrial bottleneck occurs without reduction of mtDNA content in female mouse germ cells". Nature Genetics. 39 (3): ... The bottleneck exploits stochastic processes in the cell to increase in the cell-to-cell variability in mutant load as an ... The resulting reduction in per-cell copy number of mtDNA plays a role in the mitochondrial bottleneck, exploiting cell-to-cell ...