In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell ... Jamin, M, H Raveh-Barak, B Podbilewicz, FA Rey (2014) "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, ... true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells (i.e. sperm and egg cells ... Chen, L.; Xiao, S.; Pang, K.; Zhou, C.; Yuan, X. (2014). "Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal ...
September 2004). "European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer ... Germ cell cancer". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. W. Albrecht; et al. (2004). "Testicular tumor markers: Corner- ... stones in the management of malignant germ cell tumors" (PDF). J Lab Med. 28 (2): 109-115. doi:10.1515/labmed.2004.018. S2CID ... Cell Biol. 116 (3): 799-807. doi:10.1083/jcb.116.3.799. PMC 2289307. PMID 1730777. Micanovic R, Gerber LD, Berger J, Kodukula K ...
... plays role in recruiting other germ line genes to the germ plasm for PGC (primordial germ cell) specification. oskar mRNA ... meaning that the P granules play a role in the cell cycle of germ cells. It is still unclear exactly how the nuclear granules ... These ribonucleoprotein granules are found in every species' germ line cells. Although they are mobile, they typically localize ... September 2018). "Drosophila primordial germ cells". eLife. 7. doi:10.7554/eLife.37949. PMC 6191285. PMID 30260314. Wang JT, ...
Ovarian germ cell tumors are common among teenagers and young women. It is a growth in the ovaries. [4] Causes: Though the ... Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors. Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Endometriosis is a ... PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board (2002), "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version", PDQ Cancer ... Radiation therapy to prevent the cancerous cells from developing. The tumor forms in the ovaries and gradually spreads to the ...
... whereas nongerminomatous germ-cell tumors display a variety of differentiation. Like other germ-cell tumors, germinomas can ... Microscopic examination typically reveals uniform cells that resemble primordial germ cells. Typically, the stroma contains ... As with other germ-cell tumors (GCTs) occurring outside the gonads, the most common location of intracranial germinoma is on or ... Nongerminomatous germ-cell tumors may be associated with increased markers such as alpha-fetoprotein with yolk sac tumors, as ...
... s are the most common type of germ cell tumors (both benign and malignant) diagnosed in neonates, ... Rescorla FJ (March 1999). "Pediatric germ cell tumors". Semin Surg Oncol. 16 (2): 144-58. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2388(199903)16 ...
In 2003 Extavour did a study at Cambridge University on the mechanisms of germ cell formation that showed animal germ cells ... She is known for demonstrating that germ cells engage in cell to cell competition before becoming a gamete, which indicates ... Derivation of male germ cells from induced pluripotent stem cells by inducers: A review "NSF Award Search: Award#0955517 - RCN ... An embryonic cell receives chemical signals from neighboring cells that activate (or repress) the genes that allow for germ- ...
"Germ Cell" of interdisciplinary neuroscience". Clinical Neuropathology. 27 (6): 439-443. doi:10.5414/NPP27439. ISSN 0722-5091. ... A great deal of study on sensory organs and the function of nerve cells was conducted by British physiologist Keith Lucas and ... Langley J.N. (1905). "On the reaction of cells and of nerve-endings to certain poisons, chiefly as regards the reaction of ... Langley, J. N. (1898-07-26). "On the Union of Cranial Autonomic (Visceral) Fibres with the Nerve Cells of the Superior Cervical ...
Meiosis is the general process in eukaryotic organisms by which germ cells are formed, and it is likely an adaptation for ... "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 1980-01-01. Retrieved 2017-12-01. Seiden, Michael (2015). " ... "Chocolate cysts from ovarian follicles".CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "Treatment for Germ Cell Tumors of the ... Follicular cells are flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary. They are surrounded by ...
CD117 and CD30 in germ cell tumors]". Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology (in Chinese). 34 (11): 711-5. ... Various types of CD30-positive T cell lymphomas[11]. *CD30-positive cases of the NK cell lymphoma, extranodal NK/T-cell ... "Identification of Hodgkin and Sternberg-reed cells as a unique cell type derived from a newly-detected small-cell population". ... "T cell receptor-dependent cell death of T cell hybridomas mediated by the CD30 cytoplasmic domain in association with tumor ...
Germ cell tumor. Bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin. BEP. Stomach cancer[2]. Epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil. ECF. ... The most common medications affect mainly the fast-dividing cells of the body, such as blood cells and the cells lining the ... M - mitosis; where the cell divides to produce two daughter cells that continue the cell cycle. ... cells that produce white and red blood cells) are destroyed, meaning allogenic or autologous bone marrow cell transplants are ...
Conner GE, Udey JA (1990). "Expression and refolding of recombinant human fibroblast procathepsin D". DNA and Cell Biology. 9 ( ... Atkins KB, Troen BR (July 1995). "Regulation of cathepsin D gene expression in HL-60 cells by retinoic acid and calcitriol". ... DNA and Cell Biology. 10 (6): 423-31. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.423. PMID 2069717.. ... and glycosylation of pro-cathepsin D in human mammary cancer cells". Cancer Research. 49 (14): 3904-9. PMID 2736531.. ...
Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include: *Carcinoma: ... while a malignancy arising from primitive liver precursor cells is called a hepatoblastoma, and a cancer arising from fat cells ...
Germ cell tumors}}. Medicine. Germ cell tumors (ICD-O 9060-9119) (C45-C49/D17-D21, 171/214-215). Oncology templates. No. ... Small blue round cell tumors. Oncology templates. No. Default color.. Pathology?. {{Lupus nephritis}}. Medicine. Lupus ...
cell-cell junction. • cardiac myofibril. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • muscle contraction. • intermediate filament ... Although it is present early in the development of muscle cells, it is only expressed at low levels, and increases as the cell ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 139 (1): 129-44. doi:10.1083/jcb.139.1.129. PMC 2139820. PMID 9314534.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 134 (5): 1255-70. doi:10.1083/jcb.134.5.1255. PMC 2120972. PMID 8794866.. ...
In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell ... "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, Issue 2, 10 April 2014), Pages 407-419, doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells (i.e., sperm and egg cells ... Chen, L.; Xiao, S.; Pang, K.; Zhou, C.; Yuan, X. (2014). "Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal ...
... tumors are not considered a subtype of seminoma and unlike other germ cell tumours do not arise from intratubular germ cell ... About half of germ cell tumors of the testicles are seminomas. Treatment usually requires removal of one testicle. However, ... This is about 5 to 10 years older than men with other germ cell tumors of the testes. In most cases, they produce masses that ... A seminoma is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations. It is a ...
... a rachis is the central cell-free core or axis of the gonadal arm of both adult males and hermaphrodites where the germ cells ... Stipe (botany) Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ράχις Tim Schedl (9 August 2012). Germ Cell ...
For instance, at least 36 DNA repair enzymes, when mutationally defective in germ line cells, cause increased risk of cancer ( ... In asthma PARP1 facilitates recruitment and function of immune cells, including CD4+ T-cells, eosinophils, and dendritic cells ... July 2013). "PARP expression in germ cell tumours". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 66 (7): 607-12. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2012- ... testicular and other germ cell tumors, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, breast cancer, and colon cancer. Cancers are very ...
PARP1 is over-expressed in tyrosine kinase-activated leukemias, in neuroblastoma, in testicular and other germ cell tumors, and ... Gagnon KT, Li L, Chu Y, Janowski BA, Corey DR (2014). "RNAi factors are present and active in human cell nuclei". Cell Rep. 6 ( ... "PARP expression in germ cell tumours". J. Clin. Pathol. 66 (7): 607-612. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2012-201088. PMID 23486608. ... of non-small-cell lung cancers; promoter hypermetylation of ATM occurs in 47% of non-small-cell lung cancers; promoter ...
... such as the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, primordial germ cells or embryonic stem cells. Since DNA methylation appears to ... In B-cell differentiation[edit]. A study that investigated the methylome of B cells along their differentiation cycle, using ... "Cell. 156 (6): 1286-1297. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.029. PMC 3969382. PMID 24630728.. ... Therefore, during gametogenesis, primordial germ cells must have their original biparental DNA methylation patterns erased and ...
... germ cells can arise from adult somatic cells in the floral meristem. Other animals without a designated germ line include ... There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body. In most animals, separation of germ cells from somatic ... any mutation that occurs in a cell other than a gamete, germ cell, or gametocyte. Unlike germline mutations, which can be ... from normal cell to cancer cell. Cells with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations (one good copy of a gene and one mutated ...
... cells in the embryo are set aside as primordial germ cells (PGCs). These PGCs will later give rise to germline sperm cells or ... The cells of the germline commonly are called germ cells. For example, gametes such as the sperm or the egg are part of the ... Setting aside an isolated germ cell population early in embryogenesis might promote cooperation between the somatic cells of a ... "Dynamics of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine during germ cell reprogramming". Cell Res. 23 (3): 329-39. doi:10.1038 ...
Her findings up to this point indicated that germ cells avoid differentiation into somatic cells through a combination of her ... Germ cells do things differently". The Journal of Cell Biology. 194 (5): 660-661. doi:10.1083/jcb.1945pi. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC ... "Isoprenoids Control Germ Cell Migration Downstream of HMGCoA Reductase". Developmental Cell. 6 (2): 283-293. doi:10.1016/s1534- ... and the Chair of the Department of Cell Biology. Her research focuses on germ cells and embryogenesis. Lehmann initially became ...
Leukemia, Lymphoma, Germ cell tumors and early stage solid tumors which were once incurable have become curable malignancies ... Masters, John R. W.; Köberle, Beate (2003-07-01). "Curing metastatic cancer: lessons from testicular germ-cell tumours". Nature ... "AFP and HCG in germ cell tumors". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 9 (1): 29-32. doi:10.1177/172460089400900106 ... for B cell lymphomas, and chemotherapy (CHOP) for T cell lymphomas. Includes acute and chronic leukemias. Acute leukemias ...
"Clinical epidemiology of testicular germ cell tumors". World Journal of Urology. 22 (1): 2-14. doi:10.1007/s00345-004-0398-8. ...
These somatic cells are diploid, containing two copies of each chromosome, whereas germ cells are haploid, as they only contain ... in the somatic cell types than in the male germline cells. In female mice, somatic cells were also found to have a higher ... Murphey P, McLean DJ, McMahan CA, Walter CA, McCarrey JR (2013). "Enhanced genetic integrity in mouse germ cells". Biol. Reprod ... is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the reproductive (germline) cells, which usually give ...
... mixed types Mixed germ cell and sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors Gonadoblastoma Germ cell-sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor, ... Germ cell tumors Precursor lesions Intratubular germ cell neoplasia Unclassified type (carcinoma in situ) Specified types ... B-cell lymphoma Mantle cell lymphoma of the testes extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the testes Extranodal NK/T-cell ... cell tumor Sertoli cell tumor Lipid rich variant Scleriosing variant Large cell calcifying variant Intratubular sertoli cell ...
The Fate of the Male Germ Cell. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 424. pp. 193-219. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5913-9_ ... Specialized immune cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells also mediate their effects via ... Tumor infiltration by cells which express NT5E such as myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), Treg's, dendritic cells (DC) ... They affect proliferation and function of T cell. CD73 also occurs on anergic CD4 + T cells, thereby maintaining self tolerance ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are also capable of forming germ tubes (incipient hyphae) and chlamydospores under the right ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ...
"Offspring from Oocytes Derived from in Vitro Primordial Germ Cell-like Cells in Mice". Science 338 (6109): 971-975. ... Lindvall O (2003). "Stem cells for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease". Pharmacol Res 47 (4): 279-87. PMID 12644384. ... "Researchers find new method for turning adult cells into stem cells". Amherst Daily News. Canadian Press. 2009-01-03. Vaadatud ... California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Tumor Cells Become Drug Resistant by Reverting to a Stem Cell-Like State, New ...
List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
"Transpositional shuffling and quality control in male germ cells to enhance evolution of complex organisms". Annals of the New ... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ...
At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
Less commonly, and seen usually in infants, are teratomas and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors.[65] Germ cell tumors, ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Echevarría ME, Fangusaro J, Goldman S (June 2008). "Pediatric central nervous system germ cell tumors: a review". Oncologist. ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ...
Therefore, a displaced primary tooth will be removed if it is found to have encroached upon the developing adult tooth germ.[8] ... as this will damage the delicate cells that make up the tooth's interior. ... This is because the root apex of an injured primary tooth lies near the tooth germ of the adult tooth.[8] ...
... or malignant germ cell tumors (cancer that begins in egg cells).. *Mucinous appendiceal carcinoma: A type of cancer that begins ... The chemotherapy bathes the inside of the chest in concentrations that are very effective against the cancer cells but without ... The mucus may come from ruptured ovarian cysts, the appendix, or from other abdominal tissues, and mucus-secreting cells may ... Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) ...
"Immunohistochemical Analysis of Histone H3 Modifications in Germ Cells during Mouse Spermatogenesis". Acta Histochemica et ... SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... "Cell. 148 (4): 664-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.029. PMC 3281992. PMID 22325148.. ... "Cell. 153 (3): 590-600. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.025. PMC 3641580. PMID 23622243.. ...
... sometimes called the tooth germ) is an aggregation of cells that eventually forms a tooth and is organized into three parts: ... The dental papilla contains cells that develop into odontoblasts, which are dentin-forming cells.[3] Additionally, the junction ... These cells give rise to ameloblasts, which produce enamel and the reduced enamel epithelium. The growth of cervical loop cells ... Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. Although ...
"Specific repertoire of olfactory receptor genes in the male germ cells of several mammalian species". Genomics. 39 (3): 239-46 ...
"Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by phytosterol-replete wheat germ compared with phytosterol-depleted wheat germ". Am J ... Cholesterol is primarily synthesized from acetyl CoA through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in many cells and tissues. About 20- ... Low-density lipoproteins are taken into the cell by LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis in clathrin-coated pits, and then ... It plays a central role in many biochemical processes, such as the building of cell membranes and the synthesis of steroid ...
Within the receptacle, male cells transforms into nothing but sperm-producing germ cells. In other words, a male cypris becomes ... New extera receives cells from different male cypres. A female externa commonly has two cypris cell receptacles. In adults, ... A female cypris settles on a host and metamorphoses and injects its internal cell mass into host animal. The cell mass then ... Injected male cells migrates into a pair of cypris cell receptacles which was once called the testes. ...
Germ Theory[edit]. Main articles: Pasteur Louis Pasteur ; Germ Theory: Germ theory of disease ... Synthetic (recombinant or cell-clone) human immunoglobulins can now be made, and for several reasons (including the risk of ... Since Pasteur provided support for a germ theory of infectious disease, we have increasingly induced immunity against a ...
第四亚族NUR(英语:Nur (biology))(NGFIB、NOR1、NURR1) · 第五亚族LRH-1、SF1 · 第六亚族GCNF(英语:Germ cell nuclear factor) · 第零亚族DAX1、SHP(英语:Small ... positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation. · transcription, DNA-dependent. ·
"Establishment of a germ-line competent C57BL/6 embryonic stem cell line". 》Experimental Cell Research》 197 (2): 254-258. ISSN ... "NIH Stem Cell Basics. What are embryonic stem cells?". 2016년 8월 31일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2016년 8월 19일에 확인함.. ... "DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination during cell cycle in human cells". 》Cell Cycle (Georgetown ... "Cell Stem Cell》 2 (1): 10-12. ISSN 1875-9777. PMID 18371415. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.12.001.. ...
... the cell membrane degrades, becoming part of the host cell, and the RNA strands and enzymes enter the cell (3). Within the cell ... When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. ... In this way some retroviruses can convert normal cells into cancer cells. Some provirus remains latent in the cell for a long ... Later it was found that a similar gene in cells is involved in cell signaling, which was most likely excised with the proviral ...
It is important to note that the war brought to light germs that during times of peace were concealed deep within the soil or ... The phagocytosis theory is based on the notion that phagocytes are cells that have the power to englobe foreign bodies - and ... Yersin looked for the germ responsible for the infection specifically in these plague-spots, tumors caused by the inflammation ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ...
The cell bodies of the odontoblasts are aligned along the inner aspect of dentin against a layer of predentin where they also ... Dentin is derived from the dental papilla of the tooth germ.[5] After apposition of predentin and maturation into dentin, the ... Cells and Extracellular Matrices of Dentin and Pulp: A Biological Basis For Repair and Tissue Engineering, M. Goldberg and A.J ... from a pulpal progenitor cell. Tertiary dentin is only formed by an odontoblast directly affected by a stimulus; therefore, the ...
The gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily ... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium.[8] ... its link to cell signalling, its roles in certain diseases and mutations, and its links to stem cell research. Embryology is ... The fact that a lamb was derived from an adult cell confirms that differentiation of that cell did not involve the irreversible ...
It includes cells which recognize and respond to pathogens (germs) right away. The innate immune system response is not ... Instead, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells. It recognises such cells by a ... Mast cells[change , change source]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell in connective tissue ... Natural killer cells[change , change source]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a part ...
A dark clot forms at the bottom (the "black bile"). Above the clot is a layer of red blood cells (the "blood"). Above this is a ... a layer of white blood cells ("phlegm") and a layer of clear yellow serum ("yellow bile"). It was believed that these were the ... whitish layer of white blood cells (the "phlegm"). The top layer is clear yellow serum (the "yellow bile").[23] ...
In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell wall. The oat beta-glucan health ... Groats are not considered raw if they have gone through this process; the heat disrupts the germ and they cannot sprout. ...
Proteins compose over 50% of the dry weight of an average living cell[citation needed][clarification needed] and are very ... They also play a fundamental role in the structure and function of cells.[11] Consisting mainly of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, ...
cell membrane. The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.. cell nucleus. The "control room" for the cell. ... One of the three primary germ layers in the very early human embryo. The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and ... cell plate. Grown in the cell's center, it fuses with the parental plasma membrane, creating a new cell wall that enables cell ... See cell biology.. cytoplasm. All of the material within a cell and enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the nucleus. The ...
The history of the germ cells of Cottus bairdi Girard. Journal of Morphology and Physiology 43:427-497 . ...
Gastrulation of a diploblast: The formation of germ layers from a (1) sphere of cells (the blastula) to a (2) gastrula. Some of ... Germ layers[change , change source]. Among animals, sponges show the simplest organization, having a single germ layer. ... Development of germ layers[change , change source]. The purpose of gastrulation is to position the 3 embryonic germ layers, the ... Cnidaria and ctenophores show an increase in complexity, having two germ layers, the endoderm and ectoderm. All higher animals ...
List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. ReferencesEdit. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom: ... Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell. They arise during development from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs),[7] which ... Oligodendrocytes interact closely with nerve cells and provide trophic support by the production of glial cell line-derived ... known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs).[12] SVZ cells migrate away from germinal[12] zones to populate both ...