*Circumcision and HIV

Male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from women to men. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) stated that male circumcision is an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention if carried out by medical professionals under safe conditions. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that circumcision reduces the risk that a man will acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from an infected female partner. A meta-analysis of data from fifteen observational studies of men who have sex with men found "insufficient evidence that male circumcision protects against HIV infection or other STIs". The CDC concludes "There are as yet no convincing data to help determine whether male circumcision will have any effect on HIV risk for men who engage in anal sex with either a female or male partner, as either the insertive or receptive partner." In 2007, the WHO reviewed the ...

*HIV/AIDS in Thailand

Since HIV/AIDS was first reported in Thailand in 1984, 1,115,415 adults had been infected as of 2008, with 585,830 having died since 1984. 532,522 Thais were living with HIV/AIDS in 2008. In 2009 the adult prevalence of HIV was 1.3%. As of 2009, Thailand had the highest prevalence of HIV in Asia. A 2011 report from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) identified Thailand among the eleven countries in the Asia-Pacific with a majority of the world's HIV-infected people. After Thailand's first case of HIV/AIDS was reported in 1984, the incidence of infection increased steadily in the country. Information on the prevalence of AIDS in Thailand was initially suppressed due to the concern of affecting the economy of the tourist industry. In 1991, the government adopted a strategy to combat the disease, and in recent years, the number of new infections has declined. HIV prevalence had remained the same from 2003 to 2005 (1.4 percent) with more people receiving antiretroviral therapy ...

*José Esparza

... is a Venezuelan American virologist who lives in the USA. He is known for his efforts to promote the international development and testing of vaccines against HIV/AIDS. During 17 years (till 1985) he pursued an academic career at the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), attaining positions as full professor of virology and chairman of its Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology. From 1986 to 2014 he worked continuously as a viral vaccine expert and senior public health adviser for international health policy agencies such as the World Health Organization, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. José G. Esparza is currently an adjunct professor of medicine, at the Institute of Human Virology (University of Maryland School of Medicine). During 2016 he was the President of the Global Virus Network. Esparza was born in Maracaibo in December 19, 1945. He attended both primary and secondary school at the local Jesuit ...

*Long-term nonprogressor

... s (LTNPs), sometimes also called "elite controllers", are individuals infected with HIV, who maintain a CD4 count greater than 500 without antiretroviral therapy with a detectable viral load. Many of these patients have been HIV positive for 30 years without progressing to the point of needing to take medication in order not to develop AIDS.[citation needed] They have been the subject of a great deal of research, since an understanding of their ability to control HIV infection may lead to the development of immune therapies or a therapeutic vaccine. The classification "Long-term non-progressor" is not permanent, because some patients in this category have gone on to develop AIDS. Long-term nonprogressors typically have viral loads under 10,000 copies RNA/ml blood, do not take antiretrovirals, and have CD4+ counts within the normal range. Most people with HIV not on medication have viral loads which are much higher. It is estimated that around 1 in 300 people with HIV are ...

*HIV/AIDS in Malaysia

The first HIV case in Malaysia made it debut in 1986 and since has become one of the country's most serious health and development challenges. As of 2016, 99,338 HIV positive men and 12,578 HIV positive women in Malaysia. Malaysia is ranked seventh highest in adult prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Asia after Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia with a 0.45% prevalence rate. According to the United Nations, Malaysia is one of the ten countries which together accounted for over 95% of all new HIV infections in the Asia-Pacific region in 2016. In 2015, Malaysia recorded the rate of 10.9 new cases per 100,000 of the population, which is below than the target set by World Health Organization. Malaysian HIV/AIDS cases have been reported since 1986 by the Ministry of Health. Since then, the national surveillance system had reported a cumulative of 105,189 HIV cases, 21,384 AIDS and 17,096 deaths related to HIV/AIDS giving total reported PLHIV of 88,093 cases or 96% of estimated ...

*Cenicriviroc

... (INN, code names TAK-652, TBR-652) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of HIV infection. It is being developed by Takeda and Tobira Therapeutics. Cenicriviroc is an inhibitor of CCR2 and CCR5 receptors, allowing it to function as an entry inhibitor which prevents the virus from entering into a human cell. Inhibition of CCR2 may have an anti-inflammatory effect. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study to assess the antiviral activity, safety, and tolerability of cenicriviroc was conducted in 2010. HIV-infected patients taking cenicriviroc had significant reductions in viral load, with the effect persisting up to two weeks after discontinuation of treatment. Additional Phase II clinical trials are underway. Phase IIb data presented at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in March 2013 showed similar viral suppression rates of 76% for patients taking 100 mg cenicriviroc, 73% with 200 mg cenicriviroc, and 71% with ...

*HIV vaccine

An HIV vaccine is a vaccine which would either protect individuals who do not have HIV from contracting that virus, or otherwise may have a therapeutic effect for persons who have or later contract HIV/AIDS. Currently, there is no effective HIV vaccine but many research projects managing clinical trials seek to create one. There is evidence that a vaccine may be possible. Preventative medications such as antiretroviral treatments have been put into use to help prevent infection, but do not work as well as a vaccine would. Work with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) has shown or proven that the human body can defend itself against HIV, and certain individuals remain asymptomatic for decades after HIV infection. Potential candidates for antibodies and early stage results from clinical trials have been announced. One HIV vaccine candidate which showed some efficacy was studied in RV 144, which was a trial in Thailand beginning in 2003 and first reporting a positive result in 2009. Many trials have shown ...

*Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS

The spread of HIV/AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; AIDS is considered a pandemic. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2 million annual deaths due to AIDS. In 2007, UNAIDS estimated: 33.2 million people worldwide were living with HIV; AIDS killed 2.1 million people in the course of that year, including 330,000 children, and 76% of those deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the UNAIDS 2009 report, some 60 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV, resulting in approximately 25 million deaths and 14 million orphaned children in southern Africa alone since the epidemic began decades ago. Misconceptions about HIV and AIDS arise from several different sources, from simple ignorance and misunderstandings about scientific knowledge regarding HIV infections and the cause of AIDS to misinformation propagated by individuals and ...

*Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS

HIV tests are used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in serum, saliva, or urine. Such tests may detect antibodies, antigens, or RNA. AIDS is diagnosed separately from HIV. The window period is the time from infection until a test can detect any change. The average window period with HIV-1 antibody tests is 25 days for subtype B. Antigen testing cuts the window period to approximately 16 days and nucleic acid testing (NAT) further reduces this period to 12 days. Performance of medical tests is often described in terms of: sensitivity: The percentage of the results that will be positive when HIV is present specificity: The percentage of the results that will be negative when HIV is not present. All diagnostic tests have limitations, and sometimes their use may produce erroneous or questionable results. False positive: The test incorrectly indicates that HIV is present in a non-infected person. False ...

*Timeline of early HIV/AIDS cases

This article is a timeline of early AIDS cases. An AIDS case is classified as "early" if the death occurred before 5 June 1981, when the AIDS epidemic was formally recognized by medical professionals in the United States. Human blood samples from 1959 and 1960 from Kinshasa, the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the Congo River, led scientists to extrapolate the virus back to the early 1900s, likely around 1908 in Africa.[medical citation needed] Around that time the virus may have been transmitted from another species.[medical citation needed] Paralleling the HIV discoveries, primate researchers found Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which was widespread among many species of chimpanzees.[medical citation needed] In 2006, scientists reported the origin of HIV came from a species of chimpanzees that were "penned in" a 100-square-mile section of Cameroon bracketed by the Boumba River to the west, the Sangha River to the east, "this patch of tropical ...

*Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS

Current research has found that discrimination against people living with HIV is a contributing factor for delayed initiation of HIV treatment.[4] As many as 20-40% of Americans who are HIV positive do not begin a care regimen within the first six months after diagnosis.[5] When individuals begin treatment late in the progression of HIV (when CD4+ T cell counts are below 500 cells/µL), they have 1.94 times the risk of mortality compared to those whose treatment is initiated when CD4+ T cells are still about 500 cells/µL.[6] In a 2011 study published in AIDS Patient Care and STDs (sample size 215), most of the barriers to care described involve stigma and shame.[7] The most common reasons of not seeking treatment are "I didn't want to tell anyone I was HIV-positive", "I didn't want to think about being HIV-positive", and "I was too embarrassed/ashamed to go".[7] The presence and perpetuation of HIV stigma prevents many who are able to obtain treatment from feeling comfortable about addressing ...

*HIV/AIDS in Niger

2007 estimates put the number of HIV positive Nigeriens at 60,000 or 0.8% of total population, with 4,000 deaths in that year.[1] United Nations estimates in 2008 gave similar figures, giving Niger one of the lowest infection rates on the continent.[2]. 2008 estimates ranged from 44,000 to 85,000 people living with HIV in a nation of around 14 million, with an adult (aged 15 to 49) prevalence rate of between 0.6% and 1.1%. Adults aged 15 and up living with HIV were estimated to range from 42,000 to 81,000, with women of this age range making up about a third (12,000 to 26,000). Estimates of children (under 14) living with HIV were between 2,500 and 4,200. Total deaths were estimated to be between 3,000 to 5,600 per year. Aids orphans (under 17) were estimated at between 18,000 and 39,000.[2]. The government of Niger has coordinated educational campaigns around sexual activity and condom use to stem HIV infection. Condom use remains low by international standards.[3]. ...

*OyaGen

... is a Rochester, New York-based startup company that is focused on developing treatments for HIV. The company was founded in 2003 by Dr. Harold Smith, a professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the University of Rochester. OyaGen was founded on research conducted by Dr. Smith and Dr. Hui Zang, an HIV researcher at Thomas Jefferson University. OyaGen's research has focused on developing drug-based treatments for HIV and the company has three lead HIV drugs based upon editing enzymes in preclinical development. The company is exploring ways to prevent HIV from disabling the production of APOBEC3G (A3G), a naturally occurring editing enzyme that stops HIV from replicating. A3G combats HIV infection by interacting with and mutating the virus' RNA. The mutations genetically damage the virus protein and render HIV unable to replicate which halts the spread of the virus. In laboratory testing, OyaGen was able to use drug therapy to shield A3G from HIV, which allowed A3G to function normally ...