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*  Multiple cloning site
Another vector used in genetic engineering is pUC19, which is similar to pUC18, but its polylinker region is reversed. Clark DP ... One bacterial plasmid used in genetic engineering as a plasmid cloning vector is pUC18. Its polylinker region is composed of ...
*  Molecular cloning
... may be introduced a selectable genetic marker gene that can be used to enable the survival of cells that have taken up vector ... followed by subcloning into a specialized vector. Whatever combination of host and vector are used, the vector almost always ... Most modern vectors contain a variety of convenient cleavage sites that are unique within the vector molecule (so that the ... Modern bacterial cloning vectors (e.g. pUC19 and later derivatives including the pGEM vectors) use the blue-white screening ...
*  Budapest Treaty
... genetic vectors (such as plasmids or bacteriophage vectors or viruses) containing a gene or DNA fragments; organisms used for ... and hosts containing materials such as vectors, cell organelles, plasmids, DNA, RNA, genes and chromosomes; purified nucleic ...
*  Viral transformation
This viral DNA can either be incorporated into the host cell's genetic material or persist as a separate genetic vector. Either ... Depending on the virus, a variety of genetic changes can occur in the host cell. In the case of a lytic cycle virus, the cell ... It is possible that the damage can be repaired; however, the most common result is an instability in the original genetic ... The term can also be understood as DNA transfection using a viral vector. Viral transformation can occur both naturally and ...
*  Gene knockin
Gene knockout Molecular cloning Plasmid Genetic engineering Genetic recombination Vector (molecular biology) Gibson, Greg (2009 ... refers to a genetic engineering method that involves the one-for-one substitution of DNA sequence information in a genetic ... The use of loxP flanking sites that become excised upon expression of Cre recombinase with gene vectors is an example of this. ... Genetic methods, techniques and protocols Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT: Knockins and Knockouts UMass ...
*  Cosmid
They are often used as a cloning vector in genetic engineering. Cosmids can be used to build genomic libraries. They were first ... In this way, they are similar to using the lambda phage as a vector, except all the lambda genes have been deleted with the ... The loading capacity of cosmids varies depending on the size of the vector itself but usually lies around 40-45 kb. The cloning ... Collins, John; Hohn, Barbara (September 1, 1978). "Cosmids: a type of plasmid gene-cloning vector that is packageable in vitro ...
*  Multiple-criteria decision analysis
Shaffer, J.D. (1984). Some Experiments in Machine Learning Using Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithms, PhD thesis. Nashville: ... Vector maximization: The purpose of vector maximization is to approximate the nondominated set; originally developed for ... The quotation marks are used to indicate that the maximization of a vector is not a well-defined mathematical operation. This ... Srinivas, N.; Deb, K. (1994). "Multiobjective Optimization Using Nondominated Sorting in Genetic Algorithms". Evolutionary ...
*  Sleeping Beauty transposon system
Izsvák Z, Ivics Z, Plasterk RH (September 2000). "Sleeping Beauty, a wide host-range transposon vector for genetic ... The use of non-viral vectors avoids many, but not all, of the defenses that cells employ against vectors. Plasmids, the ... The genetic cargo can be an expression cassette-a transgene and associated elements that confer transcriptional regulation for ... 1) are most useful as genetic tools because after insertion they cannot independently continue to excise and re-insert. All of ...
*  Horizontal gene transfer
Izsvak Z.; Ivics Z.; Plasterk R.H. (2000). "Sleeping Beauty, a wide host-range transposon vector for genetic transformation in ... Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. Horizontal genetic transfer was first described in ... the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA ... the universality of the genetic code. In other words, HGT is the "power" that "watches over" the universality of the genetic ...
*  Genetically modified organism
"Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (12): 4772-75. Bibcode: ... Besides use of genetic modification to allow the providing of safer animal organs for transplantation, genetic modification can ... A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering ... This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. This ...
*  PSC101
... is a DNA plasmid that is used as a cloning vector in genetic cloning experiments. pSC101 was the first cloning vector, ... In 1980, pSC101 became the first patented commercial DNA cloning vector when patents were awarded to Boyer and Cohen. The "SC" ... In the early 1970s, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Norman Cohen produced pSC101, the first plasmid vector for cloning purposes. Soon ...
*  Transgenesis
A retrovirus is a virus that carries its genetic material in the form of RNA rather than DNA. Retroviruses are used as vectors ... Transgenesis can be facilitated by liposomes, enzymes, plasmid vectors, viral vectors, pronuclear injection, protoplast fusion ... This allows the foreign DNA to hybridise with the plasmid DNA and be sealed by DNA ligase enzyme, creating a genetic code not ... Transgenic organisms are able to express foreign genes because the genetic code is similar for all organisms. This means that a ...
*  Sterile insect technique
Bridging laboratory and fields research for genetic control of disease vectors. In proceedings of the joint WHO/TDR, NIAID, ... IAEA and Frontis workshop on bridging laboratory and field research for genetic control of disease vectors, Nairobi, Kenya 14- ... Sex separation can be difficult, though this can be easily performed on a large scale where genetic sexing systems have been ... Tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) - vector of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Painted apple moth in Auckland, New ...
*  Entamoeba
Until recently there was no genetic transfection vector available for this organism and detailed study at the cellular level ... Stensvold CR, Lebbad M, Clark CG (January 2012). "Last of the human protists: the phylogeny and genetic diversity of Iodamoeba ... However, recently a transfection vector was developed and the transfection conditions for E. invadens were optimised which ...
*  Sperm-mediated gene transfer
The method for SMGT uses the sperm cell, a natural vector of genetic material, to transport exogenous DNA. The exogenous DNA ... Skepticism arises based on the assumption that evolutionary chaos could arise if sperm cells could act as vectors for exogenous ... Nevertheless, despite some successes and its potential utility, SMGT is not yet established as a reliable form of genetic ... it has not yet become established as a reliable form of genetic manipulation. ...
*  Test functions for optimization
Schaffer, J. David (1984). Some experiments in machine learning using vector evaluated genetic algorithms (artificial ... ISBN 0-19-509971-0. Haupt, Randy L. Haupt, Sue Ellen (2004). Practical genetic algorithms with CD-Rom (2nd ed.). New York: J. ... F. Kursawe, "A variant of evolution strategies for vector optimization," in PPSN I, Vol 496 Lect Notes in Comput Sc. Springer- ... In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms. Czech Republic. pp. 176-182 Binh T. (1999) A ...
*  Viral vector
Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells. This process can be ... Hybrid vectors are vector viruses that are genetically engineered to have qualities of more than one vector. Viruses are ... The choice of a viral vector to deliver genetic material to cells comes with some logistical problems. There are a limited ... Another plasmid contains the genetic material to be delivered by the vector. It is transcribed to produce the single-stranded ...
*  Nanorobotics
They go through a process called reverse transcription to deliver genetic packaging in a vector. Usually, these devices are Pol ... These gene therapy vectors have been used in cats to send genes into the genetically modified organism (GMO), causing it to ... This process is called retroviral gene therapy, having the ability to re-engineer cellular DNA by usage of viral vectors. This ...
*  Gerald M. Rubin
Rubin, G.; Spradling, A. (1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 (4570 ... Related to his genomics work, Rubin's lab is notable for development of genetic and genomics tools and studies of signal ... Xu, T; Rubin, G. M. (1993). "Analysis of genetic mosaics in developing and adult Drosophila tissues". Development. 117 (4): ...
*  Allan C. Spradling
"Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 (4570): 348-353. Bibcode:1982Sci...218.. ... From this research came work from other scientists on transposons as a tool for genetic alterations in organisms. In 2003 ...
*  Transposable element
Rubin GM, Spradling AC (October 1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 ( ... TEs are mutagens and their movements are often the causes of genetic disease. They can damage the genome of their host cell in ... This refuted the popular genetic theory of the time that genes were fixed in their position on a chromosome. McClintock found ... In Oxytricha, which has a unique genetic system, these elements play a critical role in development. Transposons are also very ...
*  Dendrosome
... s have been explored as vectors in gene delivery and genetic immunization. Poly (propyleneimine) dendrosome based ... dendrimer and dendrosome based genetic immunization against Hepatitis B". Vaccine. 26 (27-28): 3389-3394. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine ... genetic immunization against Hepatitis B was found to be highly effective as compared to Dendrimer-Plasmid DNA complex. It has ...
*  Species complex
"Molecular phylogeny of the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors". ... Roca AL, Georgiadis N, Pecon-Slattery J, O'Brien SJ (2001). "Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa". Science. ... doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2005)098[0382:GDAHCS]2.0.CO;2. Wallis GP, Judge KF, Bland J, Waters JM, Berra TM (2001). "Genetic ... Pests, species causing diseases, and their vectors, have direct importance for humans. When they are found to be cryptic ...
*  Anopheles gambiae
"Molecular phylogeny of the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors". Proc. ... The complex was recognised in the 1960s and includes the most important vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly ... It is one of the most efficient malaria vectors known. The Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was ... "Anopheles gambiae: First genome of a vector for a parasitic disease". Genoscope. Lawniczak, M. K.; et al. (Oct 22, 2010). " ...
*  Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology
... development of new vectors for delivery of drugs and genetic material; development of biomaterials for stem cell-based ... genetic screening of diseases; structure-function relation of proteins with biomedical or biotechnological interest; ...
*  Camelpox
The viral genetic material is contained in double stranded linear DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. The DNA ... The Camelpox virus is spread in three ways: direct contact, indirect contact, and insect vectors. In direct contact infection, ... Eventually, the viral core dissolves, and the genetic material is bare within the cytoplasm. When all of the structural ...
*  Feature selection
"Molecular classification of cancer types from microarray data using the combination of genetic algorithms and support vector ... Genetic algorithms as a method for variable selection in multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression, with ... A genetic embedded approach for gene selection and classification of microarray data. In Proceedings of the 5th European ... Genetic programming for simultaneous feature selection and classifier design. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and ...