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*  Paleovirology
"The evolution of novel fungal genes from non-retroviral RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 7: 88. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-88. Koonin, E ... 2010). "Taming of the shrewd: novel eukaryotic genes from RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 8: 2. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-2. "How to ...
*  Endogenous viral element
"The evolution of novel fungal genes from non-retroviral RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 7: 88. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-88. Koonin, E ... Distinct, syncytin-like genes have been identified in primates, rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, and ungulates, with ... Remarkably, the capture of syncytin or syncytin-like genes has occurred independently, from different groups of endogenous ... Dupressoir, A.; Lavialle, C.; Heidmann, T. (2012). "From ancestral infectious retroviruses to bona fide cellular genes: role of ...
*  Tricholoma vaccinum
Several fungal genes specifically expressed during ectomycorrhizal interaction between T. vaccinum and Picea abies have been ... Krause K.; Kothe (2006). "Use of RNA fingerprinting to identify fungal genes specifically expressed during ectomycorrhizal ... The first characterized fungal aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme, ALD1, helps circumvent ethanol stress-a critical function in ... Brunner I, Amiet R, Zollinger M, Egli S (1992). "Ectomycorrhizal synthesis with Picea abies and three fungal species: a case ...
*  Laccaria
2002). Fungal gene expression in early symbiotic interactions between Laccaria bicolor and red pine. Plant and Soil 244: 117- ...
*  Mycorrhiza helper bacteria
Researchers have reported that the fungal genes can be altered in the presence of an MHB. In one study, it was hypothesized ... The fungus changes its genes expression after the MHB has promoted growth of the fungus, thus the alteration of the gene is an ... The anti-fungal metabolites produce antagonistic effects towards the pathogenic fungi. However, MHB can choose whether to help ... One study showed that MHB aided in colonization of a type of fungal pathogen because the surrounding environment was unsuitable ...
*  Untranslated region
"Regulation of fungal gene expression via short open reading frames in the mRNA 5'untranslated region". Molecular Microbiology. ... Since the regulation of gene expression is critical in the proper function of cells, this is an area of study that needs to be ... In 1980, a study was conducted on the 3' UTR of the duplicated human alpha-globin genes. The untranslated region is seen in ... Mutations in the 3' UTR of the APP gene are related to development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Through the recent study of ...
*  Upstream open reading frame
Eukaryotic translation Leaky scanning 5'UTR Vilela C, McCarthy JE (August 2003). "Regulation of fungal gene expression via ... Approximately 50% of human genes contain uORFs in their 5'UTR, and when present, these cause reductions in protein expression. ... uORFs can regulate eukaryotic gene expression. Translation of the uORF typically inhibits downstream expression of the primary ... and were originally discovered on the basis of their impact on the regulation of genes involved in the synthesis or transport ...
*  Ectomycorrhiza
... up to 65 genes can be responsible for the production of the fungal mantle. Upregulation of genes responsible for translation ... A few fungal genes that appear to be expressed before plant contact include PF6.2 and ras from Laccaria bicolor, and ras from ... Both the plant and fungal partners must engage in a precise developmental sequence that allows the necessary genes in each ... These discoveries offer further evidence for the induction of fungal genes by diffusible elicitors present in the soil. Upon ...
*  Arbuscular mycorrhiza
... investigated plant genes involved in communication with order Glomales fungal partners (DMI1, DMI3, IPD3). These three genes ... The small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene, and the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene are ... Genes isolated from that time are involved in mitochondrial activity and enzyme production. The fungal respiration rate, ... Host plant root exudates trigger and turn on AM fungal genes required for the respiration of spore carbon compounds. In ...
*  Phytase
"Transgenic maize plants expressing a fungal phytase gene". Transgenic Res. 17 (4): 633-643. doi:10.1007/s11248-007-9138-3. PMID ... the HAP phytase gene from E. coli has been successfully expressed in a transgenic pig. β-propeller phytases make up a recently ...
*  DPVweb
Adams, M; Antoniw, J (January 2006). "DPVweb: a comprehensive database of plant and fungal virus genes and genomes". Nucleic ... For each curated sequence the database contains the start and end positions of each feature (gene, non-translated region, etc ... As far as possible, the nomenclature for genes and proteins are standardized within genera and families. Sequences of features ... fungi and protozoa that are complete or that contain at least one complete gene. There are currently about 10,000 such ...
*  Aphid
Altincicek, B.; Kovacs, J.L.; Gerardo, N.M. (2012). "Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider ... Buchnera aphidicola gene transcription, although not well understood, is thought to be regulated by a small number of global ... Despite the apparent loss of transcription factors in the reduced genome, gene expression is highly regulated, as shown by the ... Some species of aphids have acquired the ability to synthesise red carotenoids by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. This ...
*  Carotene
Boran Altincicek; Jennifer L. Kovacs; Nicole M. Gerardo (2011). "Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two- ... with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi). Carotenes are ...
*  Carotenoid
Boran Altincicek; Jennifer L. Kovacs; Nicole M. Gerardo (2011). "Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two- ... The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or ... Nováková E, Moran NA (2012). "Diversification of genes for carotenoid biosynthesis in aphids following an ancient transfer from ... "Lateral transfer of genes from fungi underlies carotenoid production in aphids". Science. 328 (5978): 624-7. doi:10.1126/ ...
*  Tetranychus urticae
Boran Altincicek, Jennifer L. Kovacs & Nicole M. Gerardo (2011). "Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two- ... As in aphids, the genes for carotene synthesis appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer from a fungus. T. ...
*  Lorna Casselton
1992). "Fungal mating type genes - regulators of sexual development". Mycological Research. 96: 993-1006. doi:10.1016/s0953- ... She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, and was known for ... Casselton was a Fellow of St Cross College Oxford from 1993 to 2003, and was appointed Professor of Fungal Genetics at Oxford ... She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to fungal ...
*  Glomeromycota
Simon, L.; Lalonde, M.; Bruns, T.D. (1992). "Specific Amplification of 18S Fungal Ribosomal Genes from Vesicular-Arbuscular ... The first mycorrhizal gene to be sequenced was the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA). This gene is highly conserved and ... The process is regulated by specialized chemical signaling and by changes in gene expression of both the host and AM fungi. ... Recently it was shown that Glomus species contain 51 genes encoding all the tools necessary for meiosis. Based on these and ...
*  Internal transcribed spacer
Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR Protocols: a Guide to Methods and ... the 18S rRNA gene, the ITS1, the 5.8S rRNA gene, the ITS2, the 26S or 28S rRNA gene, and finally the 3' ETS. During rRNA ... In eukaryotes, genes encoding ribosomal RNA and spacers occur in tandem repeats that are thousands of copies long, each ... On the other hand, there are two ITS's in eukaryotes; ITS1 is located between 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, while ITS2 is between ...
*  Sugarcane grassy shoot disease
1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: PCR Protocols: A Guide to ... An antigenic protein gene of phytoplasma associated with sweet potato witche's broom. (1998). Yu, Y., Yeh, K. and Lin, C. ... The ribosomal DNA contains one transcriptional unit with a cluster of genes coding for the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNAs and two ... Berg, M., Davies, D., Clark, M., Vetten, H., Maier, G., Marcone, C. and Seemuller E. (1999) Isolation of gene encoding an ...
*  Sarcoscypha occidentalis
2008). "Isolation of fungal cellobiohydrolase I genes from sporocarps and forest soils by PCR". Applied and Environmental ... Nagao H; Fukiharu T. (2002). "Fungal flora in Chiba Pref., central Japan (III) ascomycetes: Plectomycetes and Discomycetes". ...
*  Baccatin III
... researchers reported introduction and expression of the endophytic fungal gene responsible for synthesizing baccatin III (10- ... precursor of paclitaxol with transgenic Flammulina velutipes expressing 10-Deacetylbaccatin III-10-O-acetyl transferase gene". ...
*  PHI-base
... virulence and effector genes from fungal and oomycete pathogens which infect animal, plant and fungal hosts. PHI-base is the ... To facilitate data interoperability, genes are annotated using controlled vocabularies (Gene Ontology terms, EC Numbers, etc ... PhytoPath provides access to complete genome assemblies and gene models of priority crop and model-fungal and oomycete ... gene disruption experiments) as well as literature references in which the experiments are described. Each gene in PHI-base is ...
*  Molecular ecology
Next-generation sequencing technologies generate large amounts of data, and analysis of fungal marker-gene data is an active ... fungal diversity in forest soils, stratification of fungal communities in soil horizons, and fungal succession on decomposing ... marker genes) to identify and describe the distribution of taxonomic groups in the fungal community in question, though more ... rapid taxonomic classification of fungal large-subunit rRNA genes". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78: 1523-1533. doi: ...
*  GSTZ1
Fernández-Cañón JM, Peñalva MA (Jan 1998). "Characterization of a fungal maleylacetoacetate isomerase gene and identification ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSTZ1 gene on chromosome 14. This gene is a member of the glutathione S- ... As for the GSTZ1 gene, it is located on chromosome 14q24.3, has 12 exons, and is approximately 10 kb long. GSTZ1 also contains ... "Entrez Gene: GSTZ1 glutathione transferase zeta 1 (maleylacetoacetate isomerase)". Polekhina G, Board PG, Blackburn AC, Parker ...
*  Nitrogen nutrition in the arbuscular mycorrhizal system
When labeled nitrogen compounds were added to the ERM compartment of an in vitro bsystem, six fungal genes encoding enzymes ... After a delay, gene expression in the IRM began to show increasing levels of mRNA for genes involved in the breakdown of ... For example, the detection and measurement of gene expression has enabled researchers to determine which genes are up-regulated ... This change in gene expression takes place concurrently with the arrival of 15N labeled arginine from the ERM compartment. Once ...