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*  Ancestral reconstruction
MLGO is a web-server for maximum likelihood gene order analysis. The development and application of computational algorithms ... Hu, Fei; Lin, Yu; Tang, Jijun (2014). "MLGO: phylogeny reconstruction and ancestral inference from gene-order data". BMC ... Borque, Guillaume; Pevzner, Pavel A. (2012). "Genome-Scale Evolution: Reconstructing Gene Orders in the Ancestral Species". ... gene order), a measurable characteristic of an organism (phenotype), and the geographic range of an ancestral population or ...
*  Molecular phylogenetics
The advantage claimed for using hybridisation rather than gene sequencing was that it was based on the entire genotype, rather ... and the resulting dendrogram is examined in order to see whether the samples cluster in the way that would be expected from ... The most common approach is the comparison of homologous sequences for genes using sequence alignment techniques to identify ... The recent discovery of extensive horizontal gene transfer among organisms provides a significant complication to molecular ...
*  Chromothripsis
In order for micronuclei to progress through the cell cycle and induce chromosome damage, diminished levels of p53 have been ... Mutations in FANCM gene cause increased micronucleus formation and hence extreme chromothripsis. As well as cells encompassing ... Mutations in the TP53 gene are important for the maintenance of genome stability has been seen to be a predisposing mutation ... Poor clinical outcome in neuroblastomas (such as those caused by deletion of the FANC gene in Fanconi Anaemia) has been linked ...
*  Trp operon
It was an important experimental system for learning about gene regulation, and is commonly used to teach gene regulation. ... In order for the transcribing polymerase to concomitantly capture the alternative structure, the time scale of the structural ... The trp operon is an operon-a group of genes that is used, or transcribed, together-that codes for the components for ... It also contains a repressive regulator gene called trp R. trp R has a promoter where RNA polymerase binds and synthesizes mRNA ...
*  Genome evolution
Gene duplication is the process by which a region of DNA coding for a gene is duplicated. This can occur as the result of an ... Such changes can lead to a frameshift mutation, causing the entire code to be read in a different order from the original, ... Gene coding regions have been shown to have a higher GC-content and the longer the gene is, the greater the percentage of G and ... Duplicate genes are often immune to the selective pressure under which genes normally exist. As a result, a large number of ...
*  Gene orders
Some research on gene orders in animals' mitochondrial gemones reveal that the mutation rate of gene orders is not a constant ... Gene orders are the permutation of genome arrangement. A fair amount of research has been done trying to determine whether gene ... Grusea, Simona (September 2010). "Measures for the exceptionality of gene order in conserved genomic regions". Advances in ... orders evolve according to a molecular clock (molecular clock hypothesis) or in jumps (punctuated equilibrium). ...
*  Ridge (biology)
In order to get a clear picture about the mechanism of gene clusters first the workings chromatin and gene regulation needs to ... Lercher MJ, Urrutia AO, Hurst LD (June 2002). "Clustering of housekeeping genes provides a unified model of gene order in the ... Instead, genes tend to cluster in groups of sometimes 39 genes in close proximity. Clusters were not only gene dense. They ... Their genes are grouped in operons, genes within operons share a common promoter unit. These genes are mostly functionally ...
*  Laurence Hurst
Lercher, M.J.; Urrutia, A.O.; Hurst, L.D. (2002). "Clustering of housekeeping genes provides a unified model of gene order in ... This has resulted in work on housekeeping genes, gene orders, and the evolution of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, ... By contrast, Hurst revealed that genomic changes often considered to be relatively harmless - such as gene order changes and ... Hurst, L.D.; Pál, C.; Lercher, M.J. (2004). "The evolutionary dynamics of eukaryotic gene order". Nature Reviews Genetics. 5 (4 ...
*  Paleopolyploidy
Wong, S.; Butler, G.; Wolfe, K. H. (2002). "Gene order evolution and paleopolyploidy in hemiascomycete yeasts". Proceedings of ... Gene loss during diploidization is not completely random, but heavily selected. Genes from large gene families are duplicated. ... change in gene function may occur in one or both copies, gene silencing may mask one or both copies, or complete gene loss may ... Single gene duplication is a random process and tends to make duplicated genes scattered throughout the genome. Duplicated ...
*  Synteny
For example, the order of genes in the "Hox cluster", which are key determinants of the animal body plan and which interact ... The term is sometimes also used to describe preservation of the precise order of genes on a chromosome passed down from a ... The analysis of synteny in the gene order sense has several applications in genomics. Shared synteny is one of the most ... Dawson DA, Akesson M, Burke T, Pemberton JM, Slate J, Hansson B (2007). "Gene order and recombination rate in homologous ...
*  Temple F. Smith
Inferring genome-scale rearrangement phylogeny and ancestral gene order: A Drosophila case study. Genome Biology 8, R236 ... Comparison of the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP) gene of mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) and hamster SFPD strains of Chlamydia ... "LFG: a candidate apoptosis regulatory gene family" Apoptosis. 14: 1255-1265. (2009) Smith, Temple F., Lee, Jung C., Gutell, ... "Genome-Scale Analysis of Positionally Relocated Genes" Genome Research 17: 1880-1887 (2007) Hartman, Hyman, Favaretto, Paola ...
*  Thermotogae
Kunisawa T (2011). "Inference of the phylogenetic position of the phylum Deferribacteres from gene order comparison". Antonie ... 2013 Order Mesoaciditogales Itoh et al. 2015 Family Mesoaciditogaceae Itoh et al. 2015 Genus Athalassotoga Itoh et al. 2015 ... 2013 Order Petrotogales Bhandari & Gupta 2014 Family Petrotogaceae Bhandari & Gupta 2014 Genus Defluviitoga Ben Hania et al. ... These studies also identified CSIs specific for each order and each family. These indels are the premise for the current ...
*  SIL1
"Report of the committee on linkage and gene order". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 51 (1-4): 459-502. doi:10.1159/000132805. PMID ... Nucleotide exchange factor SIL1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIL1 gene. This gene encodes a resident ... "Entrez Gene: SIL1 SIL1 homolog, endoplasmic reticulum chaperone (S. cerevisiae)". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Marinesco- ... 2006). "The gene disrupted in Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome encodes SIL1, an HSPA5 cochaperone". Nat. Genet. 37 (12): 1309-11. doi ...
*  AK2
Carritt B, King J, Welch HM (Mar 1983). "Gene order and localization of enzyme loci on the short arm of chromosome 1". Ann Hum ... Adenylate kinase 2 is an enzyme that is encoded in humans by the AK2 gene. The AK2 protein is found in the intermembrane space ... Human AK2 genome location and AK2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Lee Y, Kim JW, Lee SM, et al. (1998). "Cloning ... "Entrez Gene: AK2 adenylate kinase 2". Bruns GA, Regina VM (1977). "Adenylate kinase 2, a mitochondrial enzyme". Biochem. Genet ...
*  Burkholderia gladioli
The gene order and GC composition is conserved as well. Members of the Burkholderia genus are able to capture and retain ... According to Furuya et al., the ribosomal RNA gene is highly conserved and universally distributed in all living things, and ... They are able to keep "essential housekeeping" genes on the largest chromosome This largest chromosome has a single origin of ... therefore difference in the DNA sequences between 16S and 23S rRNA genes can be used to differentiate between the species. The ...
*  Disk-covering method
2003). Scaling up accurate phylogenetic reconstruction from gene-order data. In Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. on Intelligent Systems ... disk-covering methods have also been used for estimating evolutionary trees from gene order data D. Huson, S. Nettles and T. ...
*  Zebrafish
Its gene order and content are identical to the common vertebrate form of mitochondrial DNA. It contains 13 protein-coding ... "A Transposon-Mediated Gene Trap Approach Identifies Developmentally Regulated Genes in Zebrafish". Developmental Cell. 7 (1): ... These genes have the DNA base pairs AC and TG as repeated sequences at the ends of each intron. On the 3'ss (3' splicing site ... The orthologous gene was then characterized in humans and a one base pair difference was found to strongly segregate fair- ...
*  Travelling salesman problem
"Genetic Operators for Combinatorial Optimization in TSP and Microarray Gene Ordering". Applied Intelligence. 26 (3): 183-195. ... One application is encountered in ordering a solution to the cutting stock problem in order to minimize knife changes. Another ... This leaves us with a graph where every vertex is of even order which is thus Eulerian. Now we can adapt the above method to ... The sequential ordering problem deals with the problem of visiting a set of cities where precedence relations between the ...
*  Ebola virus
The gene order is 3′ - leader - NP - VP35 - VP40 - GP/sGP - VP30 - VP24 - L - trailer - 5′; with the leader and trailer being ... In one study, mice with one copy of the NPC1 gene removed showed an 80 percent survival rate fifteen days after exposure to ... Sections of the NP, VP35 and the L genes from filoviruses have been identified as endogenous in the genomes of several groups ... 511(75.11):520 Gina Kolata (Oct 30, 2014). "Genes Influence How Mice React to Ebola, Study Says in 'Significant Advance'". New ...
*  Genomic evolution of birds
This proves that gene order along chromosomes is more conserved in birds than in other animal groups. A clear example are genes ... Genomic research has shown that in order to make a good phylogenetic tree it is not enough to use a single gene. This is due to ... This may be due to the fact that the Z-chromosome has the lowest gene density. Also, gene variability is higher in ... Likewise, gene spacing is 91 kb (average) for mammals and 61 kb for reptiles, but only 49 kb in birds. It is known that similar ...
*  Alfred Sturtevant
He found that using three genes as opposed to two provided most accurate information about gene order on chromosome. With this ... His experiments determined that the frequency of double crossing over can be used to deduce gene order. He demonstrated this ... Genes and Genomes: Impact on Medicine and Society. Genes, Genomes, and Evolution Symposium. Columbia University, 16 October ... Sturtevant determined that genes of Drosophila are arranged in linear order. In 1920, he published a set of three papers under ...
*  François Jean Baptiste Quesnel
The victory permitted Eugene's army to withdraw in good order to the Adige River. As Hiller's army closed up to the Adige, ... Unwilling to allow this incursion, Eugene ordered Grenier to take two divisions and attack. On 6 September, Grenier drubbed ... On 8 February 1814, Bellegarde and Eugene clashed in the Battle of the Mincio River. After Eugene threw the bulk of his army ... When they found Eugene's main body coming up behind them, Bellegarde's Austrians fell back in confusion. The Franco-Italians ...
*  Filoviridae
106 its genome contains one or more gene overlaps its genome contains seven genes in the order 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24 ... Transcription either terminates after a gene or continues to the next gene downstream. This means that genes close to the 3' ... The gene order is therefore a simple but effective form of transcriptional regulation. The most abundant protein produced is ... 5'-UTR its VP24 gene is not homologous to genes of other mononegaviruses its genome contains transcription initiation and ...
*  GCNT2
Keats B, Ott J, Conneally M (1989). "Report of the committee on linkage and gene order". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 51 (1-4): 459- ... 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene family". Genes Dev. 7 (3): 468-78. doi:10.1101/gad.7.3.468. PMID 8449405. Yeh JC, Ong E ... This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for formation of the blood group I antigen. The i and I antigens are distinguished by ... "Entrez Gene: GCNT2 glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2, I-branching enzyme (I blood group)". Fukuda M, Fukuda MN, Hakomori S ...
*  Symphyla
Myriapoda: Symphyla): Extensive gene order rearrangement and evidence in favor of Progoneata" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics ... "Phylogenetic analysis of Myriapoda using three nuclear protein-coding genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 34 (1): ...
*  Socialist Sunday School
Eugene V. Debs, "Socialist Sunday School," Socialist News [Cleveland], vol. 1, no. 40 (Sept. 4, 1915), pg. 3. David S. ... Observe and think in order to discover the truth. Do not believe what is contrary to reason and never deceive yourself or ...
*  Marburg virus disease
The gene order is therefore a simple but effective form of transcriptional regulation. The most abundant protein produced is ... Transcription either terminates after a gene or continues to the next gene downstream. This means that genes close to the 3' ... Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 kb long and contain seven genes in the order 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'- ... Pringle, C. R. (2005). "Order Mononegavirales". In Fauquet, C. M.; Mayo, M. A.; Maniloff, J.; Desselberger, U.; Ball, L. A. ...