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*  Ancestral reconstruction
PARANA performs parsimony based inference of ancestral biological networks that represent gene loss and duplication. Finally, ... duplication or horizontal gene transfer. The "genome rearrangement problem", first posed by Watterson and colleagues, asks: ... Count reconstructs the evolution of the size of gene families. EREM analyses the gain and loss of genetic features encoded by ... Shapiro, B. (2006). "A Phylogenetic Method for Detecting Positive Epistasis in Gene Sequences and Its Application to RNA Virus ...
*  Phylogenetic network
They are employed when reticulation events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, recombination, or gene duplication ... because there is no species boundary to prevent gene flow between populations. Therefore, a more general phylogenetic network ...
*  ParaHox
... of the Hox gene cluster; the two gene clusters being descendent from a segmental duplication early in animal evolution, ... All the ParaHox genes in the amphioxus genome are therefore in the ParaHox gene cluster. In contrast, the human genome has six ... Gene expression and functional data lends tentative support to this hypothesis, although in many animals the roles of the genes ... The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical ...
*  Weak Selection
Additionally, gene duplication offers another way in which an apparently nonfunctional mutation can be maintained through weak ... 3. Ohta, T. (December 10, 2002). Near-Neutrality in Evolution of Genes and Gene Regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy ... This is because differential gene expression is critical development and therefore can potentially affect the morphology of an ... Furthermore, weak selection operates in codon-usage bias resulting in differential levels of gene expression by altering the ...
*  Gene duplication
... greatly facilitating the evolutionary studies of gene regulation after gene duplication or speciation. Gene duplications can ... Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is ... It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene. Gene duplications can arise as products of ... ISBN 0-07-137050-1. A bibliography on gene and genome duplication A brief overview of mutation, gene duplication and ...
*  Genome evolution
Gene duplication is the process by which a region of DNA coding for a gene is duplicated. This can occur as the result of an ... Similar to gene duplication, whole genome duplication is the process by which an organism's entire genetic information is ... That is, after duplication of genes they often change their expression pattern, for instance by getting expressed in another ... Gene coding regions have been shown to have a higher GC-content and the longer the gene is, the greater the percentage of G and ...
*  Evolution by gene duplication
The first step is gene duplication. The gene duplication in itself is neither advantageous, nor deleterious, so it will remain ... of a gene duplication and its long-term outcomes. Since a gene duplication occurs in only one cell, either in a single-celled ... increases in gene expression by promotor mutations and increases in gene copy number by gene duplication[citation needed]. The ... gene duplication would offset this balance[citation needed]. In cases of gene duplications that have no immediate fitness ...
*  Chromosome 2q31.1 duplication syndrome gene
Chromosome 2q31.1 duplication syndrome is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DUP2Q31.1 gene. "Human PubMed Reference ... "Entrez Gene: Chromosome 2q31.1 duplication syndrome". Retrieved 2016-07-25. Sandholm N, McKnight AJ, Salem RM, Brennan EP, ...
*  Genome size
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ohno S (1970). Evolution by Gene Duplication. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0- ... "Distinct Gene Number- Genome Size Relationships for Eukaryotes and Non-Eukaryotes: Gene Content Estimation for Dinoflagellate ... probably as a result of its inclusion in Susumu Ohno's influential book Evolution by Gene Duplication, published in 1970. The ... whereas a free-living bacterium generally has at least 1000 genes. Many genes have been transferred to the host nucleus, while ...
*  Susumu Ohno
Ohno postulated that gene duplication plays a major role in evolution in his classic book Evolution by Gene Duplication (1970 ... everything." Gene duplication Paleopolyploidy Susumu Ohno (1970). Evolution by gene duplication. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-04- ... In Evolution by Gene Duplication, he also suggested that vertebrate genome is the result of one or more entire genome ... While subsequent research has overwhelmingly confirmed the key role of gene duplication in molecular evolution, research to ...
*  Seminal RNase
Molecular evolution Gene duplication Gene conversion Pseudogenes Ancestral gene resurrection Bovinae Ribonuclease A ENCODE ... Among different models that exist, one model suggests that after the gene duplication, among the two copies of genes, one will ... Gene conversion is of two types - interallelic and interlocus gene conversions. The resurrection of seminal RNase gene function ... doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990.tb15557.x. Ohno,, S. (1970). Evolution by gene duplication. NY: Springer. ISBN 0-04-575015-7. ...
*  Ohno's law
Evolution by Gene Duplication. London: Allen and Unwin, ISBN 0-04-575015-7. Watson JM, Riggs A, Graves JA (1992). "Gene mapping ... Second, for individual gene loci, a number of X-linked genes are common through mammalian species. Examples are found in ... Genes on the long arm of the human X are contained in the monotreme X and genes on the short arm of the human X are distributed ... and plasma thromboplastin component gene (PTC or Factor IX). Moreover, no instances were found where an X-linked gene in one ...
*  Lee Spetner
A Continuation of Spetner v. Max - discusses the B-cell hypermutation model; role of gene duplication; interpretations of the ... and gene families as examples of duplication, mutation and selection. a review of Lee Spetner's "NOT BY CHANCE!" by Gert ... "Natural selection versus gene uniqueness". Nature. 226: 948. 1970. "The Evolution Revolution". Judaica Press. Missing or empty ...
*  Genetic divergence
"Gene Duplications and Divergence". Boundless Biology. Boundless. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017. Note: this material ... On a molecular genetics level, genetic divergence is due to changes in a small number of genes in a species, resulting in ...
*  Steroidogenic enzyme
Guillemette C, Lévesque E, Harvey M, Bellemare J, Menard V (2010). "UGT genomic diversity: beyond gene duplication". Drug Metab ...
*  Leslie D. Gottlieb
Gottlieb applied gene duplications in determining the phylogeny of "Clarkia", because "Duplications originating by chromosomal ... Although Gottlieb did much pioneering work on gene duplication in polyploids (see above), he also pioneered studying gene ... by one or two nuclear genes controlling the cytosolic PGI and one nuclear gene controlling the plastid PGI. The cytosolic genes ... By far the majority of Gottlieb's gene duplication work was done with PGI in Clarkia, though he also compared the PGI from the ...
*  Harlan Lewis
"Gene duplication and phylogeny in Clarkia". Evolution. 33: 1024-1039. Odrzykoski, I. J.; Gottlieb, L. D. (1984). "Duplication ... Gene exchange between species must be restricted if they are to maintain genetic integrity, but, as we have seen, such ... A by-product of this accumulation of structural rearrangements has been the establishment of strong barriers to gene exchange ... Gottlieb, L. D. (1982). "Conservation and duplication of isozymes in plants". Science. 216: 373-380. Gottlieb, L. D.; Weeden, N ...
*  Venom
"Venom evolution through gene duplications". Gene. 496: 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.01.009. PMID 22285376. Whittington C. M.; ... Scientists believe the origin of snake venom began with gene duplication of genes that had been expressed in the body tissues ... Wong, E. S., & Belov, K. (2012). Venom evolution through gene duplications. Gene 496:1-7.. ... Extensive research on platypuses shows that their toxin was initially formed from gene duplication, but data provides evidence ...
*  Conotoxin
Wong ES, Belov K (March 2012). "Venom evolution through gene duplications". Gene. 496 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.01.009 ... the genes that encode them do not act endogenously, and thus are less conserved and more likely to experience gene duplication ... These genes will experience less selection against mutations, and therefore mutations will remain in the genome longer, ... thus cone snails are under constant selective pressure to maintain polymorphism in these genes because failing to evolve and ...
*  Saltation (biology)
Both gene duplication and lateral gene transfer have the capacity to bring about relatively large changes that are saltational ... 2006). Gene-balanced duplications, like tetraploidy, provide predictable drive to increase morphological complexity. Genome Res ... Serres MH, Kerr AR, McCormack TJ, Riley M. (2009). Evolution by leaps: gene duplication in bacteria. Biology Direct 4: 46. ... ISBN 0262600692 Serres MH, Kerr AR, McCormack TJ, Riley M. (2009). Evolution by leaps: gene duplication in bacteria. Biology ...
*  Evolution
Hurles, Matthew (July 13, 2004). "Gene Duplication: The Genomic Trade in Spare Parts". PLOS Biology. San Francisco, CA: Public ... Gene flow involves the exchange of genes between populations and between species. The presence or absence of gene flow ... Gene transfer between species includes the formation of hybrid organisms and horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer ... This is important because most new genes evolve within gene families from pre-existing genes that share common ancestors. For ...
*  Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Susumu Ohno, Author of "Evolution by gene duplication". Ph.D. in veterinary science in 1949. Hirohide Hamashima, Director of ...
*  Orphan gene
The duplication and divergence model for orphan genes involves a new gene being created from some duplication or divergence ... At the time, gene duplication was considered the only serious model of gene evolution and there were few sequenced genomes for ... Orphan genes may arise through a variety of mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer, duplication and rapid divergence, and ... Another explanation for how orphan genes arise is through a duplication mechanism called horizontal gene transfer, where the ...
*  2R hypothesis
... sets of genes on one chromosome related to sets of genes on another chromosome in the same species, indicative of duplication ... or four equivalent genes as a result of two intervening whole-genome duplication events." Ohno S (1970). Evolution by Gene ... or whether a series of individual gene duplications occurred followed by chromosomal rearrangement to shuffle sets of genes ... Ohno argued that linkage should be expected in the case of individual tandem duplications (in which a duplicate gene is added ...
*  GYPA
The family evolved via two separate gene duplication events. The initial duplication gave rise to two genes one of subsequently ... The second duplication appears to have occurred via an unequal crossing over event. The GypA gene itself consists of 7 exons ... The MiV and MiV(J.L.) genes are arranged in the same 5' alpha-delta 3' frame whereas Sta gene is in a reciprocal 5'delta-alpha ... Kudo S, Fukuda M (1989). "Structural organization of glycophorin A and B genes: glycophorin B gene evolved by homologous ...
*  Baum-Welch algorithm
The GLIMMER (Gene Locator and Interpolated Markov ModelER) software was an early gene-finding program used for the ... duplications and four transition states. Solving this model using Baum-Welch demonstrated the ability to predict the location ... or multiple genes (or even no gene at all) is present. GENSCAN was shown to exactly predict exon location with 90% accuracy ... locations compared to confirmed genes in prokaryotes. The GENSCAN webserver is a gene locator capable of analyzing eukaryotic ...
*  CYP2D6
"Frequent occurrence of CYP2D6 gene duplication in Saudi Arabians". Pharmacogenetics. 7 (3): 187-91. doi:10.1097/00008571- ... Annotated PGx Gene Information for CYP2D6 Human CYP2D6 genome location and CYP2D6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... "Entrez Gene: CYP2D6 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6". Dinama O, Warren AM, Kulkarni J (August 2014). "The ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene. CYP2D6 is primarily expressed in the ...