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*  Dihydrofolate reductase
Resistance can arise from DHFR gene amplification, mutations in DHFR, decrease in the uptake of the drugs, among others. ... These cells are transfected with a plasmid carrying the dhfr gene and the gene for the recombinant protein in a single ... Only the cells with the exogenous DHFR gene along with the gene of interest survive. Dihydrofolate reductase has been shown to ... In humans, the DHFR enzyme is encoded by the DHFR gene. It is found in the q11→q22 region of chromosome 5. Bacterial species ...
*  Touchdown polymerase chain reaction
PCR to circumvent spurious priming during gene amplification". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (14): 4008. doi:10.1093/nar/19.14.4008. ... as the nonspecific sequences to which primers anneal in early steps of amplification will "swamp out" any specific sequences ... because of the exponential nature of polymerase amplification. The earliest steps of a touchdown polymerase chain reaction ...
*  Gene amplification
... may refer to: Polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic gene amplification Gene duplication, a natural form of ...
*  Ubiquitin
Another gene that is a target of gene amplification is SKP2. SKP2 is an F-box protein that roles in substrate recognition for ... Gene amplification often occur in various tumor cases, including of MDM2, a gene encodes for a RING E3 Ubiquitin ligase ... The BRCA1 gene is another tumor suppressor gene in human which encodes the BRCA1 protein that is involved in response to DNA ... Momand J, Jung D, Wilczynski S, Niland J (August 1998). "The MDM2 gene amplification database". Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (15 ...
*  Robert Schimke
"Protein Turnover and Gene Amplification". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (e1 2). 27 April 2007. ... In 1977, he discovered the phenomenon of gene amplification in mammalian cells. This discovery had great importance for cancer ...
*  Somatic evolution in cancer
January 1984). "Resistance to methotrexate due to gene amplification in a patient with acute leukemia". J. Clin. Oncol. 2 (1): ... Horns RC, Dower WJ, Schimke RT (January 1984). "Gene amplification in a leukemic patient treated with methotrexate". J. Clin. ... Trent JM, Buick RN, Olson S, Horns RC, Schimke RT (January 1984). "Cytologic evidence for gene amplification in methotrexate- ... Likewise, extra copies of the AR gene (amplification) have been observed in anti-androgen resistant prostate cancer. These ...
*  ABCB5
Frank NY, Frank MH (October 2009). "ABCB5 gene amplification in human leukemia cells". Leukemia Research. 33 (10): 1303-5. doi: ... ABCB5 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ABCB5 human gene location in the ... ABCB5 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma ... of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma cells and melanocytes". Pigment Cell Research / Sponsored by ...
*  Somatic recombination
1996) Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer. Mutat Res 353:85-107. PMID 8692194. ... Somatic recombination occurs physiologically in the assembly of the B cell receptor and T-cell receptor genes (V(D)J ...
*  Glyphosate
Powles, Stephen B. (January 19, 2010). "Gene amplification delivers glyphosate-resistant weed evolution". Proceedings of the ... This CP4 EPSPS gene was cloned and transfected into soybeans. In 1996, genetically modified soybeans were made commercially ... Monsanto scientists have found that some resistant weeds have as many as 160 extra copies of a gene called EPSPS, the enzyme ... EPSPS is produced only by plants and microbes; the gene coding for it is not in the mammalian genome. Glyphosate adsorbs ...
*  EPSP synthase
"Gene amplification in glyphosate tolerant tobacco cells." Plant science 72.1 (1990): 53-62". Plant Science. 72 (1): 53-62. doi: ... EPSP synthase is produced only by plants and micro-organisms; the gene coding for it is not in the mammalian genome. Gut flora ... It is the biological target of the herbicide glyphosate, and a glyphosate-resistant version of this gene has been used in ...
*  Edith Heard
She was awarded a PhD from Imperial College London for research investigating gene amplification in rat cells in 1990 while ... doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00598-0. Heard, Edith (1990). Analysis of a gene amplification event in rat cells. imperial.ac.uk ( ... Heard, Edith (2013). "We can't undo what our parents have given us in terms of our genes'". theguardian.com. The Guardian. ... "Rb-Mediated Heterochromatin Formation and Silencing of E2F Target Genes during Cellular Senescence". Cell. 113 (6): 703-16. doi ...
*  Kohzoh Imai
"Gene amplification and overexpression of PRDM14 in breast cancer". Cancer Res. 67: 9649-9657. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4111 ... Adachi M, Miyachi T, Sekiya M, Hinoda Y, Yachi A, Imai K (1994). "Structure of the human LC-PTP (HePTP) gene: similarity in ... Further, he developed the diagnostic method of a digestive tract cancer utilizing a methylation of genes expressed in cancer ... Imai discovered three kinds of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes having the function of controlling the signal ...
*  Antineoplastic resistance
Chromosomal rearrangement due to genome instability can cause gene amplification and deletion. Gene amplification is the ... Gene deletion is the opposite of gene amplification, where a region of a chromosome is lost an drug resistance occurs by losing ... and BCR-ABL amplification occurs in response to imatinib mesylate. Determining areas of gene amplification in cells from cancer ... "Sister chromatid fusion initiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in Chinese hamster cells". Genes & ...
*  ZNF703
February 2011). "ZNF703 gene amplification at 8p12 specifies luminal B breast cancer". EMBO Molecular Medicine. 3 (3): 153-166 ... Gene expression of stem cells are triggered when the ZNF703 gene becomes overexpressed in the complex. As a result, both ... ZNF703 is a gene which has been linked with the development of breast cancers. ZNF703 is contained within the NET/N1z family ... The ZNF703 gene generally plays an active role in luminal B tumor cells contained in mammary ducts. Typically, ZNF703 ...
*  N-Myc
Ibson JM, Rabbitts PH (1988). "Sequence of a germ-line N-myc gene and amplification as a mechanism of activation". Oncogene. 2 ... Brodeur GM, Seeger RC (1986). "Gene amplification in human neuroblastomas: basic mechanisms and clinical implications". Cancer ... "Preferential amplification of the paternal allele of the N-myc gene in human neuroblastomas". Nat. Genet. 4 (2): 191-4. doi: ... most notably neuroblastomas where patients with amplification of the N-Myc gene tend to have poor outcomes. N-Myc has been ...
*  Prostate cancer
Ford OH, Gregory CW, Kim D, Smitherman AB, Mohler JL (November 2003). "Androgen receptor gene amplification and protein ... Other tumor suppressor genes that are thought to play a role in prostate cancer include PTEN (gene) and KAI1. "Up to 70 percent ... No single gene is responsible for prostate cancer; many different genes have been implicated. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, ... Other linked genes include the Hereditary Prostate cancer gene 1 (HPC1), the androgen receptor, and the vitamin D receptor. ...
*  Circulating tumor cell
"HER-2 gene amplification can be acquired as breast cancer progresses". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (25): 9393-8. Bibcode: ... Each fully assembled amplification structure is contained within 40−50 bp of target RNA with the capacity for 400-fold signal ... FISH assays has been performed on CTC to as well as determination of IGF-1R, Her2, Bcl-2, [ERG (gene),ERG], PTEN, AR status ... An oligo pair hybridization event is essential for support of the signal amplification structure, which is assembled by a ...
*  CASC3
2002). "Targets of gene amplification and overexpression at 17q in gastric cancer". Cancer Res. 62 (9): 2625-9. PMID 11980659. ... Protein CASC3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASC3 gene. The product of this gene is a core component of the ... "Entrez Gene: CASC3 cancer susceptibility candidate 3". Human CASC3 genome location and CASC3 gene details page in the UCSC ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
*  Jun dimerization protein
JDP2 shows the gene amplification of head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma. In pancreatic carcinoma, downregulation of JDP2 is ... JDP2 is involved in the modulation of gene expression. For example, JDP2 regulates MyoD gene expression with c-Jun and gene for ... "Entrez Gene: JDP2 jun dimerization protein 2". Jin C, Ugai H, Song J, Murata T, Nili F, Sun K, Horikoshi M, Yokoyama KK (Jan ... The JDP2 gene is located on human chromosome 14q24.3 (46.4 kb, 75,427,715 bp to 75,474,111 bp) and mouse chromosome 12 (39 kb, ...
*  Myc
Amplification of the MYC gene was found in a significant number of epithelial ovarian cancer cases. In TCGA datasets, the ... Except for early response genes, Myc universally upregulates gene expression. Furthermore, the upregulation is nonlinear. Genes ... Myc overexpression stimulates gene amplification, presumably through DNA over-replication. There have been several studies that ... Myc (c-Myc) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor. The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, ...
*  SOX2
In squamous cell carcinoma, gene amplifications frequently target the 3q26.3 region. The gene for Sox2 lies within this region ... "Entrez Gene: SOX2 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2". Gontan C, de Munck A, Vermeij M, Grosveld F, Tibboel D, Rottier R (May ... Mutations in this gene have been linked with bilateral anophthalmia, a severe structural eye deformity. In lung development, ... Sox2 is a key upregulated factor in lung squamous cell carcinoma, directing many genes involved in tumor progression. Sox2 ...
*  Tyler Jacks
Murine bilateral retinoblastoma exhibiting rapid-onset, metastatic progression and N-myc gene amplification. EMBO J, 26, 784- ... He has pioneered the use of gene-targeting technology in mice to study cancer-associated genes and to construct mouse models of ... Genes & Development, 21(6):694-707. McLaughlin ME, Kruger GM, Slocum KL, Crowley D, Michaud NA, Huang J, Magendantz M, and ... Through loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes as well as the K-ras oncogene, mouse models ...
*  Enzyme promiscuity
Soo VW, Hanson-Manful P, Patrick WM (January 2011). "Artificial gene amplification reveals an abundance of promiscuous ... This variability in ancestral specificity has not only been observed between different genes, but also within the same gene ... gene amplification results in an increase in enzyme concentration, and potentially freedom from a restrictive regulation, ... ancestral reconstruction is the inference and synthesis of a gene from the ancestral form of a group of genes, which has had a ...
*  TPD52
... is overexpressed and a gene amplification target in ovarian cancer". Int. J. Cancer. 117 (6): 1049-54. doi:10.1002/ijc.21250. ... "Entrez Gene: TPD52 tumor protein D52". Byrne JA, Nourse CR, Basset P, Gunning P (February 1998). "Identification of homo- and ... Tumor protein D52 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPD52 gene. TPD52 has been shown to interact with TPD52L2, ... Barbaric D, Byth K, Dalla-Pozza L, Byrne JA (2007). "Expression of tumor protein D52-like genes in childhood leukemia at ...
*  UQCRFS1
Ohashi Y, Kaneko SJ, Cupples TE, Young SR (2004). "Ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase (UQCRFS1) gene amplification in primary ... 1995). "Structure, sequence and location of the UQCRFS1 gene for the human Rieske Fe-S protein". Gene. 155 (2): 207-11. doi: ... which consists of the products of one mitochondrially encoded gene: MTCYTB (mitochondrial cytochrome b) and ten nuclear genes: ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
*  Phage display
In this technique, a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to " ... Following further bacterial-based amplification, the DNA within in the interacting phage is sequenced to identify the ... A versatile screening system for selective isolation of genes by specific gene-product/ligand interaction". Eur. J. Biochem. ... The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) ...
*  Inverted repeat
... implications in gene amplification". Nucleic Acids Research. 29 (17): 3529-38. doi:10.1093/nar/29.17.3529. PMC 55881 . PMID ... The antithrombin III gene's coding region is an example of an imperfect inverted repeat as shown in the figure on the right. ... These repeated DNA sequences often range from a pair of nucleotides to a whole gene, while the proximity of the repeat ... Specifically, the missense mutation would lead to a defective gene and a deficiency in antithrombin which could result in the ...