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*  Earthworm
Edwards & Bohlen 1996, p. 6. "Brain - Invertebrate Brain - Ganglia, Nervous, System, and Head". HSBE. Retrieved April 3, 2015. ... The CNS consists of a bilobed brain (cerebral ganglia, or supra-pharyngeal ganglion), sub-pharyngeal ganglia, circum-pharyngeal ... The ventral nerve cord has a swelling, or ganglion, in each segment, i.e. a segmental ganglion, which occurs from the fifth to ... The central nervous system consists of two ganglia above the mouth, one on either side, connected to a nerve cord running back ...
*  Mind
While all vertebrates have a brain, most invertebrates have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia. ... As of 2012, such models include the thalamus, basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and occipital cortex, and ...
*  Invertebrate
Properties of the nociceptive neurons of the leech segmental ganglion. Journal of Neurophysiology, 75: 2268-2279 Byrne, J.H., ... Biology portal Invertebrate zoology, classification of animals body symmetry Invertebrate paleozoology Marine invertebrates ... Invertebrates are animals without a vertebral column. This has led to the conclusion that invertebrates are a group that ... Fossils of invertebrates are found in various types of sediment from the Phanerozoic. Fossils of invertebrates are commonly ...
*  Pain in invertebrates
With respect to the small size of the cerebral ganglia, we should remember what a mass of inherited knowledge, with some power ... Many invertebrate species learn to withdraw from, or alter their behaviour in response to, a conditioned stimulus when this has ... Pain in invertebrates is a contentious issue. Although there are numerous definitions of pain, almost all involve two key ... Invertebrate nervous systems are very unlike those of vertebrates and this dissimilarity has sometimes been used to reject the ...
*  Marine invertebrates
Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, and their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these ... Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all ... Invertebrates lack a vertebral column, and some have evolved a shell or a hard exoskeleton. As on land and in the air, marine ... Invertebrates are grouped into different phyla. Informally phyla can be thought of as a way of grouping organisms according to ...
*  Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells
... but seems likely to resemble that in invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors. In addition to responding directly to light, ... Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or ... Recent research has shown that these retinal ganglion cells, which, unlike other retinal ganglion cells, are intrinsically ... a disease which affects ganglion cells. In other mammals, photosensitive ganglia have proven to have a genuine role in ...
*  Photoreceptor cell
The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. The pineal and parapineal glands are photoreceptive in non-mammalian ... Invertebrate photoreceptors in organisms such as insects and molluscs are different in both their morphological organization ... No photoreceptors are found at the blind spot, the area where ganglion cell fibers are collected into the optic nerve and leave ... In addition, there are about 2.4 million to 3 million ganglion cells in the human visual system, 1 to 2% of them photosensitive ...
*  Stomatogastric nervous system
... oesophageal ganglion and the paired commissural ganglia. Because of the many similarities between vertebrate and invertebrate ... The Stomatogastric Nervous System (STNS) is a commonly studied neural network composed of several ganglia in arthropods that ... A Scholarpedia article on the stomatogastric ganglion Overview and links Journal of Visualized Experiments: Cancer borealis ... The system is composed of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), ... invertebrate model systems such as the crustacean ...
*  Argiotoxin
Referring to invertebrates, Planorbarius corneus is a mollusc involved in one of the many ionic experiments. To begin with, ... neurones of molluscan pedal ganglia were isolated and transferred to a special chamber with saline solution and regulated ... Researchers have specifically pursued the blocking of receptors on invertebrates, rather than on vertebrates. ...
*  Melanopsin
... -containing ganglion cells also receive input from rods and cones that can add to the input to these pathways. ... Like invertebrate opsins, it appears to be a photopigment with intrinsic photoisomerase activity and signals through a G- ... These retinal ganglion cells were found to be innately photosensitive, since they responded to light even while isolated, and ... It resembles invertebrate opsins far more than vertebrate photopigments, especially in its amino acid sequence and downstream ...
*  Nemertea
Anderson, D.T. (1998). "The invertebrate phyla". In D.T. Anderson. Invertebrate Zoology (1 ed.). Oxford University Press ... The brain is a ring of four ganglia, positioned around the rhynchocoel near its front end. At least a pair of ventral nerve ... The brain is a ring of four ganglia, masses of nerve cells, positioned round the rhynchocoel near its front end - while the ... Invertebrate Zoology (1 ed.). Oxford University Press Australia. pp. 79-85. ISBN 0-19-553941-9. Carwardine, Mark (1995). The ...
*  Brain
The basal ganglia are the central site at which decisions are made: the basal ganglia exert a sustained inhibitory control over ... The diversity of invertebrate body plans is matched by an equal diversity in brain structures. Two groups of invertebrates have ... The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected structures in the forebrain. The primary function of the basal ganglia appears ... Cephalopods such as the octopus and squid have the largest brains of any invertebrates. There are several invertebrate species ...
*  List of MeSH codes (A11)
... retinal ganglion cells MeSH A11.671.650.650.670.650 - rod MeSH A11.671.650.650.670.650.650 - rod outer segments MeSH A11.671. ... invertebrate MeSH A11.671.650.650.670 - photoreceptors, vertebrate MeSH A11.671.650.650.670.100 - cones MeSH A11.671.650.650. ... 650.675 - posterior horn cells MeSH A11.671.650.675.800 - substantia gelatinosa MeSH A11.671.650.700 - retinal ganglion cells ...
*  Eye
Comparative Physiology and Evolution of Vision in Invertebrates- A: Invertebrate Photoreceptors. Handbook of Sensory Physiology ... However, some ganglion cells of vertebrates express r-opsins, suggesting that their ancestors used this pigment in vision, and ... Likewise, c-opsins have been found to be expressed in the brain of some invertebrates. They may have been expressed in ciliary ... In organisms with compound eyes, it is the number of ommatidia rather than ganglia that reflects the region of highest data ...
*  Circumesophageal nerve ring
... and the left ganglion to the right). Gregory A. Lewbart (20 September 2011), Invertebrate Medicine, John Wiley & Sons, p. 342, ... two ventral ganglia, and a single unpaired dorsal ganglion. Among arthropods, the usual arrangement is a single gangion (the ... It is a common feature of nematodes, molluscs, and many other invertebrate animals, though it is absent in all vertebrate ... In nematodes, the ring consists of only two to four large associative cells connected to two paired lateral ganglia, ...
*  Vertebrate
All invertebrates with well-developed brains, such as insects, spiders and squids, have a ventral rather than dorsal system of ... and initiate the formation of neural ganglia and structures such as the jaws and skull. The vertebrates are the only chordate ... Invertebrate Marine vertebrate Shu; et al. (4 November 1999). "Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China". Nature. 402 (6757 ... The IUCN estimates that 1,305,075 extant invertebrate species have been described, which means that less than 5% of the ...
*  Magnetoreception
Further studies showed that pedal 7 neurons in the pedal ganglion were inhibited when exposed to magnetic fields over the ... Drosophila melanogaster is another invertebrate which may be able to orient to magnetic fields. Experimental techniques such as ... However, pedal 5 neurons, two bisymmetric neurons located within the Tochuina pedal ganglion, exhibited gradual changes in ...
*  Nociception
... has been documented in non-mammalian animals, including fish and a wide range of invertebrates, including leeches, ... 33 (1-2). Pastor, J.; Soria, B.; Belmonte, C. (1996). "Properties of the nociceptive neurons of the leech segmental ganglion". ... Jane A. Smith (1991). "A Question of Pain in Invertebrates". Institute for Laboratory Animals Journal. ... are unspecialized free nerve endings that have their cell bodies outside the spinal column in the dorsal root ganglia. ...
*  Neuronal self-avoidance
... for example the left trigeminal ganglion, allows the right ganglion neurites to cross midline and innervate left side of the ... neuron dendrites It is notable that the function of Dscam both invertebrates and invertebrates is context and species-dependent ... shows that removal of ganglion cells doesn't decrease the retinal ganglion cell types and that position of these cells isnot ... Destruction of ganglion cells gives the chance to their neighboring cells to extend their dendritic projections. They proposed ...
*  Supraesophageal ganglion
"Deutocerebrum". Invertebrate Brain Platform. Erber, J.; Menzel, R. (1977). "Visual interneurons in the median protocerebrum of ... The supraesophageal ganglion lies dorsal to the esophagus and consists of three parts, each a pair of ganglia that may be more ... Finally, the segmental ganglia of the ventral nerve cord are found in each body segment as a fused ganglion and they provide ... The supraesophageal ganglion ("arthropod brain" or "a. microbrain") is the first part of the arthropod and especially insect ...
*  Aspiraculata
They superficially resemble sea squirts but prey on invertebrates such as crustaceans. They also have some unique physical ... the superficial position of their ganglion and the unique histology of the cells of their digestive tracts. The branchial ... Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. p. 1042. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. WoRMS (2012). "Ascidiacea". ...
*  List of MeSH codes (A09)
... retinal ganglion cells MeSH A09.371.729.775 --- retinal horizontal cells MeSH A09.371.894.030 --- blood-aqueous barrier MeSH ... invertebrate MeSH A09.371.729.727.670 --- photoreceptors, vertebrate MeSH A09.371.729.727.670.100 --- rods MeSH A09.371.729.727 ... spiral ganglion MeSH A09.246.631.246.930 --- spiral lamina MeSH A09.246.631.663 --- semicircular canals MeSH A09.246.631.663. ...
*  Pain in crustaceans
The ganglia show great functional autonomy; information received by the ganglion is processed by the same ganglion, enabling a ... Legislation protects some invertebrates when they are being used in research; the taxa protected varies between countries and ... The bodies of crustaceans are segmented; there is one ganglion (cluster of nerve cells) per segment. Each ganglion receives ... Depending on the size, this may be termed the "cerebral ganglion" or the "brain". In decapods, the brain is divided into three ...
*  Motion sensing in vision
ON DS ganglion cells, and OFF DS ganglion cells. Each has a distinctive physiology and anatomy. ON/OFF DS ganglion cells act as ... The first DS cells in invertebrates were found in flies in a brain structure called the lobula plate. The lobula plate is one ... Unlike ON/OFF DS ganglion cells that respond both to the leading and the trailing edge of a stimulus, ON DS ganglion cells are ... The direction selective (DS) ganglion cells receive inputs from bipolar cells and starburst amacrine cells. The DS ganglion ...
*  CCDC47
The gene has many orthologs extending back to invertebrates such as C. elegans and is highly conserved in mammals with a ... brain amygdala and ciliary ganglion. Elevated expression is also seen in the thyroid and CD34+ cells. CCDC47 has no known ... amphibians or invertebrates. Five potential sumoylation sites are also seen and conserved back to the bony fish. There is no ... bony fish and invertebrates. Percent identity of human CCDC47 to a specific ortholog declines with increasing years of ...
*  Euchambersia
... or alternatively a ganglion of nerve cells. It is also possible that this organ functioned as a replacement for the parietal ... ridged teeth in non-venomous snakes are used to reduce suctional drag when capturing slippery prey like fish or invertebrates. ...