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*  List of MeSH codes (D01)
... cobalt radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.360.400 --- gallium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.381.550 --- gold radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... fluorine radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.360 --- gallium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.410 --- gold radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... calcium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.123.328 --- carbon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.156.300 --- cerium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.532.500 --- mercury radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.586.520 --- nitrogen radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ...
*  Wilfrid Basil Mann
Lawrence on the cyclotron in the radiation laboratory and was the discoverer of the radioisotope gallium-67, which is still in ...
*  Radiopharmacology
Some radioisotopes (for example gallium-67, gallium-68, and radioiodine) are used directly as soluble ionic salts, without ... The term radioisotope, which in its general sense refers to any radioactive isotope (radionuclide), has historically been used ... This use relies on the chemical and biological properties of the radioisotope itself, to localize it within the body. See ... The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) name gives the base drug name, followed by the radioisotope (as element symbol, space, ...
*  Isotopes of gallium
... gallium-69 and gallium-71. The most commercially important radioisotopes are gallium-67 and gallium-68. Gallium-67 (half-life ... It is the longest-lived radioisotope of gallium. The shorter-lived gallium-68 (half-life 68 minutes) is a positron-emitting ... radiopharmaceutical a different tissue-uptake specificity from the ionic Ga-67 radioisotope normally used in standard gallium ... Natural gallium (31Ga) consists of a mixture of two stable isotopes: ...
*  Single-photon emission computed tomography
On occasion, the radioisotope is a simple soluble dissolved ion, such as an isotope of gallium(III). Most of the time, though, ... SPECT is more widely available, because the radioisotope used is longer-lasting and far less expensive in SPECT, and the gamma ... In the nuclear power sector, the SPECT technique can be applied to image radioisotope distributions in irradiated nuclear fuels ... The technique requires delivery of a gamma-emitting radioisotope (a radionuclide) into the patient, normally through injection ...
*  Medical imaging
In SPECT imaging, the patient is injected with a radioisotope, most commonly Thallium 201TI, Technetium 99mTC, Iodine 123I, and ... Gallium 67Ga. The radioactive gamma rays are emitted through the body as the natural decaying process of these isotopes takes ... Scintigraphy ("scint") is a form of diagnostic test wherein radioisotopes are taken internally, for example intravenously or ...
*  Gallium
... a synthetic radioisotope of germanium, in gallium-68 generators. Gallium is used for neutrino detection. Possibly the largest ... gallium-69 and gallium-71. Gallium-69 is more abundant: it makes up about 60.1% of natural gallium, while gallium-71 makes up ... Strong acids dissolve gallium, forming gallium(III) salts such as Ga 2(SO 4) 3 (gallium sulfate) and Ga(NO 3) 3 (gallium ... textbook information regarding gallium Environmental effects of gallium Price development of gallium 1959-1998 Gallium : A ...
*  Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center
With the proton bombardment following radioisotopes are produced in three separate target rooms: Indium-111, gallium-67, ... These radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals produced from those radioisotopes are used for the diagnosis and therapy of ... By producing radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, the facility conducts research work in the fields of medicine, industry, ...
*  Radioactivity in the life sciences
... gallium-68, and radioiodine isotopes). These uses rely on the chemical and biological properties of the radioisotope itself, to ... It has the highest emission energy (1.7 MeV) of all common research radioisotopes. This is a major advantage in experiments for ... Replacing an atom with its own radioisotope is an intrinsic label that does not alter the structure of the molecule. ... Radiolabeling is a technique used to track the passage of a molecule that incorporates a radioisotope through a reaction, ...
*  Zinc
65 Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72 Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours ... which produces an isotope of gallium. n 30Zn → n 31Ga + e− + ν e Zinc has an electron configuration of [Ar]3d104s2 and is a ... n 30Zn + e− → n 29Cu The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with mass number higher than 66 is beta decay (β−), ... The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product ...
*  Isotopes of germanium
At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. The most stable of these is 68Ge, ... See gallium-68 generator for notes on the source of this isotope, and its medical use). The least stable known germanium ... While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61Ge and 64Ge decay by β+ delayed proton emission. 84Ge through ...
*  Scintigraphy
Examples are gallium scans, indium white blood cell scans, iobenguane scan (MIBG) and octreotide scans. The MIBG scan detects ... Certain tests, such as the Schilling test and urea breath test, use radioisotopes but are not used to produce a specific image ... Scintigraphy ("scint", Latin scintilla, spark) is a diagnostic test in nuclear medicine, where radioisotopes attached to drugs ...
*  Ventilation/perfusion scan
Decreased uptake of the inhaled radioisotope may indicate an impaired ability to breathe, airway obstruction, or possible ... This has been performed with Gallium-68 labelled carbon nanoparticles (Galligas) using a conventional Technegas machine for ... ventilation images, and with Gallium-68 labelled MAA (Ga68-MAA) for perfusion images. PET has multiple potential advantages ...
*  Gallium-68 generator
The parent isotope germanium-68 is the longest-lived (271 days) of the radioisotopes of germanium. It has been produced by ... A Germanium-68/Gallium-68 Generator is a device used to extract the positron-emitting isotope 68Ga of gallium from a source of ... Gallium 67 citrate salt imaging is useful for imaging old or sterile abscesses, and while Gallium 68 is useful in direct tumor ... from gallium-69 (the most common of two stable isotopes of gallium). This reaction is: Ga-69(p,2n)Ge-68. A Russian source ...
*  Iridium
... radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher ... The crystals, such as gadolinium gallium garnet and yttrium gallium garnet, are grown by melting pre-sintered charges of mixed ... The radioisotope iridium-192 is one of the two most important sources of energy for use in industrial γ-radiography for non- ... At least 34 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in mass number from 164 to 199. 192Ir, which falls between the ...
*  Radiopharmaceutical
See gallium scan. 68Ga is a positron emitter, with a 68-minute half life, produced by elution from germanium-68 in a gallium-68 ... There is a section for each radioisotope with a table of radiopharmaceuticals using that radioisotope. The sections are ordered ... Some radioisotopes* are used in ionic or inert form without attachment to a pharmaceutical, these are also included. ... making it more useful as a therapeutic isotope for brachytherapy implant of radioisotope capsules for local treatment of ...
*  Mars Exploration Rover
D. Crisp,, a, A. Pathareb and R. C. Ewell (2004). "The performance of gallium arsenide/germanium solar cells at the Martian ... "Overview of NASA Program on Development of Radioisotope Power Systems with High Specific Power" (PDF). Pdf.aiaa.org. Retrieved ... For comparison, the Mars Science Laboratory's power system is composed of a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator ... the rovers are heated by eight radioisotope heater units (RHU), which each continuously generate 1 W of thermal energy from the ...
*  Heavy metals
Gallium, indium, and arsenic; and copper, iridium, and platinum are used in LEDs (the latter three in organic LEDs). Niche uses ... heavy metals are also employed as spallation targets for the production of neutrons or radioisotopes such as astatine (using ... Gallium, germanium (a metalloid), indium, and most lanthanides can stimulate metabolism, and titanium promotes growth in plants ... The semiconductors cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide are used to make solar panels. Hafnium oxide, an insulator, is used ...
*  Thermophotovoltaic
The gallium antimonide (GaSb) PV cell, invented in 1989, is the basis of most PV cells in modern TPV systems. GaSb is a III-V ... A TPV radioisotope converter with 20% efficiency was demonstrated that uses a tungsten emitter heated to 1350 K, with tandem ... Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) is a compound III-V semiconductor. It can be applied in two ways for use in TPVs. When lattice ... Indium gallium arsenide antimonide (InGaAsSb) is a compound III-V semiconductor. (InxGa1−xAsySb1−y) The addition of GaAs allows ...
*  Indium-111 WBC scan
Gallium may be a better choice for spleen study because gallium does not normally accumulate in the spleen. Radiology Nuclear ... tagged with the radioisotope Indium-111, and then injected intravenously into the patient. The tagged leukocytes subsequently ... Both the gallium scan and indium-111 white blood cell imaging may be used to image fever of unknown origin (elevated ... In imaging of infections, the gallium scan has a sensitivity advantage over the indium white blood cell scan in imaging ...
*  Thallium
The radioisotope thallium-201 (as the soluble chloride TlCl) is used in small, nontoxic amounts as an agent in a nuclear ... The +3 state resembles that of the other elements in group 13 (boron, aluminium, gallium, indium). However, the +1 state, which ... The most useful radioisotope, 201Tl (half-life 73 hours), decays by electron capture, emitting X-rays (~70-80 keV), and photons ... 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years. It is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium ...
*  Electron capture
Some common radioisotopes that decay by electron capture include: For a full list, see the table of nuclides. "The Reines-Cowan ... Alvarez went on to study electron capture in gallium-67 and other nuclides. Examples: 26 13Al + e− → 26 12Mg + ν e 59 28Ni + e ... Alvarez, Luis W. (1937). "Electron Capture and Internal Conversion in Gallium 67". Physical Review. 53: 606. Bibcode:1938PhRv ...
*  Radioactive tracer
99mTc is a very versatile radioisotope, and is the most commonly used radioisotope tracer in medicine. It is easy to produce in ... The most widely used is 67Ga for gallium scans. 67Ga is used because, like 99mTc, it is a gamma-ray emitter and various ligands ... The commonly used radioisotopes have short half lives and so do not occur in nature. They are produced by nuclear reactions. ... Radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, and iodine have been used extensively to trace the path of biochemical ...
*  Plutonium
The δ phase plutonium-gallium and plutonium-aluminium alloys are produced by adding plutonium(III) fluoride to molten gallium ... It is therefore used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units such as those in the Cassini, ... Plutonium-gallium is used for stabilizing the δ phase of plutonium, avoiding the α-phase and α-δ related issues. Its main use ... Gallium, aluminium, americium, scandium and cerium can stabilize the δ phase of plutonium for room temperature. Silicon, indium ...
*  Indium
Like gallium, indium is able to wet glass. Like both, indium has a low melting point, 156.60 °C (313.88 °F); higher than its ... of which the stable isotope is less abundant in nature than the long-lived primordial radioisotopes. The stablest artificial ... The boiling point is 2072 °C (3762 °F), higher than that of thallium, but lower than gallium, conversely to the general trend ... The density of indium, 7.31 g/cm3, is also greater than gallium, but lower than thallium. Below the critical temperature, 3.41 ...
*  Energy development
Radioisotope thermoelectric generators form a very small component of energy generation, mostly in specialized applications ... and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the increased demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of ...