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*  Leptosphaeria lindquistii
Primary inoculum originates from overwintering fungal structures (perithecia, pycnidia, and mycelia). Conidia (from pycnidia) ... Many symptoms caused by the fungal pathogen can be observed post bloom or after flowering. The main identifying symptom is the ... Small, fruiting bodies (pycnidia) are produced on the stem, these structures are spore bearing and can be observed with a ... Schwartz, Howard (2008). "Photographs of Phoma macdonaldii". Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database. ...
*  Citrus black spot
Urea, lime, and calcium carbonate reduce the number of fungal structures and spore production. Since the fungus requires wet ... Diagnosis is also complicated by the morphological similarities of the fungal structures to the non-pathogenic strain ... Citrus Black Spot is a fungal disease caused by Guignardia citricarpa. This Ascomycete fungus affects citrus plants throughout ... Fungal Diversity, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 43-61 http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/pest_alerts/pdf/citrus-black-spot-pest-alert.pdf ...
*  Urocystis agropyri
The leaf discoloration is due to fungal structures called sori, which are clusters of spore-bearing structures. During ... Urocystis agropyri is a fungal plant pathogen that causes flag smut on wheat. The flag smut fungus, U. agropyri, is a ... "Cytology and Morphological Development of Basidia, Dikaryons, and Infective Structures offrom Wheat." Phytopathology 74.3 (1984 ... their structure, life history, treatment, and classification. Melbourne: J. Kemp, government printer. Sharma, Indu, A.K Toor, ...
*  Neighbour-sensing model
The Neighbour-Sensing model explains how various fungal structures may arise because of the 'crowd behaviour' of the community ... some of them being very like natural fungal fruit bodies and other complex structures. In one of the simplest examples, it is ... Concerted regulation of tropisms in all hyphal tips is sufficient to generate most fungal structures. Mycological research, 108 ... The key idea of this model is that all parts of the fungal mycelium have identical field generation systems, field sensing ...
*  Sphaceloma perseae
There are no signs of the pathogen visible to the naked eye so observation of fungal structures have to be performed with a ... The early development of the fruit is a critical time for fungal infection and this overlap with thrip damage exacerbates the ... In the places where the pathogen is present, windy conditions are what most favor dispersal of fungal spores. These regions ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Jenkins, Anna (1939). "Historical Records of Avocado Scab in Florida and Cuba" (PDF). ...
*  Zygomycota
... it directs the growth of fungal structures and activates metabolic pathways. For instance, the zygomycota use light as signal ... This structure is similar to a conidium, which has two, fused cell walls, an inner spore wall and an outer sporangium wall. ... Fungal hyphae grow at the tip. Therefore, specialized vesicles, the chitosomes, bring precursors of chitin and its synthesizing ... Fungal phototropism has been investigated in detail using the fruiting body, sporangiophore, of Phycomyces as a model. ...
*  Lichen
Root-like fungal structures called rhizines (usually) grow from the lower cortex to attach or anchor the lichen to the ... Sometimes lichens contain structures made from fungal metabolites, for example crustose lichens sometimes have a polysaccharide ... Soredia (singular: "soredium") are small groups of algal cells surrounded by fungal filaments that form in structures called ... Generally, the fungal mesh surrounds the algal or cyanobacterial cells, often enclosing them within complex fungal tissues that ...
*  Lichen morphology
... again consisting of densely packed fungal hyphae. The lower cortex of foliose lichens often bears rootlike fungal structures ... Lichens also sometimes contain structures made from fungal metabolites, for example crustose lichens sometimes have a ... Although the form of a lichen is determined by the genetic material of the fungal partner, association with a photobiont is ... Beneath this algal layer is a third layer of loosely interwoven fungal hyphae without algal cells. This layer is called the ...
*  Geomyces pannorum
Bastian, F (2009-05-01). "The impact of arthropods on fungal community structure in Lascaux Cave". Journal of Applied ... Fungal 18S rDNA fragments of G. pannorum have been recovered from glass panels of 19th century churches in Brakel, Germany, ... doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.01961.x. Sabev, H. A.; Handley, P.S.; Robson, G.D. (1 June 2006). "Fungal colonization of soil- ... ISBN 978-3-540-69371-0. Arenz, B.E. (2006). "Fungal diversity in soils and historic wood from the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica ...
*  Ochroconis anomala
Bastian F, Alabouvette C, Saiz-Jimenez C (2009). "The impact of arthropods on fungal community structure in Lascaux Cave". ... The human-pathogenic fungal community was rapidly spreading, mostly due the cave arthropods. Biocides were again applied since ... Martin-Sanchez PM, Nováková A, Bastian F, Alabouvette C, Saiz-Jimenez C (2012). "Use of biocides for the control of fungal ... Dixon B (March 2013). "Ongoing research is revealing unexpected facets of fungal damage to ancient paintings on the walls of ...
*  Heparinoid
Chitin, a component of insect shells and fungal structures, can be de-N-acetylated to form chitosan, which when sulfonated has ... Jorpes discovered the structure of the heparin polysaccharide in 1935, identifying that it is a highly sulfonated polymer of ... structure, biological activities and therapeutic applications". Planta Medica. 65 (4): 301-6. doi:10.1055/s-1999-13990. PMID ...
*  Ophiocordyceps sinensis
Fungal sclerotia are multihyphal structures that can remain dormant and then germinate to produce spores. After over-wintering ... Zhang Y.; Zhang S.; Wang M.; Bai F.; Liu X. (2010). "High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring ... In late autumn, chemicals on the skin of the caterpillar interact with the fungal spores and release the fungal mycelia, which ... O. sinensis consists of two parts, a fungal endosclerotium (within the caterpillar) and stroma. The stroma is the upper fungal ...
*  Soil respiration
... carbon that was initially in plant organic compounds and was incorporated into bacterial and fungal structures will now be ... The respiration of plant structures releases not only CO2 but also other nutrients in those structures, such as nitrogen. Soil ... When the carbon in these structures is respired, the CO2 will show a similar ratio of the two isotopes. Researchers will grow a ... Open systems are also not as sensitive to soil structure variation, or to boundary layer resistance issues at the soil surface ...
*  Evolution of fungi
Liu YJ, Hodson MC, Hall BD (2006). "Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of ... Factors that likely contribute to the under-representation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal ... and easily degradable tissues and the microscopic dimensions of most fungal structures, which therefore are not readily evident ... Fungal fossils do not become common and uncontroversial until the early Devonian (416-359.2 Ma), when they are abundant in the ...
*  Fungus
The major fungal groupings have initially been delineated based on the morphology of their sexual structures and spores; for ... Liu YJ, Hodson MC, Hall BD (2006). "Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of ... Bowman SM, Free SJ (August 2006). "The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall". BioEssays. 28 (8): 799-808. doi: ... Factors that likely contribute to the under-representation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal ...
*  Pestalotia rhododendri
Infected bark may be covered in fungal fruiting structures giving the tissue a black sooty appearance. Leaf spots tend to be ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Important diseases: Pestalotiopsis tip blight of conifers, Gray leaf spot Pestalotia is ... disc or cushion-shaped acervuli are formed under the plant epidermis which then splits open revealing the fruiting structures. ...
*  Quaternary extinction event
They have asserted that the carbon spherules originated as fungal structures and/or insect fecal pellets, and that the claimed ... "Effects of Pleistocene environmental changes on the distribution and community structure of the mammalian fauna of Mexico (PDF ... Vereshchagin, N. K.; Baryshnikov, G. F. (1991-01-01). "The ecological structure of the "Mammoth Fauna" in Eurasia". Annales ...
*  Ectomycorrhiza
The fungal structure is composed primarily of three parts: 1) the intraradical hyphae making up the Hartig net, 2) the mantle ... These structures vary widely in their morphology, although certain aspects are relatively conserved among species. The fungal ... 1998). "Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pines growing in two environmental extremes" (PDF). Ecology. 79 (5 ... 2010). "Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure ...
*  Tree topping
Evidence of decay may be the presence of conks (fungal fruiting structures) on the outer tree bark. The loss of leaves reduces ...
*  Younger Dryas impact hypothesis
Scientists have asserted that the carbon spherules originated as fungal structures and/or insect fecal pellets, and contained ... An analysis of a similar Younger Dryas boundary layer in Belgium yielded carbon crystalline structures such as nanodiamonds, ...
*  Penicillium erythromellis
List of Penicillium species MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium erythromellis ATCC José Ruiz-Herrera (1991). Fungal Cell Wall: ... Structure, Synthesis, and Assembly. CRC Press. ISBN 0849366720. ...
*  Podosphaera macularis
... overwinters on the soil surface in debris as fungal survival structures (chasmothecia) or as mycelia in ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Darby, P (1998). "The symptoms and biology of hop powdery mildew". Hop Powdery Mildew ... When favorable conditions are encountered during early spring, the asci (sac-like structures) within chasmothecia will rupture ... The characteristic morphology of chasmothecia of Hop Powdery Mildew are spherical black structures with spiked appendages. ...
*  Colletotrichum kahawae
... except for the fungal fruiting structures). Under humid conditions, the fruiting structures on the lesions may produce pink ... This structure will then function to penetrate the plant cell cuticle directly via turgor pressure. C. kahawae is a ... Colletotrichum kahawae is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) on C. arabica crops. The pathogen is ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Plant Wise Waller, JM; Bridge, PD; Black, R; Hazika, G (1993). "Characterization of the ...
*  Plant disease epidemiology
ISBN 978-0-89054-354-2. Drenth, A (2004). "Fungal epidemics - does spatial structure matter?". New Phytologist. Blackwells. 163 ... especially for fungal foliar pathogens. Using this framework we can now model and determine thresholds for epidemics that take ...
*  Penicillium megasporum
José Ruiz-Herrera (2012). Fungal Cell Wall: Structure, Synthesis, and Assembly, Second Edition (2 ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 1-4398- ... ISBN 0-12-005939-8. G. C. Ainsworth, Alfred S. Sussman (2013). The Fungal Population: An Advanced Treatise, Band 3. Elsevier. ... Sassen, M. M. A.; Remsen, C.; Hess, W. M. (1967). "Fine structure of Penicillium megasporum conidiospores". Protoplasma. 64: 75 ... ISBN 0-8247-7527-9. Harbhajan Singh (2006). Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-470-05058-6. ...