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*  Flagellin
The N- and C-termini of flagellin form the inner core of the flagellin protein, and is responsible for flagellin's ability to ... Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis thaliana functions via the receptor-like-kinase FLS2 (flagellin-sensitive-2)). Upon flg22 ... The propensity of the immune response to flagellin may be explained by two facts: Flagellin is an extremely abundant protein in ... Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum. It has ...
*  Escherichia coli
... flagellin; K antigen: capsule), e.g. O157:H7). It is, however, common to cite only the serogroup, i.e. the O-antigen. At ...
*  Entolimod
Lu, J.; Sun, P. D. (2012). "The Structure of the TLR5-Flagellin Complex: A New Mode of Pathogen Detection, Conserved Receptor ... Mueller, K. L. (2012). "Flagellin Takes Its Toll". Science Signaling. 5 (212): ec62. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2002965. Burdelya, ... "Activation of Toll-like Receptor 5 on Breast Cancer Cells by Flagellin Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth". Cancer ... "Structural Basis of TLR5-Flagellin Recognition and Signaling". Science. 335 (6070): 859-64. doi:10.1126/science.1215584. PMC ...
*  Toll-like receptor
Flagellin, a TLR5 ligand induces cytokine secretion on interacting with TLR5 on human T cells. TLRs are a type of pattern ... TLR11 in mouse intestine recognizes the flagellun protein flagellin, causing dimerization of the receptor, activation of NF-κB ... Other molecules (bacterial lipopeptides, flagellin, and unmethylated DNA) were shown in turn to provoke host responses that are ... 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis". ...
*  Arabidopsis thaliana
The best-characterized PRR in A. thaliana is FLS2 (Flagellin-Sensing2), which recognizes bacterial flagellin, a specialized ... PMC 3244959 . Gomez-Gomez, L; Felix G; Boller T (18 May 1999). "A single locus determines sensitivity to bacterial flagellin in ... They contain two receptors, FLS2 (bacterial flagellin receptor) and EF-Tu (bacterial EF-Tu protein), which use signal ... Zipfel, C.; Robatzek, S.; Navarro, L. (2004). "Bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis through flagellin perception". ...
*  Jonathan D. G. Jones
"Bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis through flagellin perception". Nature. 428 (6984): 764-767. doi:10.1038/nature02485 ...
*  Immune network theory
The effects of ultra-low doses of flagellin". Immunology. 14 (2): 273-284. PMC 1409291 . PMID 5640947. H. N. Claman; E. A. ...
*  FLS2
Even so, further studies have shown a second FLS gene known as FLS2 that is also associated with flagellin reception. FLS2 and ... It is in this region, which is the amino-terminus, where it is said to have direct interaction with flagellin initiating the ... FLS genes have been discovered to be involved in flagellin reception of bacteria. FLS1 was the original gene discovered shown ... With that in mind, it is important that all gram positive and gram negative bacteria share flagellin. With plants being ...
*  Flagellum
The bacterial flagellum is made up of the protein flagellin. Its shape is a 20-nanometer-thick hollow tube. It is helical and ... Bacterial flagella grow by the addition of flagellin subunits at the tip; archaeal flagella grow by the addition of subunits to ... Similar to bacterial type IV pilins, the archaeal flagellins (archaellins) are made with class 3 signal peptides and they are ... In vitro, flagellar filaments assemble spontaneously in a solution containing purified flagellin as the sole protein. At least ...
*  EFR (EF-Tu receptor)
Like EFR, FLS2 (flagellin-sensing 2) is a plant receptor-like kinase that acts as a PRR in the plant innate immune system. ... EF-Tu FLS2 Flagellin Arabidopsis thaliana "PDB-101: Elongation Factors". pdb101.rcsb.org. Retrieved 2017-10-09. Zipfel, Cyril; ... Instead of binding to EF-Tu, it binds to flagellin, another highly conserved structure present on many pathogens. It, like EF- ... an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis". Molecular Cell. 5 ( ...
*  NOD-like receptor
IPAF senses flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes. Mahla, Ranjeet (2013). " ...
*  Melioidosis
Chen YS, Chen SC, Wu TR, Kao CM, Chen YL (October 2004). "Seroprevalence of anti-flagellin antibody against Burkholderia ...
*  Pathogenic Escherichia coli
Wang L; Rothemund D; Reeves PR (May 2003). "Species-Wide Variation in the Escherichia coli Flagellin (H-Antigen) Gene". Journal ... flagellin For example, E. coli strain EDL933 is of the O157:H7 group. The outer membrane of an E. coli cell contains millions ...
*  Afanasevo culture
This strain's genes express flagellin, which triggers the human immune response; so it was not a bubonic plague. Because of its ...
*  Roseburia intestinalis
"Anti-flagellin antibodies inhibit motility in Roseburia intestinalis and Clostridium ramosum." (2013). Mirande, C.; Kadlecikova ...
*  Andronovo culture
This strain's genes express flagellin, which triggers the human immune response. However, by contrast with other prehistoric ... Yersinia pestis bacteria, the strain does so weakly; later, historic plague does not express flagellin at all, accounting for ...
*  TLR5
There are highly conserved regions in the flagellin protein among all bacteria, facilitating the recognition of flagellin by a ... TLR5 recognizes flagellin, which is the protein monomer that makes up the filament of bacterial flagella, found on nearly all ... Song EJ, Kang MJ, Kim YS, Kim SM, Lee SE, Kim CH, Kim DJ, Park JH (Jul 2011). "Flagellin promotes the proliferation of gastric ... Flagellin, which is a TLR5-activating ligand, is present in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Activation ...
*  Pyroptosis
The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of salmonella and ... NLRC4 can specifically recognise flagellin and then trigger caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis. NOD's recognise molecular pattern ...
*  Inflammasome
"Cytosolic flagellin requires Ipaf for activation of caspase-1 and interleukin 1beta in salmonella-infected macrophages". Nat ... "Regulation of Legionella phagosome maturation and infection through flagellin and host Ipaf". J Biol Chem. 281 (12): 35217- ... by these bacteria is unclear but is thought to require a type 3 or type 4 secretion system provided by bacterial flagellin, ...
*  Pattern recognition receptor
Studies have been conducted on TLR11 as well, and it has been shown that it recognizes flagellin and profilin-like proteins in ... Since that time two other plants PRRs, Arabidopsis FLS2 (flagellin) and EFR (elongation factor Tu receptor)have been isolated. ... Interacts with Flagellin and Profilin through Disparate Mechanisms". PLOS ONE. 11 (2): e0148987. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... flagellin, microtubule elongation factors), peptidoglycans and lipoteichoic acids (from Gram-positive bacteria), N- ...
*  BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1
Plants carrying bak1 mutations show normal flagellin binding but abnormal early and late flagellin-triggered responses, ... Chinchilla D, Zipfel C, Robatzek S, Kemmerling B, Nürnberger T, Jones JD, Felix G, Boller T (July 2007). "A flagellin-induced ... within the first minutes of stimulation with flagellin. Thus, BAK1 is not only associated with developmental regulation through ...
*  UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4,6-dehydratase (configuration-inverting)
... genetic and functional characterization of the flagellin glycosylation process in Helicobacter pylori". Mol. Microbiol. 48: ...
*  Phase variation
Once an adaptive response has been mounted against one type of flagellin, or if a previous encounter has left the adaptive ... Salmonella use this technique to switch between different types of the protein flagellin. As a result, flagella with different ... or more complicated by involving multiple genes in the expression of multiple types of flagellin by S. typhimurium. Fimbrial ... immune system ready to deal with one type of flagellin, switching types renders previously high affinity antibodies, TCRs, and ...
*  Leucine-rich repeat receptor like protein kinase PEPR1
They sense PAMPs such as chitin from fungal cell wall, flagellin elongation factors etc. In addition to PAMPs, PRRs also ...
*  Integrin-linked kinase
Potassium levels modulate the activation of flg22, a flagellin peptide composed of 22 amino acids that triggers pathogen- ... "The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FLS2 binds flg22 and determines the specificity of flagellin perception". The Plant Cell. 18 (2 ...