A pancreatic fistula is an abnormal communication between the pancreas and other organs due to leakage of pancreatic secretions from damaged pancreatic ducts. An external pancreatic fistula is one that communicates with the skin, and is also known as a pancreaticocutaneous fistula, whereas an internal pancreatic fistula communicates with other internal organs or spaces. Pancreatic fistulas can be caused by pancreatic disease, trauma, or surgery. An external pancreatic fistula is an abnormal communication between the pancreas (actually pancreatic duct) and the exterior of the body via the abdominal wall. Loss of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic fluid via a pancreatic fistula can result in a hyperchloraemic or normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Loss of a small volume of fluid will not cause a problem but an acidosis is common if the volume of pancreatic fluid lost from the body is large. First ...
Treatment for fistula varies depending on the cause and extent of the fistula, but often involves surgical intervention combined with antibiotic therapy. Typically the first step in treating a fistula is an examination by a doctor to determine the extent and "path" that the fistula takes through the tissue. In some cases the fistula is temporarily covered, for example a fistula caused by cleft palate is often treated with a palatal obturator to delay the need for surgery to a more appropriate age. Surgery is often required to assure adequate drainage of the fistula (so that pus may escape without forming an abscess). Various surgical procedures are commonly used, most commonly fistulotomy, placement of a seton (a cord that is passed through the path of the fistula to keep it open for draining), or an endorectal flap procedure (where healthy tissue is pulled over the internal ...
... is an abnormal dilatation of part of the coronary artery. Acquired causes include atherosclerosis, Kawasaki disease and coronary catheterization. It can also be congenital. It is often found coincidentally on coronary angiography. Generally, it has a good prognosis. In Kawasaki's disease, untreated, there is a 1-2% death rate, from cardiac causes. Nichols L, Lagana S, Parwani A (May 2008). "Coronary artery aneurysm: a review and hypothesis regarding etiology". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 132 (5): 823-8. doi:10.1043/1543-2165(2008)132[823:CAAARA]2.0.CO;2. PMID 18466032. Fukazawa R, Ikegam E, Watanabe M, et al. (May 2007). "Coronary artery aneurysm induced by Kawasaki disease in children show features typical senescence". Circ. J. 71 (5): 709-15. doi:10.1253/circj.71.709. PMID 17456996. Archived from the original (- Scholar search) on 2012-12-19. Seabra-Gomes R, Somerville J, Ross DN, Emanuel R, Parker DJ, Wong M (April 1974). "Congenital coronary artery aneurysms". Br Heart ...
... relates the external opening (in the perianal skin) of an anal fistula to its internal opening (in the anal canal). It states that if the perianal skin opening is posterior to the transverse anal line, the fistulous tract will open into the anal canal in the midline posteriorly, sometimes taking a curvilinear course. A perianal skin opening anterior to the transverse anal line is usually associated with a radial fistulous tract. Or in more direct terms, it means that anterior-opening fistulas tend to follow a simple, direct course while posterior-opening fistulas may follow a devious, curving path with some even being horseshoe-shaped before opening in the posterior midline. Fistulas can be described as anterior or posterior relating to a line drawn in the coronal plane across the anus, the so-called transverse anal line. Anterior fistulas will have a direct track into the anal canal. Posterior fistulas ...
A labyrinthine fistula is an abnormal opening in the inner ear. This can result in leakage of the perilymph into the middle ear.[1] This includes specifically a perilymph fistula (PLF), an abnormal connection between the fluid of the inner ear and the air-filled middle ear. This is caused by a rupture of the round window or oval window ligaments separating the inner and middle ear.[1] Another type of labyrinthine fistula is a semicircular canal dehiscence, which allows the inner ear to be influenced by the intracranial pressure directly. ...
A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) results from an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems within the cavernous sinus in the skull. It is a type of arteriovenous fistula. As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded and this causes engorgement of the draining veins, manifesting most dramatically as a sudden engorgement and redness of the eye of the same side. Carotid cavernous fistulae may form following closed or penetrating head trauma, surgical damage, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm, or in association with connective tissue disorders, vascular diseases and dural fistulas. Various classifications have been proposed for CCF. They may be divided into low-flow or high-flow, traumatic or spontaneous and direct or indirect. The traumatic CCF typically occurs after a basal skull fracture. The spontaneous dural cavernous ...
A pulmonary laceration is a chest injury in which lung tissue is torn or cut. An injury that is potentially more serious than pulmonary contusion, pulmonary laceration involves disruption of the architecture of the lung, while pulmonary contusion does not. Pulmonary laceration is commonly caused by penetrating trauma but may also result from forces involved in blunt trauma such as shear stress. A cavity filled with blood, air, or both can form. The injury is diagnosed when collections of air or fluid are found on a CT scan of the chest. Surgery may be required to stitch the laceration, to drain blood, or even to remove injured parts of the lung. The injury commonly heals quickly with few problems if it is given proper treatment; however it may be associated with scarring of the lung or other complications. Complications are not common but include infection, pulmonary abscess, and bronchopleural fistula (a fistula between the pleural space and the bronchial tree). A ...
... is a carbohydrate-free (desialated) isoform of transferrin, which is almost exclusively found in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is not found in blood, mucus or tears, thus making it a specific marker of cerebrospinal fluid, applied as an assay in cases where cerebrospinal fluid leakage is suspected. Beta-2 transferrin would also be positive in patients with perilymph fluid leaks, as it is also present in inner ear perilymph. Thus, beta-2 transferrin in otorrhea would be suggestive of either a CSF leak or a perilymph leak. Chan D, Poon W, IP C, Chiu P, Goh K (2004). "How useful is glucose detection in diagnosing cerebrospinal fluid leak? The rational use of CT and Beta-2 transferrin assay in detection of cerebrospinal fluid fistula". Asian Journal of Surgery. 27 (1): 39-42. doi:10.1016/S1015-9584(09)60242-6. PMID 14719513. Skedros DG, Cass SP, Hirsch BE, Kelly RH (Oct 1993). "Beta-2 transferrin assay in clinical management of cerebral spinal fluid and perilymphatic fluid leaks". J ...
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), is an abnormal direct connection (fistula) between a meningeal artery and a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. In cases where there are multiple fistulas, the related term dural arteriovenous malformation (DAVF) is used. The most common signs/symptoms of DAVFs are: Pulsatile tinnitus Occipital bruit Headache Visual impairment Papilledema Pulsatile tinnitus is the most common symptom in patients, and it is associated with transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVFs. Carotid-cavernous DAVFs, on the other hand, are more closely associated with pulsatile exophthalmos. DAVFs may also be asymptomatic (e.g. cavernous sinus DAVFs). Most commonly found adjacent to dural sinuses in the following locations: Transverse (lateral) sinus, left-sided slightly more common than right Intratentorial From the posterior cavernous sinus, usually draining to the transverse or sigmoid sinuses Vertebral artery (posterior meningeal branch) It is still ...
A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) results from an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems within the cavernous sinus in the skull. It is a type of arteriovenous fistula. As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded and this causes engorgement of the draining veins, manifesting most dramatically as a sudden engorgement and redness of the eye of the same side. Carotid cavernous fistulae may form following closed or penetrating head trauma, surgical damage, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm, or in association with connective tissue disorders, vascular diseases and dural fistulas. Various classifications have been proposed for CCF. They may be divided into low-flow or high-flow, traumatic or spontaneous and direct or indirect. The traumatic CCF typically occurs after a basal skull fracture. The spontaneous dural cavernous ...
Treatment for fistula varies depending on the cause and extent of the fistula, but often involves surgical intervention combined with antibiotic therapy. Typically the first step in treating a fistula is an examination by a doctor to determine the extent and "path" that the fistula takes through the tissue. In some cases the fistula is temporarily covered, for example a fistula caused by cleft palate is often treated with a palatal obturator to delay the need for surgery to a more appropriate age. Surgery is often required to assure adequate drainage of the fistula (so that pus may escape without forming an abscess). Various surgical procedures are commonly used, most commonly fistulotomy, placement of a seton (a cord that is passed through the path of the fistula to keep it open for draining), or an endorectal flap procedure (where healthy tissue is pulled over the internal ...
Sands BE, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN, Chey WY, Feagan BG, Fedorak RN, Kamm MA, Korzenik JR, Lashner BA, Onken JE, Rachmilewitz D, Rutgeerts P, Wild G, Wolf DC, Marsters PA, Travers SB, Blank MA, vanDeventer SJ: Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Feb 26;350(9):876-85. PMID 14985485 ...
... can refer to: Bouveret-Hoffmann syndrome, or paroxysmal tachycardia Bouveret's syndrome, or gastric outlet obstruction due to a ...