*  Complications of pregnancy
Ethanol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Tobacco smoking and pregnancy, ... Because of this, blood-borne microorganisms (Hepatitis B, HIV), organisms associated with sexually transmitted disease (e.g., ... During birth, babies are exposed to maternal blood and body fluids without the placental barrier intervening and to the ... High-risk pregnancies are the main focus of doctors specialising in maternal-fetal medicine. Serious pre-existing disorders ...
*  Umbilical artery
Fetal and maternal blood circulation systems From Online course in embryology for medicine students. Universities of Fribourg, ... The umbilical arteries are one of two arteries in the human body, that carry deoxygenated blood, the other being the pulmonary ... The umbilical arteries surround the urinary bladder and then carry all the deoxygenated blood out of the fetus through the ... Single umbilical artery Gordon, Z.; Elad, D.; Almog, R.; Hazan, Y.; Jaffa, A. J.; Eytan, O. (2007). "Anthropometry of fetal ...
*  Fetal scalp blood testing
... is a technique used in obstetrics during labor to confirm whether fetal oxygenation is sufficient. ... Analysis of lactate only requires 5 μl of blood. Fetal scalp stimulation test "Fetal scalp pH testing: MedlinePlus Medical ... "Determination of pH or lactate in fetal scalp blood in management of intrapartum fetal distress: Randomised controlled ... The procedure can be performed by creating a shallow cut by a transvaginally inserted blood lancet, followed by applying a thin ...
*  Sonicaid
Fielder, F.D.; Pocock, Pamela (1968). "Foetal blood flow detector". Ultrasonics. 6 (4): 240-241. doi:10.1016/0041-624X(68)90134 ... depicts Sonicaid Fetal Monitor FM2) Fetal Monitor FM3R, Science and Society image 10545304 FDA application K771379 "Foetal ... Sonicaid Ltd was a medical electronics company headquartered in West Sussex best known for its range of Doppler fetal monitors ... The word "Sonicaid" is in generic use for Doppler fetal monitors. Sonicaid is now a registered trademark of Huntleigh ...
*  Vasotocin
ISBN 3-540-58961-9. Ervin MG, Leake RD, Ross MG, Calvario GC, Fisher DA (May 1985). "Arginine vasotocin in ovine fetal blood, ... and possibly in mammals during the fetal stage of development. Arginine vasotocin (AVT), a hormone produced by neurosecretory ...
*  Patent ductus arteriosus
The ductus arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that closes soon after birth. In a PDA, the vessel does not close and remains " ... In most newborns with a patent ductus arteriosus, the blood flow is reversed from that of in utero flow; i.e., the blood flow ... and the appearance of blood flow to the lungs. A small PDA most often accompanies a normal-sized heart and normal blood flow to ... as it is the only way that oxygenated blood can mix with deoxygenated blood. In these cases, prostaglandins are used to keep ...
*  Fetuin
... is more abundant in fetal blood, hence the name "fetuin" (from Latin, fetus). Fetal bovine serum contains more fetuin ... Fetuins are blood proteins that are made in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. They belong to a large group of ... The best known representative of these carrier proteins is serum albumin, the most abundant protein in the blood plasma of ...
*  Chorionic villi
Thus, villi are part of the border between maternal and fetal blood during pregnancy. Villi can also be classified by their ... The bulk of the villi consist of connective tissues that contain blood vessels. Most of the cells in the connective tissue core ... Chorionic villi are villi that sprout from the chorion to provide maximum contact area with maternal blood. They are an ... Branches of the umbilical arteries carry embryonic blood to the villi. After circulating through the capillaries of the villi, ...
*  Fetal-maternal haemorrhage
... is the loss of fetal blood cells into the maternal circulation. It takes place in normal pregnancies ... from the red blood cells. Subsequent staining, using Shepard's method, makes fetal cells (containing foetal hemoglobin) appear ... Foetal-maternal haemorrhage is one cause of intrauterine death (IUD). The Kleihauer-Betke test is a blood test used to measure ... It is estimated that less than 1 mL of foetal blood is lost to the maternal circulation during normal labour in around 96% of ...
*  Argininemia
The diagnosis for argininemia can usually be done using fetal blood sample. One can look for the following indicators as to the ... consequently, urea cannot be produced and excess nitrogen accumulates in the blood in the form of ammonia. Ammonia and arginine ... Urinary orotic acid concentration Red blood cell arginase enzyme activity(measurement) The treatment for infants (individuals) ... recessive urea cycle disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme arginase causes a buildup of arginine and ammonia in the blood. ...
*  Blood lead level
... maternal and fetal blood lead levels are virtually identical. Once in the fetal circulation, lead readily enters the developing ... Measuring a person's blood lead level requires a blood sample, which may be performed with a fingerstick or a blood draw. The ... Blood lead level (BLL), is a measure of the amount of lead in the blood. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and can cause neurological ... "since no safe blood lead level in children has been identified, a blood lead 'level of concern' cannot be used to define ...
*  J. Morris Slemons
Slemons, J. Morris and L. Jean Bogert (1917) Uric Acid Content of Maternal and Fetal Blood. Journal of Biological Chemistry, ... Their purpose was to provide education on prenatal hygiene and fetal nutrition in an effort to increase the birth rate, which ... In addition, he published a number of research papers on the biochemistry of the fetal circulatory system and the placenta (see ...
*  3beta(or 20alpha)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
20 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase from fetal blood". Biochemistry. 21 (19): 4615-20. doi:10.1021/bi00262a016. PMID 6958329 ...
*  Hemoglobin
As a result, fetal blood in the placenta is able to take oxygen from maternal blood. Hemoglobin also carries nitric oxide (NO) ... Because the reaction is slow, the Hb A1c proportion represents glucose level in blood averaged over the half-life of red blood ... It measures the degree of glycation (glucose binding) to albumin, the most common blood protein, and reflects average blood ... Hemoglobin concentration measurement is among the most commonly performed blood tests, usually as part of a complete blood ...
*  Alloimmunity
In many instances the maternal immune system attacks the fetal blood cells, resulting in fetal anemia. HDN ranges from mild to ... Endothelium of the blood vessels is being damaged, therefore the graft is not sufficiently supplied with blood and is replaced ... A failure of cross-matching can allow donor blood of an incompatible blood group to be transfused, resulting in a transfusion ... Recipient's blood already contains circulating antibodies before the transplantation - either IgM or antibodies incurred by ...
*  Atrium (heart)
... which is essential for fetal blood circulation. At birth, when the first breath is taken fetal blood flow is reversed to travel ... Within the fetal right atrium, blood from the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava flow in separate streams to ... The atria receive blood, and when the heart muscle contracts, pump blood to the ventricles. All animals with a closed ... During atrial systole, blood not only empties from the atria to the ventricles, but blood continues to flow uninterrupted from ...
*  Prenatal methamphetamine exposure
MA has vasoconstrictive effects, resulting in decreased uteroplacental blood flow, elevated fetal blood pressure, and fetal ... MA may exert its effects on the fetus directly by transfer through the placenta or indirectly by altering the fetal environment ...
*  Placentation
Mammalian placentas can be classified based on the number of tissues separating the maternal from the fetal blood. These ... In hemochorial placentation maternal blood comes in direct contact with the fetal chorion, which it does not in the other two ... In mammals, maternal-fetal communication occurs via the production of a range of signalling molecules and their receptors in ... It occurs after the implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall and involves the remodeling of blood vessels in order to ...
*  Chloroprocaine
The in vitro half-life of chloroprocaine is 21 seconds for maternal and 43 seconds for fetal blood. In patients who are ... Fetal pH is slightly lower than maternal (7.32 to 7.38), thus most unionized drugs are "ion trapped" to a degree, even in a ... Fetal acidosis, 2-chloroprocaine, and epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Feb 1;151(3):322-4. ... Since the metabolism of 2-chloroprocaine by fetal plasma is slower than in maternal plasma, the potential for ion trapping ...
*  Prenatal development
The total blood volume is about 125 ml/kg fetal body weight near term. Fetus produces megaloblastic red blood cells early in ... Plasma cells are derived from B lymphocytes and their life in fetal blood is 0.5 to 2 days. Thyroid gland is the first to ... The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both ... Nicotine results in less blood flow to the fetus because it constricts the blood vessels. Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen ...
*  Placenta
... bringing the fetal blood extremely close to the maternal blood; but no intermingling of fetal and maternal blood occurs (" ... Maternal blood flow is approximately 600-700 ml/min at term. Deoxygenated fetal blood passes through umbilical arteries to the ... In humans and other hemochorial placentals, the maternal blood comes into direct contact with the fetal chorion, though no ... There is relatively high pressure as the maternal blood fills intervillous space through these spiral arteries bathes the fetal ...
*  Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling
Finally, a white blood cell count can detect maternal blood in the sample, as fetal white blood cells are primarily leukocytes ... a fetal blood confirmation test should be done to ensure no mixing of fetal and maternal blood occurred before the diagnostic ... fetal blood sampling, or umbilical vein sampling is a diagnostic genetic test that examines blood from the fetal umbilical cord ... Severe fetal growth issues in conjunction with low oxygen in the fetus' blood and high levels in the mother's blood also ...
*  Gestational hypertension
The hemochorial placenta bathes the fetal trophoblast in maternal blood by forming lacunae, or lakes, of the mother's blood ... A hemochorial placenta optimizes the amount of oxygen and nutrients that can be absorbed into the fetal blood supply, while at ... It has been proposed that fetal genes designed to increase the mother's blood pressure are so beneficial that they outweigh the ... The high vascular resistance outside of the placenta leads to higher maternal blood pressure throughout the body. The fetal ...
*  Placental cotyledon
The cotyledons are surrounded by maternal blood, which can exchange oxygen and nutrients with the fetal blood in the ... The cotyledons receive fetal blood from chorionic vessels, which branch off cotyledon vessels into the cotyledons, which, in ... ISBN 0-7637-1856-4. [1] Gordon, Z.; Elad, D.; Almog, R.; Hazan, Y.; Jaffa, A. J.; Eytan, O. (2007). "Anthropometry of fetal ...
*  Obstetrical bleeding
There are also tests to differentiate maternal blood from fetal blood which can help in determining the source of the bleed. ... but may occur with two conditions called vasa previa and velamentous umbilical cord insertion where the fetal blood vessels lie ... Complete blood count (CBC) and blood type and screen Ultrasound to determine placental location Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test ... Abnormal bleeding after delivery, or postpartum hemorrhage, is the loss of greater than 500 ml of blood following vaginal ...
*  Ariosa v. Sequenom
... but had traveled from the fetal blood into the maternal blood through the placenta. The paternal DNA in the mother's plasma had ... 6,258,540, which claims methods of using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma (cell-free blood) to ... Then, they could reliably identify fetal DNA, which would in turn allow them to diagnose certain fetal genetic conditions such ... point of the invention is that the inventors discovered in 1996 that fetal DNA might be floating around in the mother's blood ( ...
*  Genetically modified maize
A 2011 Canadian study looked at the presence of CryAb1 protein (BT toxin) in non-pregnant women, pregnant women and fetal blood ... However, the CDC studied the blood of these 28 individuals and concluded there was no evidence of hypersensitivity to the ... "FSANZ response to study linking Cry1Ab protein in blood to GM foods - Food Standards Australia New Zealand". foodstandards.gov. ... Aris A, Leblanc S (May 2011). "Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern ...