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*  Global biodiversity
D.M. (1986). "Biological extinction in earth history". Science. 231 (4745): 1528-1533. doi:10.1126/science.11542058. PMID ... The background extinction rate varies among taxa but it is estimated that there is approximately one extinction per million ... After the Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992, biological conservation became a priority for the ... This, considered by some to be leading to the sixth mass extinction, is a result of human impacts on the environment. Habitat ...
*  2018 in mammal paleontology
Daniel DeMiguel; Lorenzo Rook (2018). "Understanding climate's influence on the extinction of Oreopithecus (late Miocene, Tusco ... Biological Sciences. 285 (1870): 20172012. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.2012. Lauren C. White; Frédérik Saltré; Corey J. A. Bradshaw; ... A study on the distance of seed dispersal by extant and extinct mammalian frugivores and on the impact of the extinction of ... "Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions and the functional loss of long-distance seed-dispersal services". Ecography. 41 (1): 153- ...
*  Genetic monitoring
Website of the Convention on Biological Diversity Schwartz, M.K., et al. (2007) Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for ... Protected Trout is breeding itself into Extinction Adapting to a warmer climate: the purple pitcher plant mosquito. ... abundance of cryptic or elusive species that are difficult to monitor can be estimated by collecting non-invasive biological ... gene diversity is also recognized as an important biodiversity metric for implementation of the Convention on Biological ...
*  Jama-Coaque Ecological Reserve
Dodson, C.H.; Gentry, A.H. (1991). "Biological Extinction in Western Ecuador". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 78: 273 ...
*  Biotechnology risk
Global catastrophic risk Human extinction Biological warfare "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios". ... such as genetically engineered biological agents. These can come either intentionally (in the form of bioterrorism/biological ... Such mutations have also been used in the development of biological weapons, and dual-use risk continues to be a concern in the ... Kloblentz, GD (2012). "From biodefence to biosecurity: the Obama administration's strategy for countering biological threats". ...
*  Galactic habitable zone
Collar, J. I. (1996). "Clumpy Cold Dark Matter and biological extinctions". Physics Letters B. 368 (4): 266-269. arXiv:astro-ph ...
*  Geomagnetic reversal
Plotnick, Roy E. (1 January 1980). "Relationship between biological extinctions and geomagnetic reversals". Geology. 8 (12): ... and that the subsequent airborne ash caused extinctions. Tests of correlations between extinctions and reversals are difficult ... It can appear that the extinction occurs at the end of a polarity interval when the rest of that polarity interval was simply ... These rocks can preserve a record of the field if it is not later erased by chemical, physical or biological change. Because ...
*  Evolution
Raup, David M. (March 28, 1986). "Biological extinction in Earth history". Science. Washington, D.C.: American Association for ... of all marine species driven to extinction. The Holocene extinction event is an ongoing mass extinction associated with ... although the rate of extinction spikes in occasional mass extinction events. The Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, during ... The role of extinction in evolution is not very well understood and may depend on which type of extinction is considered. The ...
*  Paradrymonia lacera
"The family Gesneriaceae as example for the Biological extinction in Western Ecuador.." Lyonia 6(2004): 127-151.. ...
*  Lake Kivu
Around the lake, geologists found evidence of massive biological extinctions about every thousand years, presumably caused by ...
*  Wolf reintroduction
... as American wolves were never in danger of biological extinction since wolves still persisted in Canada. Opponents have also ... Between 1982 and 1998 a comprehensive captive breeding program brought Mexican wolves back from the brink of extinction. Over ...
*  Mulde event
... likely represent a change in the depositional environment of sedimentary sequences rather than a genuine biological extinction ... The Mulde event was an anoxic event, and marked the second of three1 relatively minor mass extinctions (the Ireviken, Mulde, ... Perceived extinction in the conodont fauna, however, ...
*  James Kirchner
"Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record". Nature. 404 (6774): 177-180. doi:10.1038/35004564. ... A study by Kirchner and Anne Weil showed that the time taken for life on earth to recover from extinction episodes such as that ... "Study Jolts Views on Recovery From Extinctions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-12. Homepage; accessed 19 January 2007. ...
*  Timeline of the far future
Kirchner, James W.; Weil, Anne (9 March 2000). "Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record". ... Nelson, Stephen A. "Meteorites, Impacts, and Mass Extinction". Tulane University. Retrieved 13 January 2011. Lang, Kenneth R. ( ... Carter, Brandon; McCrea, W. H. (1983). "The anthropic principle and its implications for biological evolution". Philosophical ... Bostrom, Nick (March 2002). "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards". Journal of Evolution ...
*  Third-party punishment
Current evolutionary models state that human altruism evolved through the selective (cultural or biological) extinction of ... Biological Sciences. 275 (1634): 587-590. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1517. PMC 2596817 . PMID 18089534. Marlowe, Frank W. (2009). " ... Biological Sciences. 281 (1794): 20141539. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.1539. PMC 4211448 . PMID 25253457. Bornstein, Gary (2003). " ...
*  Ecuadorian dry forests
... has one of greatest risks in the world of biological extinction due to human activities such as deforestation. The main threats ... 22 species are thought to be globally at risk of extinction. Species found in the transitional forest on the Pacific slope of ... They are home to many endemic species at risk of extinction. The Ecuadorian dry forests have an area of 2,123,790 hectares ( ... Most vertebrates in the ecoregion, many of which are endemic, face great risks of extinction. Conservation units protecting ...
*  Kliti Grice
Her research has shown that some major biological extinction events can be traced to factors intrinsic to the Earth's systems, ... flora and fauna retained in rocks to reconstruct the environments of modern to ancient past extinction events including those ... is an organic and isotope geochemist known for her work in identifying geological and environmental causes for mass extinction ...
*  Environmental issues in Georgia
This could result in loss in biological species, extinction, and negative impacts on human health. In Georgia, similar to the ... An example is the extinction of the Goitered gazelle and the southern populace of wild goat. The panther, striped hyena, and ... The main threats for the biodiversity of Georgia are the degradation and loss of habitats and unsustainable use of biological ... and utilize segments of biological diversity on the territory of the Georgian Forest Fund sustainably and economically. Adopted ...
*  Land snail
ISBN 978-0-226-64186-7. Centre for Biological Diversity: snail extinction update "Hawaii's Extinct species -- Snails". ... Pollution and habitat destruction have caused the extinction of a considerable number of snail species in recent years. Land ... Current Topics in Biological and Medical Research. New York: Alan R. Liss. pp. 93-123. Mordan, P.B. (1978). "The life cycle of ... Biological Bulletin. 160: 123-135. Selander, R. K.; Ochman, H. (1983). "The genetic structure of populations as illustrated by ...
*  Anthropocene
Sutter, John D. (July 11, 2017). "Sixth mass extinction: The era of 'biological annihilation'". CNN. Retrieved July 14, 2017. ... "The sixth extinction." Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London (1995). Alan Boyle. "Scientists Build Case for 'Sixth Extinction' ... ... "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines". PNAS. 114 ... The Sixth Mass Extinction, and How to stop the sixth mass extinction (December 2016), CNN. Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; ...
*  Resting spore
"Biological Selectivity of Extinction: A Link between Background and Mass Extinction". PALAIOS. 1 (5). doi:10.2307/3514632. ... which brought an estimated three quarters of all plant and animal life to extinction. This extinction was also characterized by ... It has even been proposed that the resting spore stage of diatoms has aided survival through mass extinction events including ... which might have allowed many spore forming diatoms to survive a mass extinction event such as the cretaceous. In conjunction ...
*  Effects of global warming
In biological systems, the extinction of species would be an irreversible impact. In social systems, unique cultures may be ... 2007) concluded that physical and biological systems on all continents and in most oceans had been affected by recent climate ... 2007) included a quantitative estimate of the number of species at increased risk of extinction due to climate change. With ... Evidence of warming is also apparent in living (biological) systems. Human activities have contributed to a number of the ...
*  Human overpopulation
Worst of all, we have driven the rate of biological extinction, the permanent loss of species, up several hundred times beyond ... "Human Population Growth and Extinction". Center for Biological Diversity. Pimm, S. L.; Jenkins, C. N.; Abell, R.; Brooks, T. M ... "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines". PNAS. 114 ... Mass species extinctions and contracting biodiversity from reduced habitat in tropical forests due to slash-and-burn techniques ...
*  Gasteranthus
Biological extinction in western Ecuador. Ann. MO Bot. Gard. 78(2): 273-295. Skog, L.E. & Kvist, L.P. (2000): Revision of ... Numerous species are threatened with extinction, mainly due to deforestation. This is due to two reasons: For one thing, ...
*  Environmental history
... extinction, biological invasions, the environmental consequences of technology especially biotechnology, the reduced supply of ... On the biological side there is, above all, ecology and historical ecology, but also forestry and especially forest history, ... "The Role of Prehistoric Man in the Faunal Extinctions of New Zealand and other Pacific Islands", in Martin, P. S. and Klein, R ... G. (eds.) Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution (Tucson, The University of Arizona Press, 1984) D'Arcy, Paul, The ...
*  Mie scattering
The extinction efficiency in this approximation is given by Q = 2 − 4 p sin ⁡ p + 4 p 2 ( 1 − cos ⁡ p ) , {\displaystyle Q=2-{\ ... The Mie solution is also important for understanding the appearance of common materials like milk, biological tissue and latex ... These solutions are in terms of infinite series and include calculation of scattering phase function, extinction, scattering, ... and biological cells and cellular components, a more exact approach is necessary. The Mie solution is named after its developer ...
*  Levuana moth
Kurmis, Armand M. "Did biological control cause extinction of the coconut moth, Levuana iridescens, in Fiji?" Biological ... "A Critical Analysis of the Extinction of Levuana iridescens in Fiji by Bessa remota". Applied Biological Control Research. ... or if biological control is a significant enough threat to exotic species survival to research its impacts on extinction. In ... This form of biological control was employed to ensure the survival of the copra crop which grew from the coconut palm that was ...