Loading...
*  Porosimetry
The pore size can be determined based on the external pressure needed to force the liquid into a pore against the opposing ... As pressure increases, so does the cumulative pore volume. From the cumulative pore volume, one can find the pressure and pore ... pore diameter Since the technique is usually performed within a vacuum, the initial gas pressure is zero. The contact angle of ... such as pore diameter, total pore volume, surface area, and bulk and absolute densities. The technique involves the intrusion ...
*  Lateral line
As current moves across the pores of a canal, a pressure differential is created over the pores. As pressure on one pore ... Located at the surface of an animal's skin, superficial organs are exposed more directly to the external environment. Though ... incorporating various shapes and sizes of microvilli within bundles. This suggests a wide range of detection, potentially ... Lateral lines are usually visible as faint lines of pores running lengthwise down each side, from the vicinity of the gill ...
*  Membrane distillation
If the external pressure rises above the so-called wetting pressure, then Θ = 90°resulting in a bypass of the pore. The driving ... Selectivity of a membrane is produced by either its pore size in relation to the size of the substance to be retained, its ... the depth of impression can depend on the external pressure load on the liquid. A dimension for the infiltration of the pores ... Even though the pores are considerably larger than the molecules, the liquid phase does not enter the pores because of the high ...
*  Passive transport
... pressure in the cell e.g. solute molecules) and pressure potential (external pressure e.g. cell wall). There are three types of ... Depending on the size of the membrane pores, only solutes of a certain size may pass through it. For example, the membrane ... On the other hand, the membrane pores of liver cells are extremely large, but not forgetting cells are extremely small to allow ... Filtration is movement of water and solute molecules across the cell membrane due to hydrostatic pressure generated by the ...
*  Membrane bioreactor
The flat sheet membranes used in this process were polymeric and featured pore sizes ranging from 0.003 to 0.01 μm. Although ... Until then, MBRs were designed with the separation device located external to the reactor (sidestream MBR) and relied on high ... Air backwashing, where pressurized air in the permeate side of the membrane build up and release a significant pressure within ... It has a substantial effect on the energy usage and size requirements of an MBR, therefore the whole life cost of an MBR is ...
*  Surface Chemistry of Microvasculature
The reflection coefficient acts as a correction factor and is determined by the difference in particle size and pore ratio. It ... Fluid mechanics are primarily affected by pressure, temperature, heat transfer, and electrokinetics. An increase in pressure ... The smooth muscle cells are able to constrict from both external and internal stimuli. This mechanism can be triggered by the ... SVR as the systemic vascular resistance MAP as the mean arterial pressure MRAP as the mean right arterial pressure CO as the ...
*  Gibbs-Thomson equation
Then, on re-cooling the equilibrium freezing event can be measured, as the external ice will then grow into the pores. This is ... Note: x {\displaystyle x} is used for the pore size rather than d {\displaystyle d} for a number of reasons : It is consistent ... vapor pressure at a curved interface of radius r {\displaystyle r} P {\displaystyle P} = vapor pressure at a flat interface ( r ... The technique is closely related to using gas adsorption to measure pore sizes, but uses the Gibbs-Thomson equation rather than ...
*  Cytorrhysis
... where internal cellular pressure is equal to the external atmospheric pressure, has been reached, generating negative pressure ... if they are placed in a hypertonic solution where the size of the solutes in the solution inhibit flow through the pores in the ... hydraulic turgor pressure). Positive pressure within a plant cell is required to maintain the upright structure of the cell ... That negative pressure pulls the center of the cell inward until the cell wall can no longer withstand the strain. The inward ...
*  Sintering
The pore elimination occurs faster for a trial with many pores of uniform size and higher porosity where the boundary diffusion ... such as pressure, electrical current) could be used. A commonly used second external force is pressure. So, the sintering that ... For submicrometre particle sizes, capillaries with diameters in the range of 0.1 to 1 micrometres develop pressures in the ... The vitrification rate is dependent upon the pore size, the viscosity and amount of liquid phase present leading to the ...
*  Slope stability analysis
Water pressure acting in the pore spaces, fractures or other discontinuities in the materials that make up the pit slope will ... Earthquake effects, external loading, groundwater conditions, stabilization forces (i.e., anchors, geo-reinforcements etc.) can ... This can help determine the capacity, size and location of barriers. Numerical modelling techniques provide an approximate ... The values of the pore pressure in transport domain are imported automatically for the selected time to Stability module. The ...
*  Organogels
This test provides information for how a gel will respond when an external force is applied. Due to varying degrees of cross- ... These include measurements of pore diameter, wall thickness and shape of the gel network. Use of SEM can distinguish between ... By analyzing the scattering pattern direct information about the size of the material can be obtained. Both SARS and SANS ... Use of an environmental SEM, which operates at higher pressures, can yield higher quality imaging. Two scattering techniques ...
*  Dialysis
Control over pore size allows a better separation between small molecules while leaving large molecules of interest inside. ... This usually is done by applying a negative pressure to the dialysate compartment of the dialyzer. This pressure gradient ... Hemodialysis removes wastes and water by circulating blood outside the body through an external filter, called a dialyzer, that ... A semipermeable membrane is a thin layer of material that contains holes of various sizes, or pores. Smaller solutes and fluid ...
*  Tusk shell
... "water pores" located near the nephridial openings). These openings may serve to allow the animal to relieve internal pressure ... The massive radula of the scaphopods is the largest such organ relative to body size of any mollusc (among whom, except for the ... Scaphopods have separate sexes, and external fertilisation. They have a single gonad occupying much of the posterior part of ... The differences between the two orders is subtle and hinges on size and on details of the radula, shell, and foot. Specifically ...
*  Soil compaction (agriculture)
External pressure due to the use of heavy machinery and inappropriate soil management can lead to the compaction of subsoil, ... In the laboratory Soil bulk density, pore-size distribution, water permeability and the relative apparent gas diffusion ... Low tyre pressure is another way to distribute the pressure applied on a greater surface and soften the overall pressure. For ... and educational programs aiming at slowing population growth can lower the pressure on agriculture caused by population size. ...
*  Ischemia-reperfusion injury of the appendicular musculoskeletal system
This distributes the pressure over, generally, a broader area than field (emergency, combat) tourniquets. The cuff is typically ... 35(1): p. 111-20 Vaseva, A.V., et al., p53 opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore to trigger necrosis. Cell, 2012 ... Modern examples are found in many different sizes to accommodate different patients and sites of applications, with adult cuffs ... Tourniquet equivalents In the same way that external compression tourniquets reduce or eliminate arterial blood flow, aortic ...
*  Carbon nanotubes for water transport
... external pressure can also influence the CNT membranes to fill. Pressure does not increase the chemical potential inside the ... water and gas molecules to move through nanotube pores orders of magnitudes faster than through other pores of comparable size. ... The water molecules are driven through the pores by a pressure difference created by a pump. As the molecules begin to travel ... a] Assuming an operating pressure of 5.5 MPa and allow for an osmotic pressure of 2.4 MPa. CNT density of the membrane was ...
*  Mechanosensitive channels
The size of the pore at open state is approximately 25Å. The transition from closed to intermediate state is accompanied by ... The opening of these channels is central to a neuron's response to pressure, often osmotic pressure and blood pressure, to ... When external stimuli deflect the tether the displacement opens the channel. This particular mechanism has been demonstrated to ... They can also regulate internal functions of our body including, but not limited to, osmotic pressure in cells, blood pressure ...
*  Aerosol
... migration by external forces Where: n i {\displaystyle n_{i}} is number density of particles of size category i {\displaystyle ... Chemical reactions may increase the partial pressure of a gas or lower its vapour pressure. The addition of additional vapour ... and large pore membrane filters. Two alternative size-selective criteria, often used in atmospheric monitoring, are PM10 and ... One approach to defining the particle size distribution uses a list of the sizes of every particle in a sample. However, this ...
*  Porosity
... as these pores cannot be flushed, but they can cause fluid movement by release of pressure like gas expansion) pores and ... However, as grain size or sorting decreases the proportionality between pore throat radii and porosity begins to fail and ... Computed tomography method (using industrial CT scanning to create a 3D rendering of external and internal geometry, including ... Also, there tends to be a proportionality between pore throat radii and pore volume. If the proportionality between pore throat ...
*  Agricultural soil science
Technically, plant cells lose their pressure (see osmotic pressure and turgor pressure). Plants contribute directly to soil ... The pore space of the soil is essential for the soil to become productive. Small pores serve as water reservoir supplying water ... In such cases, soil can no longer support on its own plants with high nutritional demand and thus needs an external source of ... Soils are composed of solid particles of various sizes. In decreasing order, these particles are sand, silt and clay. Every ...
*  Desalting and buffer exchange
In order for the desired macromolecules to remain in the void volume, resins with very small pores sizes must be utilized. For ... columns use head-pressure from a buffer-chase to push the sample through the gel filtration matrix. Sample is loaded into the ... cartridges or columns work similarly except the sample and buffer is pumped into and through the resin by an external device ... However, for buffer exchange and desalting applications, it is mainly the maximum effective pore size (exclusion limit or ...
*  History of Earth
The colonisation of new niches resulted in massive body sizes. In this way, fishes with increasing sizes evolved during the ... It has been suggested that double-walled "bubbles" of lipids like those that form the external membranes of cells may have been ... Most of the steps in their assembly required temperatures of about 100 °C (212 °F) and moderate pressures, although one stage ... membranes would be the last major cell components to appear and until they did the proto-cells would be confined to the pores. ...
*  Sediment gravity flow
Application of an external pressure to the suspension will initiate flow. This external pressure can be applied by a seismic ... As grains at the base of a suspension settle out, fluid that is displaced upward by the settling generates pore fluid pressures ... Debris flow deposits are characterized by a bimodal distribution of grain sizes, in which larger grains and/or clasts float ... As such, the grain-to-grain collisions generate a dispersive pressure that helps prevent grains from settling out of suspension ...
*  Bacterial morphological plasticity
Cocci may have access to small pores, creating more attachment sites per cell and hiding themselves from external shear forces ... Bacterial size < 0.4 μm were not grazed well Bacterial size between 0.4 μm and 1.6 μm were "grazing vulnerable" Bacterial size ... Several phenotypic features of bacteria are adapted to escape protistan-grazing pressure. Protistan grazing or bacterivory is a ... grew mainly in medium-sized rod (4-7 μm), remaining a typical 6.2 μm in length. With the predator, the Flectobacillus spp. size ...
*  Activated carbon
Due to the size of color bodies, the molasses number represents the potential pore volume available for larger adsorbing ... Gas storage in activated carbons is an appealing gas storage method because the gas can be stored in a low pressure, low mass, ... presents a smaller external surface. Diffusion of the adsorbate is thus an important factor. These carbons are suitable for ... The most popular aqueous phase carbons are the 12×40 and 8×30 sizes because they have a good balance of size, surface area, and ...
*  Earthworm
... on the basis of the male pores opening posterior to the female pores, though the internal male segments are anterior to the ... They attain full size in about one year. Scientists predict that the average lifespan under field conditions is four to eight ... Touching an earthworm, which causes a "pressure" response as well as (often) a response to the dehydrating quality of the salt ... Some species use external spermatophores for sperm transfer. In Hormogaster samnitica and Hormogaster elisae transcriptome DNA ...