Loading...
*  Quisqualic acid
Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle. Proceedings of the ... Quisqualamine Non-proteinogenic amino acids Jin R, Horning M, Mayer ML, Gouaux E. Mechanism of activation and selectivity in a ... Quisqualic acid is thought to mimic L-glutamic acid, which is a neurotransmitter in the insect neuromuscular junction and ... Quisqualic acid is an agonist of the AMPA, kainate, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is one of the most potent ...
*  Glutamate receptor
Gillessen T, Budd SL, Lipton SA (2002). "Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 513: 3-40. doi:10.1007/978- ... Crowder JM, Croucher MJ, Bradford HF, Collins JF (June 1987). "Excitatory amino acid receptors and depolarization-induced Ca2+ ... "Glutamate stimulates glucagon secretion via an excitatory amino acid receptor of the AMPA subtype in rat pancreas". Eur. J. ... Glutamate (Glutamic acid) is the most prominent neurotransmitter in the body, and it is the main excitatory neurotransmitter, ...
*  Excitotoxicity
Dunlop, R.A., Cox, P.A., Banack, S.A., Rodgers, J.K. (2013). "The Non-Protein Amino Acid BMAA Is Misincorporated into Human ... This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and ... Glutamatergic system Glutamic acid (flavor) NMDA receptor antagonist Jaiswal MK, Zech WD, Goos M, Leutbecher C, Ferri A, ... Excitotoxins like NMDA and kainic acid which bind to these receptors, as well as pathologically high levels of glutamate, can ...
*  Kynurenic acid
It acts as an antiexcitotoxic and anticonvulsant, most likely through acting as an antagonist at excitatory amino acid ... Kynurenic acid (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. It has been shown that kynurenic ... Elmslie KS, Yoshikami D. (1985) Effects of kynurenate on root potentials evoked by synaptic activity and amino acids in the ... Conversely, increased levels of kynurenic acid have also been linked to certain pathological conditions. Kynurenic acid was ...
*  Excitatory amino acid receptor agonist
... acid Kainic acid N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid Quisqualic acid Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist Excitatory amino acid ... An excitatory amino acid receptor agonist, or glutamate receptor agonist, is a chemical substance which agonizes one or more of ... Excitatory amino acid agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents ...
*  Excitatory amino acid receptor ligand
... s are ligands of excitatory amino acid receptors (EAARs), also known as glutamate ... They include excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists.. ...
*  Excitatory amino-acid transporter 4
... has high affinity for the excitatory amino acids L-aspartate and L-glutamate. When stimulated by these amino acids, EAAT4 ... Excitatory amino-acid transporter 4 (EAAT4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A6 gene. EAAT4 is expressed ... Koch HP, Brown RL, Larsson HP (2007). "The glutamate-activated anion conductance in excitatory amino acid transporters is gated ... "An excitatory amino-acid transporter with properties of a ligand-gated chloride channel". Nature. 375 (6532): 599-603. doi: ...
*  Excitatory amino-acid transporter 5
... has high affinity for the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate. When stimulated by this amino acid, EAAT5 conducts chloride ions. ... Excitatory amino-acid transporter 5 (EAAT5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A7 gene. EAAT5 is expressed ... 2005). "Regulation of the excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT5 by the serum and glucocorticoid dependent kinases SGK1 and ... "Excitatory amino acid transporter 5, a retinal glutamate transporter coupled to a chloride conductance". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
*  Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist
Kynurenic acid Memantine Nitrous oxide Perampanel Phencyclidine Excitatory amino acid receptor agonist Excitatory amino acid ... An excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, or glutamate receptor antagonist, is a chemical substance which antagonizes one ... Excitatory amino acid antagonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
*  Excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitor
Glutamatergic GABA reuptake inhibitor Glycine reuptake inhibitor Excitatory amino acid receptor agonist Excitatory amino acid ... An excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitor (EAARI) is a type of drug which inhibits the reuptake of the excitatory ... neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate by blocking one or more of the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Examples ... October 2005). "Characterization of novel aryl-ether, biaryl, and fluorene aspartic acid and diaminopropionic acid analogs as ...
*  Amino acid reuptake inhibitor
They include excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitors (or glutamate-aspartate reuptake inhibitors), GABA reuptake inhibitors, ... An amino acid reuptake inhibitor (AARI) is a type of drug which inhibits the reuptake of one or more amino acid ...
*  Amino acid neurotransmitter
There are inhibitory amino acids (IAA) or excitatory amino acids (EAA). Some EAA are L-Glutamate, L-Aspartate, L-Cysteine, and ... An amino acid neurotransmitter is an amino acid which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse. Neurotransmitters ( ... Amino acid non-protein functions Monoamine neurotransmitter "Axon Terminal : on Medical Dictionary Online". Archived from the ... Amino acid neurotransmitter release (exocytosis) is dependent upon calcium Ca2+ and is a presynaptic response. ...
*  Kainic acid
ISBN 978-0-205-23939-9. Moloney, Mark G. (1998). "Excitatory amino acids". Natural Product Reports. 15 (2): 205-219. doi: ... Kainic acid, or kainate, is an acid that naturally occurrs in some seaweed. Kainic acid is a potent neuroexcitatory amino acid ... Kainic acid is commonly injected into laboratory animal models to study the effects of experimental ablation. Kainic acid is a ... In addition to inducing seizures, kainic acid is excitotoxic and epileptogenic. Kainic acid induces seizures via activation of ...
*  Quinoxalinedione
Turski, L.; Schoepp, D.D.; Cavalheiro, E.A. (2001). Excitatory Amino Acids: Ten Years Later. Biomedical and health research (in ...
*  Dextroamphetamine
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... phenethylamine is produced directly from L-phenylalanine by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzyme, which converts ... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ...
*  Amphetamine
SLC1A1 is excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), a glutamate transporter located in neurons, SLC22A3 is an extraneuronal ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). ... AMPH release of DA from synapses requires both an ... phenethylamine is produced directly from L-phenylalanine by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzyme, which converts ...
*  Neurobiological effects of physical exercise
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... In a resting state, phenethylamine is synthesized in catecholamine neurons from L-phenylalanine by aromatic amino acid ... Two reviews noted a study where the mean 24 hour urinary β-phenylacetic acid acid concentration following just 30 minutes of ... The 24 hour mean urinary concentration of phenylacetic acid was increased by 77% after exercise. ... As phenylacetic acid ...
*  Ligand-gated ion channel
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... Ligands: Agonists: Glutamate, AMPA, 5-Fluorowillardiine, Domoic acid, Quisqualic acid, etc. Antagonists: CNQX, Kynurenic acid, ... The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, or quisqualate receptor) is a ... aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; D-cycloserine; L-aspartate; quinolinate, etc. Partial agonists : N-methyl-D-aspartic acid ( ...
*  Methamphetamine
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone, the metabolites of amphetamine. Among these metabolites, the ... Forced acid diuresis (e.g., with vitamin C) will increase methamphetamine excretion but is not recommended as it may increase ... Dopamine-β-hydroxylase catalyzed the removal of the pro-R hydrogen atom and the production of 1-norephedrine, (2S,1R)-2-amino-1 ...
*  Lisdexamfetamine
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. ... Its chemical structure consists of dextroamphetamine coupled with the essential amino acid L-lysine. Lisdexamfetamine itself is ... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Sulzer D, Cragg SJ, Rice ME (August 2016). "Striatal ...
*  Adderall
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace ... phenethylamine is produced directly from L-phenylalanine by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzyme, which converts ... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ...
*  Recreational use of dextromethorphan
Carrozza, DP; Ferraro, TN; Golden, GT; Reyes, PF; Hare, TA (1992). "In vivo modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors: ... Muir, KW; Lees, KR (1995). "Clinical experience with excitatory amino acid antagonist drugs". Stroke. 26 (3): 503-513. doi: ... As NMDA receptor antagonists, dextrorphan and dextromethorphan inhibit the excitatory amino acid and neurotransmitter glutamate ... Dextroverse The Electric Cough-Syrup Acid Test by Jim Hogshire from Harper's Erowid Dextromethorphan Vault. ...
*  NMDA receptor antagonist
Muir, KW; Lees KR (1995). "Clinical Experience With Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonist Drugs". Stroke. 26 (3): 503-513. doi: ... AP5 (APV, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate) AP7 (2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid) CPPene (3-[(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-prop ... 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) L-Phenylalanine, a naturally occurring amino acid (equilibrium dissociation constant ... 7-Chlorokynurenic acid 4-Chlorokynurenine (AV-101) (prodrug for 7-chlorokynurenic acid) 5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid Kynurenic ...
*  Neurotoxin
3.0.co;2-8. Rothman, S.; Thurston, J.; Hauhart, R. (1987). "Delayed Neurotoxicity of Excitatory Amino Acids In Vitro". ... Meldrum, B.; Garthwaite, J. (1990). "Excitatory Amino Acid Neurotoxicity and Neurodegenerative Disease". Trends in ... Caramboxin is a new nonpeptide amino acid toxin that stimulate the glutamate receptors in neurons. Caramboxin is an agonist of ... It is known that the mercuric ion inhibits amino acid (AA) and glutamate (Glu) transport, potentially leading to excitotoxic ...
*  Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis
"Excitatory amino acids and multiple sclerosis: evidence from cerebrospinal fluid". Arch. Immunol. 60 (8): 1082-8. doi:10.1001/ ... A uric acid deficiency was implicated in this process. Uric acid added in physiological concentrations (i.e. achieving normal ... Creatine and Uric acid levels are lower than normal, at least in women. Ex vivo CD4(+) T cells isolated from the circulation ... Uric acid levels are lower during relapses. Some areas that appear normal under normal MRI look abnormal under special MRI, ...
*  Pre-Bötzinger complex
... amino acids, and chemical signals, such as adenosine, GABA, and glycine. The pre-Bötzinger complex produces two types of ... This is due to the reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in a nucleus and increased excitability in motor neurons ... However, the generation of respiratory rhythm requires other excitatory components, such as glutamate, in order to produce a ... The capability to detect focal hypoxia causes an excitatory response in the motor output responsible for respiration, which ...
*  Clonazepam
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1989.tb01308.x. Lipton, S.A.; Rosenberg, P.A.; Rosenberg, Paul A. (1994). "Excitatory amino acids as a ... Meldrum BS (1986). "Drugs acting on amino acid neurotransmitters". Adv Neurol. 43: 687-706. PMID 2868623. Jenner P; Pratt JA; ... Clonazepam has no effect on GABA levels and has no effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase. Clonazepam does, however, ... "Pharmacokinetics and side-effects of clonazepam and its 7-amino-metabolite in man". Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 8 (3-4): 249-54. doi: ...