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*  Dizocilpine
Excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate and aspartate, are released in toxic amounts when the brain is deprived of blood and ... NMDA antagonists like dizocilpine have been shown in animal models to attenuate the hearing loss caused by aminoglycosides It ... However, NMDA antagonists like dizocilpine have largely failed to show safety in clinical trials, possibly due to inhibition of ... Dizocilpine has also been found to act as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. It has been shown to bind to and ...
*  Excitotoxicity
Glutamatergic system Glutamic acid (flavor) NMDA receptor antagonist Jaiswal MK, Zech WD, Goos M, Leutbecher C, Ferri A, ... Dunlop, R.A., Cox, P.A., Banack, S.A., Rodgers, J.K. (2013). "The Non-Protein Amino Acid BMAA Is Misincorporated into Human ... This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and ... Further evidence of the role of BMAA as an excitotoxin is rooted in the ability of NMDA antagonists like MK801 to block the ...
*  Kynurenic acid
It acts as an antiexcitotoxic and anticonvulsant, most likely through acting as an antagonist at excitatory amino acid ... Kynurenic acid (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. It has been shown that kynurenic ... Kynurenic acid acts in the brain as a glycine-site NMDAr antagonist, key in glutamatergic neurotransmission system, which is ... Elmslie KS, Yoshikami D. (1985) Effects of kynurenate on root potentials evoked by synaptic activity and amino acids in the ...
*  Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist
Excitatory amino acid receptor agonist Excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitor N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MeSH ... An excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, or glutamate receptor antagonist, is a chemical substance which antagonizes one ... Excitatory amino acid antagonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... AP5 Barbiturates Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Dizocilpine Ethanol Ibogaine Ifenprodil Ketamine Kynurenic acid Memantine Nitrous ...
*  Excitatory amino acid receptor ligand
They include excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists.. ... Excitatory amino acid receptor ligands are ligands of excitatory amino acid receptors (EAARs), also known as glutamate ...
*  Recreational use of dextromethorphan
As NMDA receptor antagonists, dextrorphan and dextromethorphan inhibit the excitatory amino acid and neurotransmitter glutamate ... Muir, KW; Lees, KR (1995). "Clinical experience with excitatory amino acid antagonist drugs". Stroke. 26 (3): 503-513. doi: ... Carrozza, DP; Ferraro, TN; Golden, GT; Reyes, PF; Hare, TA (1992). "In vivo modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors: ... Kapur, S; Seeman, P (2002). "NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and PCP have direct effects on the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5- ...
*  NMDA receptor antagonist
Muir, KW; Lees KR (1995). "Clinical Experience With Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonist Drugs". Stroke. 26 (3): 503-513. doi: ... 7-Dichlorokynurenic acid Kynurenic acid (a naturally occurring antagonist) TK-40 (competitive antagonist at the GluN1 glycine ... van den Bos R, Charria Ortiz G, Cools A (1992). "Injections of the NMDA-antagonist D-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP-7) ... AP5 (APV, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate) AP7 (2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid) CPPene (3-[(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-prop ...
*  AP-7 (drug)
"Anti-epileptic effects of focal micro-injection of excitatory amino acid antagonists". J. Neural Transm. 72 (3): 191-200. doi: ... The optically pure D-(−)-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid [D-AP7], has also been examined. In groups of hypoxia-treated rats, ... These excitatory glutamate receptors work with the inhibitory GABA receptors to achieve equilibrium in the DPAG of the brain. ... Both AP-7 and D-AP7 function as potent, specific antagonists of the NMDA receptor. APV (drug) Meldrum B, Millan M, Patel S, de ...
*  HA-966
"Antinociceptive actions of different classes of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists in mice". European Journal of ... 3-Amino-1-hydroxy-pyrrolidin-2-one is a molecule used in scientific research as a glycine receptor and NMDA receptor antagonist ... Bonta IL, De Vos CJ, Grijsen H, Hillen FC, Noach EL, Sim AW (Nov 1971). "1-Hydroxy-3-amino-pyrrolidone-2(HA-966): a new GABA- ... S-(−)-HA-966 has been described as a "γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)-like agent" and a "potent y-butyrolactone-like sedative", but ...
*  Diphenidine
Michael A. Rogawski (September 1993). "Therapeutic potential of excitatory amino acid antagonists: channel blockers and 2,3- ... Diphenidine and related diarylethylamines have been studied in vitro as treatments for neurotoxic injury and are antagonists of ...
*  Midafotel
The excitatory amino acid antagonist D-CPP-ene (SDZ EAA-494) in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Research. 1993 Oct;16(2):165- ... piperazine-2-carboxylic acid (D-CPP) and D(-)(E)-4-(3-phosphonoprop-2-enyl) piperazine-2-carboxylic acid (D-CPPene) in a rodent ... NMDA receptor antagonist Lowe DA, Neijt HC, Aebischer B. D-CPP-ene (SDZ EAA 494), a potent and competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate ... PMID 8269915 Rockstroh S, Emre M, Tarral A, Pokorny R. Effects of the novel NMDA-receptor antagonist SDZ EAA 494 on memory and ...
*  Selfotel
CGS 19755, a selective and competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate-type excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Journal of ... Selfotel (CGS-19755) is a drug which acts as a competitive NMDA antagonist, directly competing with glutamate for binding to ... Tolerance to the cataleptic effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists in pigeons: cross-tolerance between ... Failure of the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist Selfotel (CGS 19755) in the treatment of severe head injury: results ...
*  Glutamatergic
Examples include excitatory amino acid receptor agonists, excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists, and excitatory amino acid ... is a chemical that directly modulates the excitatory amino acid (glutamate/aspartate) system in the body or brain. ...
*  Excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitor
... reuptake inhibitor Glycine reuptake inhibitor Excitatory amino acid receptor agonist Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist ... An excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitor (EAARI) is a type of drug which inhibits the reuptake of the excitatory ... neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate by blocking one or more of the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Examples ... October 2005). "Characterization of novel aryl-ether, biaryl, and fluorene aspartic acid and diaminopropionic acid analogs as ...
*  Excitatory amino acid receptor agonist
... acid Kainic acid N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid Quisqualic acid Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist Excitatory amino acid ... An excitatory amino acid receptor agonist, or glutamate receptor agonist, is a chemical substance which agonizes one or more of ... Excitatory amino acid agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents ...
*  SB-271046
... was found to increase levels of the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate, as well as ... Dawson, LA; Nguyen, HQ; Li, P (2001). "The 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 selectively enhances excitatory ... It was one of the first selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists to be discovered, and was found through high-throughput screening ... Dawson, LA; Nguyen, HQ; Li, P (2000). "In vivo effects of the 5-HT6 antagonist SB-271046 on striatal and frontal cortex ...
*  Quisqualamine
... α-Decarboxylation of excitatory amino acids can produce derivatives with inhibitory effects. Indeed, unlike quisqualic acid, ... Mg2+ and DL-AP5, NMDA receptor blockers, CNQX, an antagonist of both the AMPA and kainate receptors, and 2-hydroxysaclofen, a ... a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) related depressant amino acid". The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 30 (6): 364-7 ... Whether it binds to and acts upon any of the metabotropic glutamate receptors like its analogue quisqualic acid however is ...
*  Pitrazepin
Zhang W, Han XY, Wong SM, Takeuchi H (January 1997). "Pharmacologic characteristics of excitatory gamma-amino-butyric acid ( ... Pitrazepin is a competitive GABAA and glycine receptor antagonist. It has been used to study insect and snail nervous systems ... Takeuchi H (September 1992). "Sensitivities of Achatina giant neurones to putative amino acid neurotransmitters". Comparative ... Murphy VF, Wann KT (November 1988). "The action of GABA receptor agonists and antagonists on muscle membrane conductance in ...
*  Bicuculline
This compound is also routinely used to isolate glutamatergic (excitatory amino acid) receptor function. The action of ... In addition to being a potent GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline can be used to block Ca2+-activated potassium channels. ... Bicuculline is a phthalide-isoquinoline compound that is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors. It was ...
*  Clinical neurochemistry
Excitatory Amino Acids include Glutamate, whereas inhibitory Amino Acids include GABA and Glycine. Additionally, catecholamines ... Conversely, antagonists bind to a receptor and elicit no cellular change. Naloxone, an antagonist of the opioid receptors, ... Although aNMDA receptor antagonists and anti-inflammatory drugs were tested in a clinical environment, more promising clinical ... In animal models, NMDA antagonists increase glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex. It is postulated that this is a ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D16)
... excitatory amino acid agonists MeSH D27.505.519.625.190.300 --- excitatory amino acid antagonists MeSH D27.505.519.625.240 --- ... excitatory amino acid agonists MeSH D27.505.696.577.190.300 --- excitatory amino acid antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.577.240 --- ... dopamine antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.577.150.800 --- dopamine uptake inhibitors MeSH D27.505.696.577.190 --- excitatory amino ... excitatory amino acid agents MeSH D27.505.519.625.190.200 --- ... histamine h1 antagonists, non-sedating MeSH D27.505.519.625. ...
*  GRIN3B
"The coat protein gp120 of HIV-1 inhibits astrocyte uptake of excitatory amino acids via macrophage arachidonic acid". Eur. J. ... 1996). "Death of cultured human neuroblastoma cells induced by HIV-1 gp120 is prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists and ... 1995). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat activates non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptors and causes ... of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage in the central nervous system of transgenic mice by the NMDA receptor antagonist ...
*  GRIN2B
"The coat protein gp120 of HIV-1 inhibits astrocyte uptake of excitatory amino acids via macrophage arachidonic acid". The ... Besonprodil CERC-301, a selective NR2B receptor antagonist Eliprodil Evt 101, a selective NR2B receptor antagonist. This ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat activates non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptors and causes ... a selective NR2B receptor antagonist Traxoprodil, a selective NR2B receptor antagonist GRIN2B has been shown to interact with: ...
*  Quinoxalinedione
Turski, L.; Schoepp, D.D.; Cavalheiro, E.A. (2001). Excitatory Amino Acids: Ten Years Later. Biomedical and health research (in ... Quinoxalinediones act as antagonists of the AMPA, kainate, and/or NMDA receptors of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family. ...
*  Convulsant
... also GABA antagonist) Sinomenine Strychnine Thebaine Tutin Ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists AMPA Domoic acid Kainic acid ... Excitatory aminoacids and epileptic seizures in immature brain. Physiology Research. 2004;53 Suppl 1:S115-24. PMID 15119942 ... Advantages of an antagonist: bicuculline and other GABA antagonists. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2013 May;169(2):328-36. ... Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate ...
*  Pre-Bötzinger complex
... amino acids, and chemical signals, such as adenosine, GABA, and glycine. The pre-Bötzinger complex produces two types of ... This is due to the reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in a nucleus and increased excitability in motor neurons ... most being selective agonists or antagonists to receptor subtypes on neurons in the vicinity. Since many of these neurons ... However, the generation of respiratory rhythm requires other excitatory components, such as glutamate, in order to produce a ...
*  KiSS1-derived peptide receptor
"The excitatory peptide kisspeptin restores the luteinizing hormone surge and modulates amino acid neurotransmission in the ... No non-peptide ligands for this receptor have yet been discovered, but as of 2009 both selective agonist and antagonist ... Kisspeptin Kisspeptin-10 (112-121 C-terminal fragment) Kisspeptin-10 analogues modified with amino substitutions GRCh38: ... "Discovery of potent kisspeptin antagonists delineate physiological mechanisms of gonadotropin regulation". The Journal of ...