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*  Jaundice
The typical liver panel will include blood levels of enzymes found primarily from the liver, such as the aminotransferases (ALT ... "Importance of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Expression in Skin and Its Induction by UVB in Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia". ... The next step is the reduction of biliverdin to a yellow color tetrapyrol pigment called bilirubin by cytosolic enzyme ... The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme UDP-glucuronyl transferase. This conjugated bilirubin is excreted from the liver into ...
*  Enzyme induction and inhibition
Enzyme inhibition can refer to the inhibition of the expression of the enzyme by another molecule interference at the enzyme- ... Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an ... If the molecule induces enzymes that are responsible for its own metabolism, this is called auto-induction (or auto-inhibition ... the French molecular biologists François Jacob and Jacques Monod became the first to explain enzyme induction, in the context ...
*  Iproclozide
Possible role of enzyme induction". Gastroenterology. 75 (3): 492-496. PMID 680506. Neil Kaplowitz; Laurie D. DeLeve (2003). ...
*  Primidone
This enzyme induction occurs at therapeutic doses. In fact, people taking these drugs have displayed the highest degree of ... The risk of fractures is higher for people taking enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants than for people taking non-enzyme-inducing ... hepatic enzyme induction on record. In addition to being an inducer of CYP3A4, it is also an inducer of CYP1A2, which causes it ... Perucca, E.; A. Hedges; K. A. Makki; M. Ruprah; J. F. Wilson; A. Richens (1984). "A comparative study of the relative enzyme ...
*  Proxibarbital
ISBN 978-83-200-3652-7. Sulman, F. G.; Pfeifer, Y.; Tal, E. (1976). "Migraine therapy by enzyme induction with proxibarbital". ...
*  Polybrominated biphenyl
Safe S, Kohli J, Crawford A (April 1978). "FireMaster BP-6: Fractionation, Metabolic and Enzyme Induction Studies". ...
*  Alfred G. Gilman
Conney, AH; Gilman, AG (1963). "Puromycin inhibition of enzyme induction by 3-methylcholanthrene and phenobarbital". The ... Cyclic AMP is formed from ATP by the enzymes adenylyl cyclase. In 1970 Martin Rodbell found that hormones did not directly ... Gilman, AG; Conney, AH (1963). "The induction of aminoazo dye N-demethylase in nonhepatic tissues by 3-methylcholanthrene". ... was a responsible for activating enzymes in the cell, and that cyclic AMP is produced only when hormones (the first messengers ...
*  Seveso disaster
Other early effects noted were peripheral neuropathy and liver enzyme induction. The ascertainment of other, possibly severe ...
*  Alkaline phosphatase
This procedure of enhancing the activity of the enzyme is known as enzyme induction. The evidence shows that there is in fact ... That same bovine enzyme has more than 70% homology with human placental enzyme. However, the human intestinal enzyme and the ... Due to the location of the enzyme, and the protein layout of the enzyme, the enzyme is in solution with a smaller amount of ... The optimal pH for the activity of the E. coli enzyme is 8.0 while the bovine enzyme optimum pH is slightly higher at 8.5. ...
*  Crigler-Najjar syndrome
Hence, there is no response to treatment with phenobarbital, which causes CYP450 enzyme induction. Most patients (type IA) have ...
*  Drug interaction
As a result of these interactions the function of the enzymes can either be stimulated (enzyme induction) or inhibited (enzyme ... An example of this is shown in the following table for the CYP1A2 enzyme, which is the most common enzyme found in the human ... If drug A is metabolized by a cytochrome P450 enzyme and drug B induces or increases the enzyme's activity, then blood plasma ... The table shows the substrates (drugs metabolized by this enzyme) and the inductors and inhibitors of its activity: Enzyme ...
*  Toluene toxicity
Smoking has been shown to enhance the elimination rate of toluene from the body, perhaps as a result of enzyme induction. The ... Often toluene exposure occurs in conjunction with benzene and since they are to some degree metabolised by the same enzymes, ... CYP2E1 seems to be the primary enzyme in the hydroxylation of toluene, accounting for roughly 44% of toluene metabolism; ... Other studies have shown that chronic ethanol consumption can enhance toluene metabolism via the induction of CYP2E1. ...
*  Bioavailability
Health of the gastrointestinal tract Enzyme induction/inhibition by other drugs/foods: Enzyme induction (increased rate of ... metabolism), e.g., Phenytoin induces CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 Enzyme inhibition (decreased rate of metabolism), e.g ...
*  Hypericum perforatum
This drug-metabolizing enzyme induction results in the increased metabolism of certain drugs, leading to decreased plasma ... St John's wort has been shown to cause multiple drug interactions through induction of the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and ... St John's wort has also been shown to cause drug interactions through the induction of the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. ... "Enzymes". Hyperforin. Human Metabolome Database. 3.6. University of Alberta. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2014. ...
*  Regulation of gene expression
Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g., a drug) induces (i.e., initiates or enhances) the expression of an ... The induction of heat shock proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The Lac operon is an interesting example of how ... Histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) such as CREB-binding protein also dissociate the DNA from the histone complex, ... DNA is typically methylated by methyltransferase enzymes on cytosine nucleotides in a CpG dinucleotide sequence (also called " ...
*  Carisoprodol
... from recreational users combining these drugs to combine their individual effects without being aware of the enzyme-induction ... Carisoprodol produces the same enzyme-inducing effects as barbiturates and may be used to potentiate pro-drug opioids, most ...
*  Drug tolerance
This may be caused by an increase in induction of the enzymes required for degradation of the drug e.g. CYP450 enzymes. This is ... Enzyme induction is partly responsible for the phenomenon of tolerance, in which repeated use of a drug leads to a reduction of ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an ...
*  Drug metabolism
... in cases where an enzyme is responsible for metabolizing a pro-drug into a drug, enzyme induction can speed up this conversion ... In general, anything that increases the rate of metabolism (e.g., enzyme induction) of a pharmacologically active metabolite ... These enzyme complexes act to incorporate an atom of oxygen into nonactivated hydrocarbons, which can result in either the ... In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar groups into xenobiotics. These modified ...
*  Gibberellin
... enzyme induction, and leaf and fruit senescence. Gibberellin was first recognized in 1926 by a Japanese scientist, Eiichi ... Alpha-amylase induction in aleurone protoplasts is dependent on GA levels, but induction can still occur if GA does not pass ... activity was discovered in wheat seed aleurone homogenates by using the GA-dependent induction of aleuron hydrolytic enzymes. ... The function of CPS and KS in plants is performed by a single enzyme, CPS/KS, in fungi. In fungi, the GA biosynthesis genes are ...
*  Dicofol
... show that the primary effects after long term exposure to dicofol include increases in liver weight and enzyme induction in the ... This effect is thought to be related to the inhibition of certain enzymes in the central nervous system. Symptoms of ingestion ...
*  Diauxie
The idea of enzyme adaptation was thus replaced with the concept of enzyme induction, in which a molecule induces expression of ... "Induction". Retrieved 2007-01-01. Brown, T.A. "Transient Changes in Gene Activity". Retrieved 2007-01-01. Stülke J, Hillen W. ( ... At the time of the "diauxic shift", there is often a lag period during which cells produce the enzymes needed to metabolize the ... If an organism allocates its energy and other resources (e.g. amino acids) to synthesize enzymes needed to metabolize a sugar ...
*  Barbiturate
Although all known members of the class possess relevant enzyme induction capabilities the degree of inhibition overall as well ... Barbiturates induce a number of hepatic CYP enzymes (most notably CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4), leading to exaggerated effects ... as the impact on each specific enzyme span a broad range with phenobarbital and secobarbital being the most potent enzyme ... which become considerably more potent after being metabolized by CYP enzymes. ...
*  Butalbital
... although its P450 enzyme induction capability is far less than that of equivalent doses of phenobarbital or secobarbital (the ... Inhibitors of the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4 may also increase the risk, severity, and duration of side effects, many drugs inhibit ... As with most barbiturates, butalbital is a general inducer of P450 enzymes in both rodents and humans, particularly CYP3A4 ( ... it is therefore unknown whether or not GS-T induction plays a significant role in butalbital's effects in humans, or even ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G05)
... enzyme induction MeSH G05.315.320.300 --- enzyme repression MeSH G05.315.330 --- gene expression regulation, fungal MeSH ...
*  Cytochrome P450
... enzyme induction) or by directly inhibiting the activity of the CYP (enzyme inhibition). This is a major source of adverse drug ... use CYP enzymes. Genes encoding CYP enzymes, and the enzymes themselves, are designated with the root symbol CYP for the ... Since the 1A2 enzyme can be induced by cigarette smoking, this links smoking with colon cancer. Steroidogenic enzyme Lamb DC, ... Depending on the substrate and enzyme involved, P450 enzymes can catalyze any of a wide variety of reactions. A hypothetical ...
*  Susan K. Gilmour
Relationship between levels of enzyme activity, immunoreactive protein, and RNA during the induction process". J Biol Chem. 260 ... Paul, B; Hayes, CS; Kim, A; Athar, M; Gilmour, SK (2005). "Elevated polyamines lead to the selective induction of apoptosis and ... Another branch of Gilmour's research involves the role of the blood-clotting enzyme thrombin in tumor growth and metastasis. ... ODC is the initial rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis within the cell. Polyamine levels are dramatically elevated ...
*  Goldenseal
... suggesting possible enzyme induction. There was no definitive evidence of developmental toxicity in this study." Another study ... Those with a genetic deficiency in these enzymes are at particular risk. Goldenseal became a part of American folklore ...