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*  PDE4D
Involvement of serine 54 in the enzyme activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (28): 16526-34. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4D gene. The PDE4D gene is ... Sette C, Conti M (Jul 1996). "Phosphorylation and activation of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase by the cAMP-dependent protein ...
*  Hemocyanin
Decker H, Schweikardt T, Nillius D, Salzbrunn U, Jaenicke E, Tuczek F (August 2007). "Similar enzyme activation and catalysis ...
*  BDH1
Evidence for C-terminal involvement in enzyme activation by lecithin". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 327 (1): 45-52. doi:10.1006/abbi ... D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BDH1 gene. This gene encodes ... The encoded protein forms a homotetrameric lipid-requiring enzyme of the mitochondrial membrane and has a specific requirement ... 2000). "Phosphatidylcholine activation of human heart (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase mutants lacking active center ...
*  LGMN
Enzyme activation is triggered by acidic pH and appears to be autocatalytic. Protein expression occurs after monocytes ... This enzyme may be involved in the processing of bacterial peptides and endogenous proteins for MHC class II presentation in ... 1998). "Autocatalytic activation of human legumain at aspartic acid residues". FEBS Lett. 438 (1-2): 114-8. doi:10.1016/S0014- ... Chen JM, Fortunato M, Barrett AJ (2001). "Activation of human prolegumain by cleavage at a C-terminal asparagine residue". ...
*  Enzyme-activated MR contrast agents
Also, mechanisms other than enzyme activation, such as Ca2+-dependent activation, can theoretically be used. In general, enzyme ... One group of compounds that has shown particular promise is enzyme-activated MR contrast agents. Enzyme-activated MR contrast ... Enzyme-activated contrast agents are powerful tools for molecular imaging. To date, β-galactosidase-activated contrast agents ... The carboxyl group on a glutamic acid side chain within the enzyme acts as an acid catalyst, hastening the cleavage of the ...
*  Light-independent reactions
... which activates some of the cycle enzymes; and the RuBisCo enzyme activation, active in the Calvin cycle, which involves its ... The enzyme RuBisCo has its own, more complex activation process. It requires that a specific lysine amino acid be carbamylated ... The enzymes in the Calvin cycle are functionally equivalent to most enzymes used in other metabolic pathways such as ... The product of the first step is enediol-enzyme complex that can capture CO 2 or O 2. Thus, enediol-enzyme complex is the real ...
*  D-dopachrome decarboxylase
N-terminal proline is essential for enzyme activation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243 (2): 538-44. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ... this enzyme has one substrate, D-dopachrome, and two products, 5,6-dihydroxyindole and CO2. This enzyme belongs to the family ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-dopachrome carboxy-lyase (5,6-dihydroxyindole-forming). Other names in common use ... In enzymology, a D-dopachrome decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.84) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-dopachrome ⇌ {\ ...
*  Pyruvate dehydrogenase (quinone)
1991). "Role of the tetrameric structure of Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase in enzyme activation and lipid binding". J. Biol ... is an enzyme with systematic name pyruvate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ... pyruvate + ubiquinone + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } acetate + CO2 + ubiquinol This bacterial enzyme is located on ...
*  DDT (gene)
N-terminal proline is essential for enzyme activation". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 243 (2): 538-44. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8123 ... D-dopachrome decarboxylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DDT gene. D-dopachrome tautomerase converts D- ... The DDT gene is related to the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in terms of sequence, enzyme activity, and gene ...
*  Tyrosine hydroxylase
... mechanism of enzyme activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 75 (10): 4744 ... The enzyme is highly specific, not accepting indole derivatives - which is unusual as many other enzymes involved in the ... Dopamine may be converted into norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase, which can be further modified by the enzyme ... The enzyme can then further catalyze L-tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Tyrosine hydroxylase may also be involved in other reactions as ...
*  Dopachrome tautomerase
1998). "Molecular cloning of human D-dopachrome tautomerase cDNA: N-terminal proline is essential for enzyme activation". ... 1996). "A new enzyme activity in human blood cells and isolation of the responsible protein (D-dopachrome tautomerase) from ...
*  Aspergillopepsin II
"The crystal structure of an intermediate dimer of aspergilloglutamic peptidase that mimics the enzyme-activation product ... macrosporus aspartic proteinase) is a proteolytic enzyme. The enzyme was previously thought be an aspartic protease, but it was ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Preferential cleavage in B chain of insulin: Asn3-Gln, Gly13-Ala, Tyr26- ... Determination of its molecular structure showed it to be a unique two-chain enzyme with a light chain and a heavy chain bound ...
*  Glutamic protease
"The crystal structure of an intermediate dimer of aspergilloglutamic peptidase that mimics the enzyme-activation product ... These enzymes are acid proteases; eqolisin for example is most active at pH 2.0 when casein is used as substrate. Eqolosins ... Glutamic proteases are a group of proteolytic enzymes containing a glutamic acid residue within the active site. This type of ... Takahashi K (2013). "Structure and function studies on enzymes with a catalytic carboxyl group(s): from ribonuclease T1 to ...
*  High Affinity K+ transporter HAK5
However, K+ accounts for the activation of over 50 enzymes, which Na+ cannot be a substitute. With HAK5 transporters, this ... Those micro-nutrients are important in enzyme activation, photosynthesis and protein synthesis- all things that are important ... The loss of K+ promotes the activation of PAMPs. The loss of anions help the growth of bacteria and the PAMPs system works to ...
*  Glutathione
... and enzyme activation. Thus, every system in the body can be affected by the state of the glutathione system, especially the ... Adenylyl-sulfate reductase, an enzyme of the sulfur assimilation pathway, uses glutathione as an electron donor. Other enzymes ... Both glutathione biosynthesis enzymes are essential in plants; knock-outs of GCL and GS are lethal to embryo and seedling. ... GSH can be regenerated from GSSG by the enzyme glutathione reductase (GSR): NADPH reduces FAD present in GSR to produce a ...
*  BRAF (gene)
... decreasing the likelihood of enzyme activation. Further hydrophobic interaction of K483, L514, and T529 with the center phenyl ... It then binds key activation loop and DFG motif residues to stop the movement of the activation loop and DFG motif to the ... During B-Raf activation, the protein's autoinhibitory CR1 domain first binds Ras-GTP's effector domain to the CR1 Ras-binding ... "Mechanism of activation of the RAF-ERK signaling pathway by oncogenic mutations of B-RAF". Cell. 116 (6): 855-67. doi:10.1016/ ...
*  Inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase
Certain sequences are required for CaM binding and enzyme activation and this level of stimulation appears to be specific to ... ITP3K is not the only enzyme responsible for clearing IP3 from the cytoplasm. A second enzyme called inositol 5-phosphatase ... Since this isolation, 3 human isoforms have been found (A,B,C). This enzyme (all isoforms) plays a vital role in the calcium ... Inositol (1,4,5) Trisphosphate-3- Kinase (EC 2.7.1.127) is an enzyme that facilitates a phospho-group transfer from ATP to 1D- ...
*  Protein phosphatase
Phosphate addition and removal do not necessarily correspond to enzyme activation or inhibition, and that several enzymes have ... The enzyme then acts to dephosphorylate other enzymes, such as phosphorylase kinase, glycogen phosphorylase, and glycogen ... The degree of activation of the various isoforms of PKs and PPs is controlled by their individual sensitivities to calcium. ... The addition of a phosphate group may activate or de-activate an enzyme (e.g., kinase signalling pathways) or enable a protein- ...
*  Papain
The activation process of these enzymes includes the removal of propeptide regions, which serve a variety of functions in vivo ... The proteins are typically lysosomal or secreted, and proteolytic cleavage of the propeptide is required for enzyme activation ... This forms a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate and frees the amino terminus of the peptide. The enzyme is deacylated by a water ... Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.2) enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and ...
*  Pantothenic acid
... are involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation, respectively. Since pantothenic acid participates ... Pantetheinase, an intestinal enzyme, then hydrolyzes pantetheine into free pantothenic acid. Free pantothenic acid is absorbed ...
*  Magnesium in biology
... enzyme activation, and catalysis. However, the unusual nature of ionic magnesium has also led to a major challenge in the use ... Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or ... Sometimes such enzyme metal preferences vary among closely related species: For example, the reverse transcriptase enzyme of ... Finally, thiol groups on enzymes are reduced by a change in the redox state of the stroma. Examples of enzymes activated in ...
*  Biological target
... or channel or enzyme activation) or be the opposite of the endogenous substance which in the case of receptors is referred to ... Biological targets are most commonly proteins such as enzymes, ion channels, and receptors. The external stimulus (i.e., the ... Depending on the nature of the target, this effect is referred as receptor antagonism, enzyme inhibition, or ion channel ... enzymes (especially protein kinases, proteases, esterases, and phosphatases) ion channels ligand-gated ion channels voltage- ...
*  Plant nutrition
Calcium regulates transport of other nutrients into the plant and is also involved in the activation of certain plant enzymes. ... Nickel is essential for activation of urease, an enzyme involved with nitrogen metabolism that is required to process urea. ... Molybdenum is part of the nitrate reductase enzyme (needed for the reduction of nitrate) and the nitrogenase enzyme (required ... In lower plants, nickel activates several enzymes involved in a variety of processes, and can substitute for zinc and iron as a ...
*  Radical SAM
... enzyme activation) PflA - pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (enzyme activation) PhpK - radical SAM P-methyltransferase ... Examples of radical SAM enzymes include various enzymes involved in cofactor biosynthesis, enzyme activation, peptide ... enzyme activation) QueE - 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG) synthase RimO - ribosomal protein S12 methylthiotransferase RlmN - 23S ... enzyme activation) BchE - anaerobic magnesium protoporphyrin-IX oxidative cyclase (cofactor biosynthesis - chlorophyll) BioB - ...
*  Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase
... enzyme activation, protein acylation, cell signaling, and transcriptional regulation. The formation of fatty acyl-CoA is ... the rate-limiting enzyme and first enzyme of the fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid synthase (FAS), the second and major ... The enzymes in the family consist of a large N-terminal and a small C-terminal domain, with the catalytic site positioned ... The enzyme catalyzes the following reaction: Fatty acid + CoA + ATP ⇌ Acyl-CoA + AMP + PPi It is present in all organisms from ...
*  Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of ... Minghetti L, Pocchiari M (2007). "Cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, and microglial activation in prion diseases". Int. Rev. ... The tertiary and quaternary structures of PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) enzymes are almost identical. Each subunit has three ... PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) are bifunctional enzymes that carry out two consecutive chemical reactions in spatially ...