Energy metabolism[edit]. Some obligate anaerobes use fermentation, while others use anaerobic respiration.[9] Aerotolerant ... The energy released in this equation is approximately 150 kJ per mol, which is conserved in regenerating two ATP from ADP per ... The energy released is about 180 kJ per mol, which is conserved in regenerating two ATP from ADP per glucose. ... 3: Facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen because they can metabolise energy aerobically or anaerobically. They ...
Energy. metabolism. Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycleOxidative phosphorylation ...
Energy. metabolism. Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycleOxidative phosphorylation ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... The energy from this exothermic reaction is used to bind inorganic phosphates to ATP and convert NAD+ to NADH. The pyruvates ... Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Red nodes: cellular respiration. Pink nodes: cell ...
Energy. metabolism. Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycleOxidative phosphorylation ... To convert to energy, once the proteins are broken down, they are typically deaminated (removal of an amino group) so that they ... The peptide bonds are broken up by the proteasome, which is able to hydrolyze the peptide bonds by using ATP energy. This ... The alpha-keto acid will then proceed into the TCA cycle, in order to produce energy. The acid can also enter glycolysis, where ...
Energy. metabolism. Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycleOxidative phosphorylation ... HGPRT is an important enzyme in Purine pathway metabolism and[2] its deficiency is implicated in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. ...
Batholomew, G. (1982). "Energy Metabolism". Animal Physiology: Principles and Adaptations. Macmillan Publishing Co.. ... This reduction in metabolism allows it to conserve 30% of fat stores amassed from the previous day. Without using torpor the ... Daily torpor, on the other hand, is not seasonally dependent and can be an important part of energy conservation at any time of ... Torpor is often used to help animals survive during periods of colder temperatures, as it allows them to save the energy that ...
Aschoff J, Pohl H (July 1970). "Rhythmic variations in energy metabolism". Federation Proceedings. 29 (4): 1541-52. PMID ... Webb P (November 1986). "24-hour energy expenditure and the menstrual cycle". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 44 (5 ... Early, small sample studies have found various figures, such as; a 6% higher postovulatory sleep metabolism,[5] a 7% to 15% ... Webb P (1981). "Increased levels of energy exchange in women after ovulation". The Physiologist. 24: 43.. ...
3. Nitrogen, Electrolytes, Water and Energy Metabolism. Basel-Munchen-Paris-London-New York- Sydney: S.Karger, 1979. 260 pp. ... In his research, he initially specialized in amino acid metabolism, including the utilization of D-amino acids and non specific ...
"Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and energy metabolism". Frontiers in Physiology. 6 (36): 36. doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00036. ... fatty acid metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism.[68] This suggests that some of the adipocytes switched to a beige phenotype at ... "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 94 (6): 2129-36. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-2532. PMC 2690416 . PMID 19318450.. ... "Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 7 (4): 406-13. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00410.x. PMID 15955127.. (registration required) ...
King, J. R.; Farner, D.S. (1961). "Energy Metabolism, thermoregulation, and body temperature". In Marshall, A. J. (ed.). ... Likewise, the daily energy turnover rate for an ostrich with access to free water is 12,700 kJ·d−1, equivalent to 0.26 ml O2 g− ... Metabolism[edit]. Common ostriches are able to attain their necessary energetic requirements via the oxidation of absorbed ... Along with BMR, energy is also needed for a range of other activities. If the ambient temperature is lower than the thermo- ...
"Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and energy metabolism". Frontiers in Physiology. 6. doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00036. ISSN 1664- ... This makes ATP energy production less efficient. In effect, part of the energy that is normally produced from cellular ... The factor that limits ever-increasing doses of DNP is not a lack of ATP energy production, but rather an excessive rise in ... As the dose increases and energy production is made more inefficient, metabolic rate increases (and more fat is burned) in ...
Cerebral Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Encephalopathy. Plenum Publishing Corp.; 1985. *^ Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal ... Inborn errors of pyruvate metabolism. In: Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Frederckson DS et al., eds. Metabolic Basis of Inherited ... Gropper, Sareen S. and Smith, Jack L. (2013). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism (6 ed.). Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. p. ... Pathological similarities between Leigh disease and WE led to the hypothesis that the cause was a defect in thiamine metabolism ...
In: Souffrant, W. B. and C. C. Metges (eds.). Progress in research on energy and protein metabolism. EAAP publ. no. 109. ... Another method for dealing with pricing based on protein and fat, is using energy-corrected milk (ECM), which adds a factor to ... Live mass, carcass and wool growth responses to supplementation of a roughage diet with sources of protein and energy in South ... which has a low metabolizable energy concentration, FCR of lambs may be as high as 40.[23] Other things being equal, FCR tends ...
Heart muscle relies exclusively on aerobic metabolism for energy. Hypoxia (an insufficient supply of oxygen) leads to ...
"Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism by the Skeleton" (PDF). Cell. 130 (3): 456-469. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.047. PMC ... Endocrine organ - bone controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast growth factor - 23 (FGF-23), which acts on kidneys ... This density is measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), with the term "established osteoporosis" including the ... vertebral fractures associated with high-energy trauma and cancer, and fractures of long-bones. Not all fractures are painful.[ ...
"Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism by the Skeleton" (PDF). Cell. 130 (3): 456-469. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.047. PMC ... Endocrine organ - bone controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast growth factor - 23 (FGF-23), which acts on kidneys ... This density is measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), with the term "established osteoporosis" including the ... "Ch 2: Physiology of Bone Formation, Remodeling, and Metabolism". In Ignac Fogelman; Gopinath Gnanasegaran; Hans van der Wall. ...
Energy-yielding metabolism. In: Rose, A.H., Harrison, J.S. (Eds), The yeasts, vol. 2, 2nd ed. Academic Press, London, pp. 205. ... This, in turn, will dramatically reduce any need for active extrusion of protons and acid anions, thus saving a lot of energy. ... Aerobic sugar metabolism in the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii. FEMS Yeast Research 4, 277-283. Sousa-Dias, S., ... The slow fermentation of sucrose is directly related to fructose metabolism. According to Pitt and Hocking (1997), Z. bailii ...
Brain Energy Metabolism. Neuromethods. 90. pp. 195-216. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1059-5_9. ISBN 978-1-4939-1058-8. Parks, Scott K ... imBI can be used to determine the lactate concentration of tumors or to measure the metabolism of the brain. "PerkinElmer to ...
Siesjö, Bo K. (1978). Brain Energy Metabolism. New York: Wiley. p. 612. ISBN 978-0-471-99515-9. Rennie, Michael J. (2007). "An ... Energy is supplied to the brain in the form glucose and oxygen (which is transferred by hemoglobin). The blood supply is ... The genes expressed during wakefulness may perform numerous duties including energy allocation, synaptic excitatory ... consistently regulated so that areas of activation receive higher amounts of energy compared to areas that are less activated. ...
Metabolism[edit]. Glucose[edit]. Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis[14] ... Thus, a negative net energy balance leads to activation of the HPA axis and the circulating concomitants of the catabolic state ... Metabolism[edit]. Cortisol is metabolized by the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase system (11-beta HSD), which consists of ... Mammalian Protein Metabolism. New York: Academic Press. p. 229? 273?.. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ...
... that lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing brain aerobic energy metabolism in vitro. ... Brain metabolism[edit]. Although glucose is usually assumed to be the main energy source for living tissues, there are some ... "Activity-dependent regulation of energy metabolism by astrocytes: an update". Glia. 55 (12): 1251-62. doi:10.1002/glia.20528. ... During power exercises such as sprinting, when the rate of demand for energy is high, glucose is broken down and oxidized to ...
Scientists at the DDZ have recently contributed to a better understanding of the energy metabolism at NAFLD (AG Prof. Roden) ... "Research Group Energy Metabolism". Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum (DDZ). Retrieved 2020-04-24. "Research Group Islet Cell Research ...
Kelly DP, Mason J, Wood A (1987). "Energy Metabolism in Chemolithotrophs". In van Verseveld HW, Duine JA (eds.). Microbial ... The freed energy is stored as potential energy in ATP, carbohydrates, or proteins. Eventually, the energy is used for life ... Table 1: Definitions of metabolic strategies to obtain carbon and energy Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2020). "Oxygen Is the High-Energy ... Phototrophs absorb light in photoreceptors and transform it into chemical energy. Chemotrophs release bond energy from chemical ...
Brand, M. D.; Couture, P.; Else, P. L.; Withers, K. W.; Hulbert, A. J. (1 April 1991). "Evolution of energy metabolism. Proton ...
Energy contribution of octanoate to intact rat brain metabolism measured by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J ... The contribution of blood lactate to brain energy metabolism in humans measured by dynamic 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ... Soengas, JL; Aldegunde, M. Energy metabolism of fish brain. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and ... Appraising the brain's energy budget. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002, 99 (16): 10237-10239. PMC 124895. PMID 12149485. doi: ...
This reaction releases energy that can be used to drive metabolism. Chemotrophs are further divided by the types of compounds ... Nutritional types in bacterial metabolism Nutritional type Source of energy Source of carbon Examples ... Metabolism. Further information: Microbial metabolism. Bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types.[88] The ... Bacterial metabolism is classified into nutritional groups on the basis of three major criteria: the source of energy, the ...
AgRP is co-expressed with NPY and acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the ... "Autophagy in hypothalamic AgRP neurons regulates food intake and energy balance". Cell Metabolism. 14 (2): 173-83. doi:10.1016/ ... Conversely, AgRP-secreting neurons inhibit the release of TRH from the PVN, which may contribute to conservation of energy in ... Studies suggest that systems involved in the regulation of stress response and of energy balance are highly integrated. Loss or ...
Jul 2003). "Energy contribution of octanoate to intact rat brain metabolism measured by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ... The brain typically gets most of its energy from oxygen-dependent metabolism of glucose (i.e., blood sugar), but ketones ... Oct 2010). "The contribution of blood lactate to brain energy metabolism in humans measured by dynamic 13C nuclear magnetic ... Soengas, JL; Aldegunde, M (2002). "Energy metabolism of fish brain". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 131 (3): 271- ...
Miki, K (2007). "Energy metabolism and sperm function". Society of Fertility Supplement. 65: 309-325. PMID 17644971. Scharf, I ... Also, if the amount of energy intake does not equal the energy expended, then this could be potentially fatal to the male. ... With all of these energy costs that go along with guarding a mate, timing is crucial so that the male can use the minimal ... There is a lot of energy that is expended when a male is guarding his mate. For instance, in polygynous mate-guarding systems, ...
Representative ketones, from the left: acetone, a common solvent; oxaloacetate, an intermediate in the metabolism of sugars; ... Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars and carbohydrates.[22] ... in various inborn errors of metabolism, and intentionally induced via a ketogenic diet, and in ketoacidosis (usually due to ...
Many mammals, in the absence of sufficient food requirements in an environment, suppress their metabolism and conserve energy ... Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to ... Humphries, M. M.; Thomas, D.W.; Kramer, D.L. (2003). "The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit ... Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered ...
... basic to metabolism."[28]:1230-1231 The units in energy flow webs are typically a measure mass or energy per m2 per unit time. ... This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and ... Autotrophs produce more biomass energy, either chemically without the sun's energy or by capturing the sun's energy in ... Energy flow web - quantified fluxes of energy between nodes along links between a resource and a consumer.[3][39] ...
Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.; Ishikawa, Y. (1995). "Transition energies of ytterbium, lutetium, and lawrencium by the relativistic ... Lutetium salts are known to cause metabolism and they occur together with other lanthanide salts in nature; the element is the ... "Resonance Transition Energies and Oscillator Strengths in Lutetium and Lawrencium". Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (18): 183001. Bibcode ...
A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age, U.S. Department of Energy, The Office of Biological ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 20 (3): 423-451. doi:10.1097/00004647-200003000-00001. PMID 10724107.. ... and the whole body occupational dose limit for nuclear energy workers in the USA is 50mSv/year.[30] For scale, see Orders of ... Because the oxygen atom that is replaced by F-18 to generate FDG is required for the next step in glucose metabolism in all ...
"Glucosinolate metabolism, functionality and breeding for the improvement of Brassicaceae vegetables". Breed Sci. 64 (1): 48-59 ...
Food energyEdit. Alcoholic drinks are a source of food energy. The USDA uses a figure of 6.93 kilocalories (29.0 kJ) per gram ... the same intermediate product as in glucose metabolism. Because ethanol is mostly metabolized and consumed by the liver, ... of alcohol (5.47 kcal or 22.9 kJ per ml) for calculating food energy.[21] In addition to alcohol, many alcoholic drinks contain ...
... marxianus is an aerobic yeast capable of respiro-fermentative metabolism that consists of simultaneously generating energy from ... "Growth of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556 on different sugar combinations as sole carbon and energy source". Applied ... The balance between respiration and fermentation metabolisms is strain specific.[5] This species also ferments inulin, glucose ... Energy, Sustainability and Society. 5 (1). doi:10.1186/s13705-014-0028-2.. ...
Possible energy sourceEdit. I was wondering if anyone knows how to force cyanobacteria to produce Hydrogen. I was told all you ... I think the word "metabolism" should perhaps read "mechanism"? I'll leave it to a proper user to decide though, as I'm not ... Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta or blue-green algae, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through ... As far as I am aware, nothing classified as an "animal" respirates Carbon Dioxide for energy and emits Oxygen. Redwood Elf ( ...
Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism (3 ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. p. 69. ISBN ...
The nitrogen metabolism of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and Pinus banksiana Lamb. as influenced by mineral nutrition. Can. J. Bot ... The leaves are often dark green in colour, which may help absorb a maximum of energy from weak sunshine at high latitudes or ... Added to this would be the photosynthate to produce energy to sustain respiration over this period, an amount estimated to be ...
Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow the parasite to conserve significant energy or resources and grow faster, ...
... the first ionisation energies and atomisation energies of the alkali metals. Because the first ionisation energy of the alkali ... Rubidium has no known biological role, but may help stimulate metabolism,[234][235][236] and, similarly to caesium,[234][237] ... The first ionisation energy of an element or molecule is the energy required to move the most loosely held electron from one ... The formation of an alkali metal nitride would consume the ionisation energy of the alkali metal (forming M+ ions), the energy ...
Some carbons have been able to achieve bonding energies of 5-10 kJ per mol. The gas may then be desorbed when subjected to ... toxic to metabolism and neurotoxic. ... The United States Department of Energy has specified certain ... Bradley RH, Sutherland I, Sheng E (1996). "Carbon surface: Area, porosity, chemistry, and energy". Journal of Colloid and ... In vapour phase systems this needs to be considered against pressure drop, which will affect energy cost. Careful consideration ...
MetabolismEdit. Sustained energy output (joules) of a typical reptile versus a similar size mammal as a function of core body ... Their poikilotherm metabolism has very low energy requirements, allowing large reptiles like crocodiles and large constrictors ... Garnett, S. T. (2009). "Metabolism and survival of fasting Estuarine crocodiles". Journal of Zoology. 4 (208): 493-502. doi: ... Digestion is slower than in mammals, reflecting their lower resting metabolism and their inability to divide and masticate ...
... which can be used to generate energy.[25] The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is ... non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for ... the body's cells rely on internally stored energy sources, such as complex carbohydrates and fats, for energy. The first source ... It is important to know the amount of energy your body is using every day, so that your intake fits the needs of one's personal ...
Metabolism * sw:Metabolism. Metal * sw:Metal. Metallurgy * sw:Metallurgy. Metre * sw:Metre. Mexico * sw:Mexico. Mexico City * ... Energy * sw:Energy. Engineering * sw:Engineering. English * sw:English. Enrico Fermi * sw:Enrico Fermi. Enzyme * sw:Enzyme. ... Conservation of energy * sw:Conservation of energy. Conservatism * sw:Conservatism. Constantine the Great * sw:Constantine the ... Renewable energy * sw:Renewable energy. Reproduction * sw:Reproduction. Reproductive system * sw:Reproductive system. Reptile ...
They also function as a carbon and energy source for the development of a vegetative bacterium during germination. ... Microbial metabolism. *Nitrogen fixation. *Microbial ecology. *Primary nutritional groups. *Substrate preference *Lipophilic ...
Microbial metabolism. *Phage ecology. Food webs. *Biomagnification. *Ecological efficiency. *Ecological pyramid. *Energy flow ...
2008). Lipoic acid: energy production, antioxidant activity and health effects. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 1-4200-4537-7.. ... Teichert J, Hermann R, Ruus P, Preiss R (2003). „Plasma kinetics, metabolism, and urinary excretion of alpha-lipoic acid ...
... and energy storage and expenditure. It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the ... the mobilization of energy, learning (in the face of novel, dangerous stimuli) as well as increased appetite for biochemical ... energy storage. In contemporary society, the endurance of the HPA axis and early life programming will have important ... Metabolism. *Blood sugar regulation. *Calcium metabolism. Fields. *Neuroendocrinology. *Pediatric endocrinology. * ...
Harris, Ph.D., Edward D. (1 January 2014). Minerals in Food Nutrition, Metabolism, Bioactivity (chapter 3.4) (1st ed.). ... A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functions Red ... Gropper, Sareen S.; Smith, Jack L. (1 June 2012). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Cengage Learning. pp. 527-8. ISBN 1- ... The dietary focus on chemical elements derives from an interest in supporting the biochemical reactions of metabolism with the ...
不同的區域與國家的人均飲食熱量攝取(英语:Dietary energy supply)差別很大,並會隨著時代而有明顯改變[89]。從1970年代早期到1990年代晚期,除了東歐地區外,全球的人均每日熱量攝取(購買的食物量)都在上升。1996年,人均每日熱 ... 脂質遺傳性(英语:Inborn error of lipid metabolism)代謝缺陷 : 血脂異常(英语:dyslipidemia) (E78、272.0-272.6(英语:List of ICD-9 codes
Several missions on the Aquarius have been canceled due to hurricane activity. During Hurricane Gordon in 1994, a crew of scientists and divers had to evacuate Aquarius and climb up a rescue line to the surface in 15-foot seas after one of the habitat's generators caught fire.[9][10] In 1998, Hurricane Georges nearly destroyed Aquarius, breaking a joint in one of its legs and moving two 8000-pound weights on the wet porch nearly off the structure. Both Hurricane Georges and Hurricane Mitch, later in 1998, also destroyed way stations outside Aquarius used to refill aquanauts' scuba tanks.[9] In 2005, Hurricane Rita broke two of the habitat's seabed anchors and moved one end of Aquarius by twelve feet.[9][11] In 2017 Hurricane Irma ripped the habitat's 94,000 pound life support buoy from its moorings and blew it 14 miles away to the Lignum Vitae Channel, as well as damaging the underwater living quarters and 'wet porch' area.[12] As of 2008[update], no scientists or staff members had been injured ...
... exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their metabolism and use many sources of energy. These reactions are ... Nutritional types in archaeal metabolism. Nutritional type. Source of energy. Source of carbon. Examples. ... Carbon-fixation is powered by inorganic energy sources. No known archaea carry out photosynthesis.[125] Archaeal energy sources ... The energy stored in these electrochemical gradients is then converted into ATP by ATP synthase.[86] This process is a form of ...
ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), the biological energy source, reacts with luciferin with the aid of the enzyme luciferase to ... The capacity to produce light is an extension of normal metabolism: all chemical reactions produce a few photons. Visible light ... Bioluminescence is the result of chemical processes, where the energy produced is released as visible light. Bioluminescence ...
Genes containing the TATA-box tend to be involved in stress-responses and certain types of metabolism and are more highly ... "Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer shows uniformity in TATA binding protein-induced DNA bending and ...
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 50 (3): 167-172. doi:10.1159/000090736. PMID 16407641.. ...
Future Energies (30 October 2003). "PORT HUENEME, Calif: U.S. Navy to Produce its Own Biofuels :: Future Energies :: The future ... Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... According to a joint research agenda conducted through the US Department of Energy,[30] the fossil energy ratios (FER) for ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2 March 2007). "Research Advantages: Cellulosic Ethanol" (PDF). National Renewable Energy ...
There is no thermal activation energy for the transformation from austenite to martensite.[clarification needed] Moreover, ... They can also be used for converting pig iron to steel, but they use a lot of electrical energy (about 440 kWh per metric ton ...