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*  Nitric oxide synthase
NO produced by eNOS has been shown to be a vasodilator identical to the endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced in ... The gene coding for eNOS is located on Chromosome 7. A constitutive Ca2+ dependent NOS provides a basal release of NO. eNOS is ... It is synthesized by many cell types in response to cytokines and is an important factor in the response of the body to attack ... This dilates blood vessels by relaxing smooth muscle in their linings. eNOS is the primary controller of smooth muscle tone. NO ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D16)
... endothelium-dependent relaxing factors MeSH D27.505.954.427 --- central nervous system agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.010 --- ... immunologic factors MeSH D27.505.696.477.136 --- agglutinins MeSH D27.505.696.477.136.377 --- hemagglutinins MeSH D27.505. ...
*  Ulrich Förstermann
... endothelium-derived relaxing factor), the identification of the enzymes "nitric oxide synthase" (EC 1.14.13.39) and the ... Ulrich Förstermann's key research contributed to the understanding of endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels ( ...
*  Epoxygenase
... arteries suggesting that the dihydroxy metabolites may act as vascular endothelium-derived Endothelium-derived relaxing factors ... the eSH-dependent metabolism of these eoxide, 7,8-, 10,11-, and 13,14-dihydroxy-docosatrienoic acids relaxes pre-contracted ... and CYP2C9-dependent NSAID metabolism as a risk factor for gastrointestinal bleeding: Is a combination of pharmacogenomics and ... has decreased binding of the Sp1 transcription factor resulting in its lowered expressionas and lowered levels of EETs in ...
*  Kynurenine
"Kynurenine is an endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced during inflammation". Nature Medicine. 16 (3): 279-85. doi: ... "Aryl hydrocarbon receptor negatively regulates dendritic cell immunogenicity via a kynurenine-dependent mechanism". Proceedings ...
*  Mesangial cell
... of mesangial cells is dependent on cell membrane permeability to calcium ions and relaxation is mediated by paracrine factors, ... The mesangium is exposed to macromolecules from the capillary lumen as they are separated only by fenestrated endothelium ... Mesangial cells can contract and relax to regulate capillary flow. This is regulated by vasoactive substances. Contraction ... The transcription factor for PDGFRβ, Tbx18, is crucial for the development of mesangial cells. Without Tbx18 the development of ...
*  Exhaled nitric oxide
In 1987, experiments with coronary arteries showed that nitric oxide was the long sought endothelium-derived relaxing factor. ... The fraction of eNO is also flow-dependent (higher at lower flow rates and vice versa), so measurements are normally measured ... It has also been noted that factors other than inflammation can increase eNO levels, for example airway acidity. The fraction ... agents that relax the blood vessels). Exposure to air pollution has been associated with decreased, and increased eNO levels. ...
*  Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor Luksha L, Agewall S, Kublickiene K (February 2009). "Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing ... The mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (i.e., EDHF-mediated relaxation) seems to be heterogeneous ... the term of endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor should represent a mechanism rather than a specific factor. ... increased evidence for the role of another endothelium-derived vasodilator known as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor ...
*  Vascular resistance
Cholinergic stimulation causes release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) (later it was discovered that EDRF was ... Because adenosine acts as a direct vasodilator, it is not dependent on an intact endothelium to cause vasodilation. Adenosine ... are vasodilatory when the endothelium is intact and are vasoconstrictive when the endothelium is damaged. ... There are many factors that alter the vascular resistance. Vascular compliance is determined by the muscle tone in the smooth ...
*  Platelet
"Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor". Nature. 327 (6122): 524-26. ... May 2006). "Glycoprotein VI-dependent and -independent pathways of thrombus formation in vivo". Blood. 107 (10): 3902-06. doi: ... fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, platelet-derived epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial ... Tissue factor also binds to factor VII in the blood, which initiates the extrinsic coagulation cascade to increase thrombin ...
*  Prostacyclin receptor
This action involves IP's ability to relax vascular smooth muscle and is considered to be one of the fundamental functions of ... It is found throughout the vascular network on endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Standard prostanoids have the following ... and Giβγ-dependent pathways. In certain cells, activation of FP also stimulates G12/G13-Gβγ G proteins to activate the Rho ... PKC/Ca2+/Calcineurin/Nuclear factor of activated T-cells; and EGF cellular receptors; and c) Gi alpha subunit-Giβγ) complexes ...
*  12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
... and in cooperation with Tumor necrosis factor alpha or Platelet-activating factor, to release their granule-bound enzymes; c) ... This antagonistic activity was responsible for the ability of 12(S)-HETE and 12(R)-HETE to relax mouse mesenteric arteries pre- ... 12(S)-HETE and 12(R)-HETE are converted to 12-oxo-ETE by microsomal NAD+-dependent 12-hydroxyeicosanoid dehdrogenase in porcine ... vascular endothelium) involved in inflammation, the pro-inflammatory actions of 12-HETE in humans may involve both types of G ...
*  Biological functions of nitric oxide
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor was originally the name given to several proposed factors causing vasodilation. The major ... The neuronal enzyme (NOS-1) and the endothelial isoform (NOS-3) are calcium-dependent and produce low levels of this gas as a ... Washington DC R.F. Furchgott's website: The Nature of the Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor Assessing the Potential of Nitric ... endothelial-derived relaxing factor was later discovered to be nitric oxide (NO). The discovery of the biological functions of ...
*  Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
... which recruits lymphocytes into the tissue beneath the endothelium that subsequently release transforming growth factor beta, ... Heart Rate Cardiac output is dependent on stroke volume and heart rate. A significant portion (55-77%) of HFpEF patients are ... Ischemia can result in impaired relaxation of the heart; when myocytes fail to relax appropriately, myosin cross bridges remain ... Risk factors for HFpEF include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obstructive sleep apnea. There is a query ...
*  Amrinone
A reduced release of endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDRF) causes a decrease in the stimulation of guanylate cyclase and ... enhancement of high gain CICR which contributes to the contraction of myocytes by phosphorylation through cAMP dependent ...
*  Gaseous signaling molecules
Nitric oxide, known as the 'endothelium-derived relaxing factor', or 'EDRF', is biosynthesized endogenously from L-arginine, ... "Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide are mutually dependent in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelium-dependent ... Proctor, PH (August 1989). "Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor and Minoxidil: Active Mechanisms in Hair Growth". Archives of ... The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus ...
*  Nitric oxide
... , known as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), is biosynthesized endogenously from L-arginine, oxygen, ... In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase, (although the ... Proctor, PH (August 1989). "Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor and Minoxidil: Active Mechanisms in Hair Growth". Archives of ... The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus ...
*  Louis Ignarro
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: ... Rapid nitric oxidemediated S-nitrosylation of estrogen receptor: Regulation of estrogen-dependent gene transcription. Proc. ... In 1984 he realized that the properties of nitric oxide were the same as those seen in the endothelium derived relaxing factor ... Endothelium-derived relaxing factor from pulmonary artery and vein possesses pharmacological and chemical properties that are ...
*  Nitroglycerin (drug)
... also called endothelium-derived relaxing factor, before the structure of NO as the responsible agent was known. This led to the ... by heme-dependent mechanisms; this activation results in formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from guanosine ... triphosphate (GTP). Among other roles, cGMP serves as a substrate for a cGMP-dependent protein kinase that activates myosin ...
*  Endothelial dysfunction
Nitric oxide endothelial nitric oxide synthase Prostacyclin Endothelium-derived relaxing factor Endothelin Relevant endothelial ... Since NO maintains low tone and high compliance of the small arteries at rest a reduction of age-dependent small artery ... the endothelium is responsible for maintaining a relaxed vascular tone and low levels of oxidative stress by releasing ... This allows the endothelium, specifically in the vessels of the heart, to ensure proper blood flow to and from the heart. In ...
*  Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid
They are one type of Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor, i.e. a substance and/or electrical signal synthesized or ... Finally, 11,12-EET has been shown to relax the internal mammary artery in women, indicating that at least this EET has direct ... Sacerdoti D, Gatta A, McGiff JC (Oct 2003). "Role of cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites in liver physiology ... and Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). EDHFs include endothelin, angiotensin II, thromboxane A2, certain ...
*  Lipoxin
In addition to this, lipoxin A4 display a CB1 receptor-dependent protective effect against β-amyloid-induced spatial memory ... LXA4 and 15-epi-LTA4 also act by mobilizing transcription factors that regulate expression of various inflammation-regulating ... LXA4 inhibits the-bronchial contracting action of LTC4 and relaxes pre-contracted bronchi in asthmatic individuals. Kaposi's ... and endothelium or skeletal muscle and neutrophils. The lipoxins commonly form as a consequence of stimulating the production ...
*  Erection
ISBN 0-393-32127-4) Sadeghipour H, Ghasemi M, Ebrahimi F, Dehpour AR (2007). "Effect of lithium on endothelium-dependent and ... Penile erection is the result of a complex interaction of psychological, neural, vascular and endocrine factors, and is often ... The retractor muscle contracts to retract the penis into the sheath and relaxes to allow the penis to extend from the sheath. ... "Effect of chronic lithium administration on endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: the role of nitric oxide ...
*  Calcium in biology
Both nitric oxide and hyperpolarization cause the smooth muscle to relax in order to regulate the amount of tone in blood ... An example a protein with calcium coordination is von Willebrand factor (vWF) which has an essential role in blood clot ... EDHF: spreading the influence of the endothelium. British Journal of Pharmacology. 164:3, 839-852. (2011). Hua Cai, David G. ... voltage-dependent, calcium-selective ion channels are important for synaptic transmission through the release of ...
*  Anthrax toxin
... called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological ... First, it helps to relax the tight grip of the CMG2 or TEM8 receptor on PA, facilitating the pore formation (the different ... Once in these cells, LF acts as a Zn2+-dependent endoprotease that snips off the N-terminus of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... There are two known homologous receptors, which bind to PA83, called tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary ...
*  Antigenic variation
An example of this is the pox virus vaccinia which encoded a viral growth factor similar that is very similar to the human ... The PfEMP1 protein serves to sequester infected erythrocytes from splenic destruction via adhesion to the endothelium. Moreover ... The process is partially dependent on homologous recombination of DNA, which is mediated in part by the interaction of the T. ... relaxed and mutually exclusive transcription of var genes during intra-erythrocytic development in Plasmodium falciparum". EMBO ...