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*  Deep brain stimulation
... through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and ... a thin lead with multiple electrodes is implanted in the globus pallidus, nucleus ventralis intermedius thalami (Vim) or the ... The lead from the implant is extended to the neurostimulator under the skin in the chest area.[citation needed] In 2015 a group ... The lead is a coiled wire insulated in polyurethane with four platinum-iridium electrodes and is placed in one or two different ...
*  Graphene morphology
"3D Honeycomb-Like Structured Graphene and Its High Efficiency as a Counter-Electrode Catalyst for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells". ... thermal management and biomedical devices and implants. In 2016 box-shaped graphene (BSG) nanostructure resulted from ...
*  Electroencephalography
In these cases, neurosurgeons typically implant strips and grids of electrodes (or penetrating depth electrodes) under the dura ... Each electrode is connected to one input of a differential amplifier (one amplifier per pair of electrodes); a common system ... 4: Common reference electrode's artifact caused by bad contact between reference electrode and skin. Huge wave similar in all ... When the wave of ions reaches the electrodes on the scalp, they can push or pull electrons on the metal in the electrodes. ...
*  Chronic electrode implant
A chronic electrode implant is an electronic device implanted chronically (for a long period) into the brain or other ... Implantable electrode research also employs many different techniques for surgically implanting the electrodes; the most ... Another recent study addressing the impact of chronically implanted electrodes points that tungsten-coated electrodes seem to ... Recording electrodes, however, must rely on whatever signals are present where they are implanted, and cannot easily be made ...
*  Minimally conscious state
He had DBS electrodes implanted bilaterally within his central thalamus. More specifically, the DBS electrodes targeted the ... Both electrodes were positioned within the central lateral nucleus, the paralaminar regions of the median dorsalis, and the ... a technique that supplies a small electric current in the brain with non-invasive electrodes, may improve the clinical state of ...
*  Theta wave
In animals, EEG signals are usually recorded using electrodes implanted in the brain; the majority of theta studies have ... In contrast to the situation in rats, where long periods of theta oscillations are easily observed using electrodes implanted ... involved electrodes implanted in the hippocampus. In humans, because invasive studies are not ethically permissible except in ... on human hippocampal theta comes from a few small studies of epileptic patients with intracranially implanted electrodes used ...
*  Targeted reinnervation
EEG and fMRI do not obtain as strong signals as direct electrode implant. Traditional myoelectric prostheses are unable to ... Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes. J Neurosci Methods. 2005 Oct 15;148(1):1-18. Schwartz AB, ... One hundred and fifteen electrodes were used to record EMG from the pectoral muscle; two electrodes were used to record from ... The electrodes were placed at a distance of 15mm from each other. To remove the artifact caused by body movement, the EMG ...
*  Animals in space
Félicette had electrodes implanted into her brain, and the recorded neural impulses were transmitted back to Earth. A second ... Monkeys were implanted with sensors to measure vital signs, and many were under anesthesia during launch. The death rate among ... while undergoing surgery to remove an infected medical electrode. Baker was the center of media attention for the next several ...
*  Pain and pleasure
Deep brain stimulation involves the electrical stimulation of deep brain structures by electrodes implanted into the brain. The ... A fine electrode is inserted into the targeted area of the brain and secured to the skull. This is attached to a pulse ... generator which is implanted elsewhere on the body under the skin. The surgeon then turns the frequency of the electrode to the ...
*  P3b
Early studies using electrodes implanted in the brain indicated that the hippocampal formation might generate the P300. However ... Assuming that a cephalic reference is used (i.e., a reference electrode placed somewhere on the head, such as the tip of the ... However, using a 15-electrode setup with a linked-earlobe reference and an oddball task (described below), researchers have ...
*  List of cats
Félicette had electrodes implanted into her brain, and the recorded neural impulses were transmitted back to Earth. Mrs. Chippy ...
*  Estazolam
Electroencephalographic effects of 450191-S and its metabolites in rabbits with chronic electrode implants]". Nippon Yakurigaku ...
*  T. S. Kanaka
She is the first neurosurgeon in India to perform chronic electrode implants in the brain; having performed deep brain ...
*  Orbiting Frog Otolith
Both flight frogs had electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes implanted in their thoracic cavities and microelectrodes implanted in ... Frogs are demotorized to prevent dislodging of implanted electrodes and to reduce their metabolic rate. The FOEP was designed ... The frogs were demotorized (by cutting their limb nerves [1]) to prevent them from dislodging their implanted electrodes, and ... The micro-electrode consists of a probe of tungsten wire 50 µm in diameter, sharpened electrically to a point less than 1 µm in ...
*  Remote control animal
Some applications require electrodes to be implanted in the animal's nervous system connected to a receiver which is usually ... Three electrodes are implanted; two in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus which conveys facial sensory ... "There's got to be a level of discomfort in implanting these electrodes," he says, which may be difficult to justify. Talwar ... Spiny dogfish sharks have been remotely controlled by implanting electrodes deep in the shark's brain to a remote control ...
*  Ken Grimwood
Cured of epilepsy by a breakthrough in medical technology, 26-year-old Elizabeth Austin has miniature electrodes implanted in ... However, as part of the implant operation, Elizabeth gave her consent for the insertion of extra electrodes, featuring ... She can control her seizures by pressing an external remote to activate the electrodes. Adjusting to a normal life, she is ... When one of those electrodes is stimulated, Elizabeth experiences memories which are not her own. She discovers the remote has ...
*  Biomechatronics
They can be wires which detect electrical activity, needle electrodes implanted in muscles, and electrode arrays with nerves ... Herr and his group of researchers are developing a sieve integrated circuit electrode and prosthetic devices that are coming ...
*  Overactive bladder
"Electrical stimulation with non-implanted electrodes for overactive bladder in adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
*  Proto 2
The team is also considering implanting electrodes directly on nerves. Power Researchers are exploring a hydrogen-peroxide ... A wire coil wrapped over the shoulder supplies wireless power to the implants and relays signals to computers in the prosthetic ... and refine the bulky electrodes used to read electrical signals in muscles. Control System Researchers are experimenting with ...
*  Hippocampus
The patients had diagnostic electrodes implanted in their hippocampus and then used a computer to move around in a virtual ...
*  Sensorineural hearing loss
These consist of both internal implanted electrodes and magnets and external components. The quality of sound is different than ... A cochlear implant is surgical implantation of a battery powered electronic medical device in the inner ear. Unlike hearing ... In cases of profound or total deafness, a cochlear implant is a specialised hearing aid which may restore a functional level of ... Profound or total hearing loss may be amenable to management by cochlear implants, which stimulate cochlear nerve endings ...
*  Neuroscience of free will
This was accomplished with the help of volunteer epilepsy patients, who needed electrodes implanted deep in their brain for ... Libet tells when the readiness potential occurs objectively, using electrodes, but relies on the subject reporting the position ... via electrodes) indicating that it may occur before conscious awareness of intent to move (see Benjamin Libet). By looking to ...
*  Grid cell
In a typical experimental study, an electrode capable of recording the activity of an individual neuron is implanted in the ... Every study of entorhinal spatial activity prior to 2004, however, had made use of electrodes implanted near the ventral end of ... Cells recorded from separate electrodes at a distance from one another, however, frequently show different grid spacings. Cells ... cells recorded from the same electrode) usually show the same grid spacing and orientation, but their grid vertices are ...
*  Neural tissue engineering
Another situation that calls for implanting a foreign tissue is use of recording electrodes. Chronic Electrode Implants are a ... Implanting stem cells directly into the injury site prevents glial scar formation and promotes neurogenesis originating from ... A third method for treating CNS injuries is to artificially create tissue outside of the body to implant into the injury site. ... One method to treat CNS injury involves culturing stem cells in vitro and implanting the non-directed stem cells into the brain ...
*  Tremor
The electrodes are implanted as described above. The patient uses a hand-held magnet to turn on and turn off a pulse generator ... by turning off the implanted electrode. Batteries in the generator last about 5 years and can be replaced surgically. DBS is ... A low-frequency current is passed through the electrode to activate the tremor and to confirm proper placement. Once the site ... A small hole is drilled through the skull and a temperature-controlled electrode is inserted into the thalamus. ...
*  Titanium nitride
TiN layers may also be used as electrodes in bioelectronic applications like in intelligent implants or in-vivo biosensors that ... TiN coatings have also been used in implanted prostheses (especially hip replacement implants) and other medical implants. ... TiN electrodes have already been applied in the subretinal prosthesis project as well as in biomedical microelectromechanical ... and as a non-toxic exterior for medical implants. In most applications a coating of less than 5 micrometres (0.00020 in) is ...
*  Ultrasound avoidance
Triblehorn, J.D.; Yager, D.D. (2002). "Implanted electrode recordings from a praying mantis auditory interneuron during flying ...