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*  Myringotomy
... or to drain pus from the middle ear. A tympanostomy tube is inserted into the eardrum to keep the middle ear aerated for a ... If middle ear disease has been severe or prolonged enough to justify tube placement, there is a strong possibility that the ... This perforation remains patent for several weeks and provides ventilation of the middle ear without the need for tube ... However, protection such as cotton covered with petroleum jelly, ear plugs, or ear putty is recommended for swimming in dirty ...
*  List of Chinese terrestrial ungulates
... three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain). The mammalian brain regulates body temperature ... The two surviving species of camel are the dromedary, one-humped camel (C. dromedarius) of Middle East and Horn of Africa; and ... The middle toe on each hind hoof is usually larger than its neighbours. Odd-toed ungulates are relatively large grazers and, ... and hairy-eared Sumatran rhinoceros, the largest of the smallest of extant rhinoceroces List of mammals of China With a few ...
*  Tympanostomy tube
When it is necessary to keep the middle ear ventilated for a very long period, a "T"-shaped tube may be used, as these "T-tubes ... Chronic otitis media with persistent effusion for six months (one ear) or three months (both ears).[citation needed] Persistent ... is a small tube inserted into the eardrum in order to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged period of time, and to ... prevent the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. The operation to insert the tube involves a myringotomy and is performed ...
*  Round window
The round window is one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. It is sealed by the secondary tympanic ... It has also recently been used as a site to place middle ear implantable hearing aid transducers. This work has been publicised ... Some types of ear surgery (now generally abandoned) used to leave the round window open to the outside world and covered over ... Unfortunately round window malformations are often associated with other ear malformations and the hearing loss can be much ...
*  Cholesteatoma
Not all middle ear epidermal cysts are congenital, as they can be acquired either by metaplasia of the middle ear mucosa or by ... Congenital cholesteatomas are usually middle ear epidermal cysts that are identified deep within an intact ear drum. Keratin- ... perforation or ear surgery Congenital cholesteatomas occur at three important sites: the middle ear, the Petrous apex, and the ... are usually caused by pathological alteration of the ear drum leading to accumulation of keratin within the middle ear. ...
*  Directed-energy weapon
... by vibrating the middle ear bones and shaking the cochlear fluid within the inner ear. At distances of 50-200 metres (160-660 ... inner ear) effects, and chest wall/lung tissue effects. Researchers found that low frequency sonar exposure could result in ...
*  Middle ear
If middle ear pressure remains low, the ear drum may become retracted into the middle ear . One of the functions of the ... The middle ear efficiency peaks at a frequency of around 1 kHz. The combined transfer function of the outer ear and middle ear ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear. The ... Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear. The middle ear of tetrapods is homologous with the spiracle of fishes, an ...
*  Neuroendocrine adenoma middle ear
Neuroendocrine adenoma of the middle ear (NAME) is a tumor which arises from a specific anatomic site: middle ear. NAME is a ... including middle ear adenoma, carcinoid tumor, amphicrine adenoma, adenocarcinoid, and adenomatoid tumor of middle ear. The ... This uncommon tumor accounts for less than 2% of all ear tumors. While patients present with symptoms related to the middle ear ... various names have created some confusion about this uncommon middle ear tumor. Regardless of the name applied, the middle ear ...
*  Acoustic reflex
The contraction of the stapedius muscle stiffens the middle-ear, thus decreasing middle-ear admittance; this can be measured ... contraction of middle ear muscles for quieter sounds can indicate ear dysfunction (e.g. tonic tensor tympani syndrome -TTTS). ... The stapedius stiffens the ossicular chain by pulling the stapes (stirrup) of the middle ear away from the oval window of the ... People with conductive hearing loss (-i.e. bad transmission in the middle ear) have a higher acoustic reflex threshold. The ...
*  Pacifier
Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health (IQWiG). "Middle ear infections: prevention". Institute for Quality and ... 2014 Information for parents on preventing middle ear infections from PubMed Health. ... Infants who use pacifiers may have more ear infections (otitis media). The effectiveness of avoiding the use of a pacifier to ... prevent ear infections is not known. Although it is commonly believed that using a pacifier will lead to dental problems, if ...
*  Sodium fluoride
Saha, Ashok Kumar (2016). Otology & Middle Ear Surgery. JP Medical Ltd. ISBN 9789352501229. Murray, John J.; Nunn, June H.; ...
*  Forrest Hamer
ISBN 978-1-884800-75-7. Middle Ear (Roundhouse, 2000) Call and Response (Alice James Books, 1995) Library of Congress Online ... Middle Ear (Roundhouse Press), received the Northern California Book Award. He has received fellowships from the Bread Loaf ... 1 > Forrest Hamer > What Happened Ploughshares > Authors & Articles > Middle Ear by Forrest Hamer > Spring 1999 http://www.pw. ... The Ringing Ear: Black Poets Lean South, Blues Poems, Word of Mouth: An Anthology of Gay American Poetry, and three editions of ...
*  Barotrauma
... can affect the external, middle, or inner ear. Middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) is the most common being experienced by ... After ear injury examination will include a hearing test and a demonstration that the middle ear can be autoinflated. Recovery ... of divers and is due to insufficient equilibration of the middle ear. External ear barotrauma may occur on ascent if high ... The diver can use a variety of methods to let air into or out of the middle ears via the Eustachian tubes. Sometimes swallowing ...
*  Stapes
The stapes /ˈsteɪpiːz/ or stirrup is a bone in the middle ear of humans and other mammals which is involved in the conduction ... ISBN 0-03-910284-X. Arensburg, B.; Harell, M.; Nathan, H. (February 1981). "The human middle ear ossicles: Morphometry, and ... ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. Chapman, SC (Jan 1, 2011). "Can you hear me now? Understanding vertebrate middle ear development". ... The stapes is the third bone of the three ossicles in the middle ear. The stapes is a stirrup-shaped bone, and the smallest in ...
*  Basilar membrane
109-122 Fritzsch B: The water-to-land transition: Evolution of the tetrapod basilar papilla; middle ear, and auditory nuclei. ... The basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear is a stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes ... Auditory Neuroscience , The Ear several animations showing basilar membrane motion under various stimulus conditions Functional ... The cochlear amplifier: augmentation of the traveling wave within the inner ear. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & ...
*  Australochelys
... and a middle ear region partially enclosed laterally. These characteristics show that Australochelys is more closely related to ... an unenclosed middle ear region; a recessed, funnel-shaped, cavum tympani absent; lacrimal foramen present; recessus scalae ... The holotype of Australochelys was found in a Tritylodon horizon, in the middle section of the formation. Gaffney, E.S. & ...
*  Monotreme
Rich, T. H.; Hopson, J. A.; Musser, A. M.; Flannery, T. F.; Vickers-Rich, P. (2005). "Independent origins of middle ear bones ... "Comment on "Independent Origins of Middle Ear Bones in Monotremes and Therians" (I)". Science Magazine. Retrieved 2007-10-21. " ... "Comment on "Independent Origins of Middle Ear Bones in Monotremes and Therians" (II)". Science Magazine. Retrieved 2007-10-21. ... and have three middle-ear bones. In common with reptiles and marsupials, monotremes lack the connective structure (corpus ...
*  Ossicles
Hearing Ear Incudomalleolar joint Incudostapedial joint Middle ear Otolith "Your Bones". kidshealth.org. Meng, Jin. "The ... of the middle ear. The ossicles are, in order from the eardrum to the inner ear (from superficial to deep): the malleus, incus ... the elliptical or oval window or opening between the middle ear and the vestibule of the inner ear. It is the smallest bone in ... The structure is known as the middle ear, and is made up of the stapes, incus, malleus, and tympanic membrane. These correspond ...
*  Ramesh C. Deka
1980). Middle-ear carcinoma in a girl of eighteen. J Laryngol Otol. 94:429-31. Witter HL, Deka RC, Lipscomb DM & Shambaugh GE ... 1994). Middle ear effusion: its management. Indian Pediatr. 31:631-3. Deka RC. (1993). Management of hearing impaired children ... Ear Nose Throat J. 56:218-24. Deka RC & Kacker SK. (1975). Chronic otitis media-a clinical and bacteriological study. Eye Ear ... Ear Nose Throat J. 64:555-7. Bhatia R, Bhatia P, Pathak AP & Deka RC. (1985). Nasal deformity in children. Indian J. Pediatr. ...
*  Eardrum
Middle ear Valsalva maneuver to equalize pressure across the eardrum External and middle ear, opened from the front (right side ... or to drain pus from the middle ear. The fluid or pus comes from a middle ear infection (otitis media), which is a common ... cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ... The pressure of fluid in an infected middle ear onto the eardrum may cause it to rupture. Usually this consists of a small hole ...
*  Jaw
Allin EF (December 1975). "Evolution of the mammalian middle ear". J. Morphol. 147 (4): 403-37. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051470404. ... were reduced in size and incorporated into the ear, while many others have been fused together. As a result, mammals show ...
*  Passive smoking
Increased risk of middle ear infections. Invasive meningococcal disease. Maternal exposure to secondhand smoke exposure during ... 293-309 Jones, Laura L. (1 January 2012). "Parental Smoking and the Risk of Middle Ear Disease in Children". Archives of ... The United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina ruled in favor of the tobacco industry in 1998, ...
*  Tympanic nerve
Sensory fibers supply the middle ear. Parasympathetic secretory fibers continue as the Lesser Petrosal nerve and provide ... The tympanic nerve (nerve of Jacobson) is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve found near the ear. It arises from the petrous ...
*  Evolution
Allin, Edgar F. (December 1975). "Evolution of the mammalian middle ear". Journal of Morphology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons ... such as embryonic bone structures that develop into the jaw in other animals instead forming part of the middle ear in mammals ... Variations of this idea became the standard understanding of the Middle Ages and were integrated into Christian learning, but ...
*  Catel-Manzke syndrome
... consistent middle ear infections (otitis media); and other complications. In addition, some infants with the syndrome may have ...
*  Diplacusis
As much as 15 - 20% (for example 200 Hz one ear => 240 Hz in the other). Hard to match because the SNHL ear hears it "fuzzily ... so that for example the hairs associated with middle C will shift their resonance to C# if the fluid density decreases by about ... the same tone presented alternately to the two ears may be perceived as having different pitches in the two ears. This is the ... The magnitude of the shift can be measured by getting the subject to adjust the frequency of a tone in one ear until its pitch ...
*  Neuronal encoding of sound
The middle ear plays a crucial role in the auditory process, as it essentially converts pressure variations in air to ... The basal end of the cochlea, where sounds enter from the middle ear, encodes the higher end of the audible frequency range ... A certain degree of top-down control is present at the middle ear level primarily through two muscles present in this ... Hudde, H.; Weistenhofer, C. (2006). "Key features of the human middle ear". ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 68 (6): 324-328 ...