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*  Discovery and development of NS5A inhibitors
... often associated with amino acid substitutions that confer upon the virus a robust drug resistance without impairing the viral ... The potential HCV resistance against DAA drugs is a concern. Among the HCV quasispecies there are pre-existing variants with ... Recently, the central role of NS5A in viral proliferation has made it the target for drug development. As a result, new ... Shorter therapies with milder side effects would yield greater adherence, and the ever present spectre of drug resistance is ...
*  Antiviral Therapy (journal)
... drug resistance, viral diagnostics, drug safety, pharmacoepidemiology, and vaccines. Antiviral Therapy is an official ... including the International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, International Workshop on Adverse Drug Reactions and Lipodystrophy in ... It publishes primary papers and reviews on all aspects of the clinical development of antiviral drugs, including clinical trial ... HIV, and the Therapies for Viral Hepatitis Workshop. Articles from 1998 are archived online in PDF format, with content over a ...
*  David M. Knipe
This methodology was used to map viral glycoproteins, plaque morphology, and drug resistance markers, and to construct a ... He defined the structure of viral chromatin during latent infection of neurons and the mechanisms by which viral DNA is kept ... Orzalli, Megan H.; Knipe, David M. (2014). "Cellular Sensing of Viral DNA and Viral Evasion Mechanisms". Annual Review of ... to the viral replication compartments and that some of these inhibit viral replication while some are essential for viral ...
*  Viral phylodynamics
Antiviral treatment also creates selective pressure for the evolution of drug resistance in virus populations, and can thereby ... Sequencing of virus from newly diagnosed patients is now routine in many countries for surveillance of drug resistance ... Patterns of viral genetic variation will also be affected by selection acting on viral phenotypes. Although viruses can differ ... Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore ...
*  HMPO-DAPy
December 2008). "Mechanism of Antiviral Drug Resistance of Vaccinia Virus: Identification of Residues in the Viral DNA ... HMPO-DAPy is an antiviral drug. Recent highlights in the development of new antiviral drugs Gammon, Don B.; Snoeck, Robert; et ... Polymerase Conferring Differential Resistance to Antipoxvirus Drugs". Journal of Virology. 82 (24): 12520-12534. doi:10.1128/ ...
*  Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
Drug resistance is a serious clinical concern in treatment of viral infection, and it is a particularly difficult problem in ... Resistance mutations are known for all approved NRTIs. Two main mechanisms are known that cause NRTI drug resistance: ... Drug-resistant viruses are an inevitable consequence of prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to anti-HIV drugs. In the summer of 1981 ... 247-250, 486-490, ISBN 90-5702-037-8 Saunders, J. (2000), Top drugs: Top synthetic routes, pp. 71-75 Sneader, W. (2005), Drug ...
*  Human cytomegalovirus
Major risk factors for HCMV drug resistance are the residual capacity of the host's immune system to control viral replication ... HCMV antiviral drug resistance can be detected by phenotypic or by genotypic drug resistance testing. Phenotypic resistance ... "A new tool linking human cytomegalovirus drug resistance mutations to resistance phenotypes". Antiviral Research. 85 (2): 318- ... of amino acid changes in the UL97 protein kinase and the viral DNA polymerase have been reported to cause drug resistance. ...
*  Allicin
... has been studied for its potential to treat various kinds of multiple drug resistance bacterial infections, as well as ... viral and fungal infections in vitro, but as of 2016, the safety and efficacy of allicin to treat infections in people was ...
*  Influenza treatment
Influenza viruses can show resistance to anti-viral drugs. Like the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance, this can ... Antiviral drugs directly target the viruses responsible for influenza infections. Generally, anti-viral drugs work optimally ... Wu J, Yan P, Archibald C (2007). "Modelling the evolution of drug resistance in the presence of antiviral drugs". BMC Public ... However, virus strains have emerged that show drug resistance to both classes of drug. The United States authority on disease ...
*  Lamivudine
Stanford University Drug Resistance Database. Koziel MJ, Peters MG (2007). "Viral hepatitis in HIV infection". N Engl J Med. ... A better explanation of the data is that lamivudine continues to have a partial anti-viral effect even in the presence of the ... Other resistance mutations are L80V/I, V173L and L180M. Minor side effects may include nausea, fatigue, headaches, diarrhea, ... The drug can trigger an inflammatory response to opportunistic infections (e.g., Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC], M. ...
*  ADAR
... of the HIV genome by ADAR1 might in some cases lead to beneficial viral mutations which could contribute to drug resistance. ... Valenzuela A, Blanco J, Callebaut C, Jacotot E, Lluis C, Hovanessian AG, Franco R (1997). "HIV-1 envelope gp120 and viral ... The inflammation is caused by incorrect activation of interferon inducible genes such as those activated to fight off viral ... and the body mistakes this for viral RNA resulting in an autoimmune response. Research has shown that ADAR1 can be both ...
*  Multiple drug resistance
... no antibiotics for viral infections Identify the causative organism whenever possible Select an antimicrobial which targets the ... Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of ... Drug resistance MDRGN bacteria Xenobiotic metabolism Multidrug tolerance NDM1 enzymatic resistance Herbicide resistance P- ... Li XZ, Nikaido H (August 2009). "Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria: an update". Drugs. 69 (12): 1555-623. doi:10.2165 ...
*  Discovery and development of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
When treating infection, whether bacterial or viral, there is always a risk of the infectious agent to develop drug resistance ... The drug has also shown activity against viruses with common NNRTI resistance associated mutations and cross-resistance ... The perfect anti-HIV drug chemical should be effective against drug resistance mutation. Understanding the target RT enzyme and ... mechanism of drug action and the consequence of drug resistance mutations provide useful information which can be helpful to ...
*  Zalcitabine
"Use of viral resistance patterns to antiretroviral drugs in optimising selection of drug combinations and sequences". Drugs. 52 ... and accordingly the drugs should not be administered together. Additionally, zalcitabine should not be used with other drugs ... Resistance to zalcitabine develops infrequently compared with other nRTIs, and generally only occurs at a low level. The most ... In 1992 dideoxycytidine was listed as a specialty drug. J. P. Horwitz, J Chua, M DaRooge et al. (1966). "Nucleosides. IX. The ...
*  Didanosine
"Use of viral resistance patterns to antiretroviral drugs in optimising selection of drug combinations and sequences". Drugs. 52 ... Drug resistance to didanosine does develop, though slower than to zidovudine (AZT). The most common mutation observed in vivo ... The related pro-drug of didanosine, 2′,3′-dideoxyadenosine (ddA), was initially synthesized by Morris J. Robins (professor of ... Administration with drugs with overlapping toxicity, such as zalcitabine and stavudine, is not recommended. Alcohol can ...
*  Discovery and development of integrase inhibitors
Many drugs have been discovered to treat the disease but mutations in the virus and resistance to the drugs make development ... The viral genome is reversely transcribed into the DNA of the infected cell by viral reverse transcriptase, the DNA is then ... Resistance of INI corresponds to those of other ARV drugs. First IN resistance is caused by primary mutations that decrease INI ... Some mutations increase resistance to the drugs to a large extent than others. For example, one of the most common mutation ...
*  Influenza research
Other anti-viral drugs are less likely to be effective against pandemic influenza. Both Tamiflu and Relenza are in short supply ... There also is the potential of viruses to evolve drug resistance. Some H5N1-infected persons treated with oseltamivir have ... are working to stockpile anti-viral drugs in preparation for a possible pandemic. Oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu) is the most ... Peramivir is a pharmaceutical drug used to treat viral infections. Like zanamivir and oseltamivir, peramivir is a neuraminidase ...
*  Transduction (genetics)
Resistance to antibiotic drugs.[citation needed] Gene therapy: Correcting genetic diseases by direct modification of genetic ... transferred are flanked by viral sequences that are used by viral proteins to recognize and package the viral genome into viral ... Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. An example is the viral ... If the viral genome results in spare capacity, viral packaging mechanisms may incorporate bacterial genetic material into the ...
*  Resistance mutation
In the herpes virus, drugs mainly target the viral DNA polymerase. As a result, mutations in the viral DNA polymerase that make ... HIV drug resistance mutations figures FDA-Approved HIV Medicines CDC Explanation of Influenza Resistance Mutations. ... "HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): ... There are five classes of drug that are used to treat HIV infection, and resistance mutations can effect the efficacy of these ...
*  Douglas Richman
He is a co-editor of the textbook Clinical Virology and editor of Antiviral Drug Resistance. He serves on the Vaccine Research ... His wide-ranging research in the HIV field has encompassed resistance, viral pathogenicity and host immune responses. He was ... Antiviral Drug Resistance. John Wiley & Sons, 1996 (ISBN 0471961205) Richman DD, Whitley RJ, Hayden FG, eds. Clinical Virology ... He is the founding chair of the IAS-USA Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations Listing, which is the worldwide standard for ...
*  Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research
Wainberg continued to make discoveries at the forefront of HIV/AIDS research with a focus on anti-viral drugs, understanding ... drug resistance, and gene therapy - until his death in 2017. For his seminal contributions in the field, Dr. Wainberg was made ... Donald Branch from Canadian Blood Services have identified a new resistance factor in the battle against HIV. They discovered ... the University of Manitoba is studying a small group of Nairobi prostitutes to discover the source of their natural resistance ...
*  Abacavir
Cabozantinib: Drugs from the MPR2 inhibitor (Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 inhibitors) family such as abacavir ... CBV-TP competes with the viral molecules and is incorporated into the viral DNA. Once CBV-TP is integrated into the viral DNA, ... hypersensitivity syndromes associated with other drugs, or infection. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an ... Resistance to abacavir has developed in laboratory versions of HIV which are also resistant to other HIV-specific ...
*  Salvage therapy
... the virus has likely developed resistance to the ARVs. As more and more drug-resistance conferring mutations develop in the ... If the patient's viral load (the amount of HIV in the blood) rebounds after being suppressed by ARVs, ... Salvage therapy drugs or drug combinations have, in general, much more severe side effects than the standard line of therapy. ... This is often true of a drug of last resort. Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are given to slow down the HIV reproduction, which in ...
*  Apricitabine
... no mutations causing drug resistance were observed. Newer trials showed that apricitabine may induce K65R mutations, resulting ... in resistance against didanosine and tenofovir. In clinical studies, apricitabine has been good at reducing viral loads while ... expected results from simultaneous provision of the drug alongside two other marketed drugs when compared to those drugs with ... "Apricitabine Does Not Select Additional Drug Resistance Mutations in Tissue Culture in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 ...
*  Celgosivir
... may prove to be a valuable component for combination therapy and may help to prevent the apparition of drug resistance. Long- ... an enzyme that plays a critical role in viral maturation by initiating the processing of the N-linked oligosaccharides of viral ... Although generally safe and well tolerated, celgosivir does not seem to reduce viral load or fever burden in patients with ... Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 10 (8): 860-70. PMID 19649930. Low, Jenny G; Sung, Cynthia; Wijaya, Limin; Wei, Yuan ...
*  Interferon
The H5N1 influenza virus, also known as bird flu, has resistance to interferon and other anti-viral cytokines that is ... These PEGylated drugs are injected once weekly, rather than administering two or three times per week, as is necessary for ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... the discovery was a result of their studies of viral interference. Viral interference refers to the inhibition of virus growth ...