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*  HEPN domain
Grynberg M, Erlandsen H, Godzik A (May 2003). "HEPN: a common domain in bacterial drug resistance and human neurodegenerative ... which includes several classes of enzymes that are responsible for some types of bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. These ... and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains: Single-domain HEPN proteins ... enzymes deactivate various antibiotics by transferring a nucleotidyl group to the drug. A multidomain sacsin protein in genomes ...
*  Reticulate evolution
"Phylogenetic relationships of drug-resistance factors and other transmissible bacterial plasmids". Bacteriological Reviews. 32 ... Anderson, E S (1968-10-01). "The Ecology of Transferable Drug Resistance in the Enterobacteria". Annual Review of Microbiology ... "Bacterial Cytochromes C and Molecular Evolution". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-09-07. Arnold, Michael L.; Fogarty, Nicole D. ( ... Jones, D.; Sneath, P. H. (1970-03-01). "Genetic transfer and bacterial taxonomy". Bacteriological Reviews. 34 (1): 40-81. ISSN ...
*  RecA
... and inhibitors of RecA may also serve to delay or prevent the appearance of bacterial drug resistance. Based on analysis of the ... In the bacterial SOS response, it has a co-protease function in the autocatalytic cleavage of the LexA repressor and the λ ... Purification of this plasmid from bacterial cultures can then allow high-fidelity PCR amplification of the original plasmid ... Saito Y, Taguchi H, Akamatsu T (March 2006). "Fate of transforming bacterial genome following incorporation into competent ...
*  Horizontal gene transfer
This process is thought to be a significant cause of increased drug resistance when one bacterial cell acquires resistance, and ... "Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics". The Microbial World: Lectures in Microbiology, Department of Bacteriology, University of ... Ochiai K, Yamanaka T, Kimura K, Sawada, O (1959). "Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella strains ... Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer (HGT) that depends on the expression of numerous bacterial ...
*  John Roth (geneticist)
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). Thomas Hunt ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. CS1 ... As instructors of the summer Advanced Bacterial Genetics course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, John Roth, David Botstein, ...
*  Transposons as a genetic tool
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Beckwith, J.; Silhavy, T.J. (1992). The Power of Bacterial Genetics: A Literature Based Course. NY: Cold Spring Harbor ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
*  Allicin
... has been studied for its potential to treat various kinds of multiple drug resistance bacterial infections, as well as ...
*  Prisons in Russia
note that while non-adherence does not directly increase drug resistance, the heightened bacterial load of non-compliant and ... Non-compliance with treatment regimens has also been highlighted as contributing increasing drug resistance. In Fry et al.'s ... The Economist, October 19, 2013 Nachega, J., & Chaisson, R. (2003). Tuberculosis Drug Resistance: A Global Threat. Clinical ... Rates of drug resistance and risk factor analysis in civilian and prison patients with tuberculosis in Samar Region, Russia. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G04)
... drug resistance, multiple MeSH G04.185.515.329.500 --- drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.329.625 --- drug ... drug resistance, microbial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347 --- drug resistance, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.500 --- beta-lactam ... drug resistance, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.383.500 --- drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.420 --- drug ... drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.875 --- kanamycin resistance MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.937 --- ...
*  Human microbiota
Drug resistance Microbiome Microorganism Human Microbiome Project Human virome Initial acquisition of microbiota List of ... Pulmonary bacterial microbiota belong to 9 major bacterial genera: Prevotella, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, ... However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial ... The bacterial makeup for a given site on a body varies from person to person, not only in type, but also in abundance. Bacteria ...
*  Bacterial glutathione transferase
... protection against several stresses and antibacterial drug resistance. Glutathione Glutathione S-transferase Fosfomycin ... Bacterial glutathione transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) are part of a superfamily of enzymes that play a crucial role in ... Masai E, Katayama Y, Kubota S, Kawai S, Yamasaki M, Morohoshi N (May 1993). "A bacterial enzyme degrading the model lignin ... Oakley A (May 2011). "Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective". Drug Metab. Rev. 43 (2): 138-51. doi:10.3109/ ...
*  Influenza treatment
Influenza viruses can show resistance to anti-viral drugs. Like the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance, this can ... Wu J, Yan P, Archibald C (2007). "Modelling the evolution of drug resistance in the presence of antiviral drugs". BMC Public ... However, virus strains have emerged that show drug resistance to both classes of drug. The United States authority on disease ... and over-use of these drugs has probably contributed to the spread of resistance. In particular, this high-level of resistance ...
*  Streptomycin
Results showed efficacy against TB, albeit with minor toxicity and acquired bacterial resistance to the drug. Because ... It may be useful in cases where resistance to other drugs is identified. Plague (Yersinia pestis) has historically been treated ... Streptomycin controls bacterial diseases of certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. A major use is in the ... It binds to the small 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, interfering with the binding of formyl-methionyl- ...
*  Multiple drug resistance
... and the concerning bacterial population amplifies. Therefore, the resistance gene is farther distributed in the organism and ... Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of ... Drug resistance MDRGN bacteria Xenobiotic metabolism Multidrug tolerance NDM1 enzymatic resistance Herbicide resistance P- ... Li XZ, Nikaido H (August 2009). "Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria: an update". Drugs. 69 (12): 1555-623. doi:10.2165 ...
*  Procalcitonin
This may help guide antibiotic use, which can help save on cost and drug resistance. Patients with chronic kidney disease and ... 2012), "Bacterial infections in the neonate", Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (4th ed.), Elsevier, ... The level of procalcitonin rises in a response to a proinflammatory stimulus, especially of bacterial origin. It is therefore ... Procalcitonin levels may be useful to distinguish bacterial infections from nonbacterial infections. ...
*  Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (2008-02-01). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the emerging ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ... The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and ...
*  Indole
... resistance to drugs, biofilm formation, and virulence. The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of ... As an intercellular signal molecule, indole regulates various aspects of bacterial physiology, including spore formation, ... resistance to drugs, biofilm formation, and virulence. A number of indole derivatives have important cellular functions, ... This method is especially popular in the pharmaceutical industry, where many pharmaceutical drugs are made up of specifically ...
*  Discovery and development of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
When treating infection, whether bacterial or viral, there is always a risk of the infectious agent to develop drug resistance ... The drug has also shown activity against viruses with common NNRTI resistance associated mutations and cross-resistance ... The perfect anti-HIV drug chemical should be effective against drug resistance mutation. Understanding the target RT enzyme and ... mechanism of drug action and the consequence of drug resistance mutations provide useful information which can be helpful to ...
*  Multidrug resistance pump
Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H. (2017-03-03). "The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance". ... Laura J. V. Piddock (2006). "Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps ? not just for resistance". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4: 629- ... Multidrug resistance pumps (MDR pumps) also known Multidrug efflux pumps are a type of efflux pump and P-glycoprotein. MDR ... Pathogenic bacterial and fungal species have developed MDR pumps which efflux out many antibiotics and antifungals rendering ...
*  SLC47A2
... protein family responsible for drug resistance. This gene is one of two members of the MATE transporter family located near ... This transporter family shares homology with the bacterial MATE (multi antimicrobial extrusion protein or multidrug and toxic ... NorM seems to function as drug/sodium antiporter which is the first example of Na+-coupled multidrug efflux transporter ... The multidrug efflux transporter NorM from V. parahaemolyticus which mediates resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents ( ...
*  Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics
... reducing drug resistance and increasing the effectiveness of treatment for infectious diseases, including acute bacterial ... Wide-scale misuse of antibiotics and other antimicrobials and related resistance to these drugs is challenging infectious ... Murray Lumpkin - U.S. Food and Drug Administration Dr. David Bell - U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Dr. Marissa ... APUA has a network of affiliated chapters in over 50 countries, and conducts applied antimicrobial resistance research, ...
*  Polymyxin
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ... the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic ... Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. They work mostly ...
*  Phage therapy
An Alternative Strategy to Combat Drug Resistance". Bacteriophage treatment offers a possible alternative to conventional ... The high bacterial strain specificity of phage therapy may make it necessary for clinics to make different cocktails for ... It is conceivable that, although bacteria can develop resistance to phage, the resistance might be easier to overcome than ... Just as bacteria can evolve resistance, viruses can evolve to overcome resistance. Bacteriophages are very specific, targeting ...
*  Lactobacillus fermentum
"Drug Resistance Plasmids in Lactobacillus Fermentum." Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 26, no. 1 (1979): 71-74. Type ... This would also increase resistance of the bacterial cell membranes to environmental challenge. A third mechanism is by causing ... So far no observed Lactobacillus fermentum strains have been observed to have transferable resistance or acquired resistance ... Different strains of Lactobacillus fermentum demonstrated uniform resistance patterns demonstrating resistance to glycopeptide ...
*  Dihydrofolate reductase
However, resistance has developed against some drugs, as a result of mutational changes in DHFR itself. DHFR mutations cause a ... Trimethoprim has shown to have activity against a variety of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. However, resistance to ... Resistance can arise from DHFR gene amplification, mutations in DHFR, decrease in the uptake of the drugs, among others. ... Methotrexate, a competitive inhibitor of DHFR, is one such anticancer drug that inhibits DHFR. Other drugs include trimethoprim ...
*  New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
Indian politicians have described linking this new drug resistance gene to India as "malicious propaganda" and blamed ... The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. However, the ... in December 2009 in a Swedish national who fell ill with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection that he acquired in India ... In June 2014 it was reported that the molecule aspergillomarasmine A from the Aspergillus fungus turns off the resistance ...