"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). Thomas Hunt ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. CS1 ... As instructors of the summer Advanced Bacterial Genetics course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, John Roth, David Botstein, ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Beckwith, J.; Silhavy, T.J. (1992). The Power of Bacterial Genetics: A Literature Based Course. NY: Cold Spring Harbor ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
"Phylogenetic relationships of drug-resistance factors and other transmissible bacterial plasmids". Bacteriological Reviews. 32 ... Anderson, E S (1968-10-01). "The Ecology of Transferable Drug Resistance in the Enterobacteria". Annual Review of Microbiology ... "Bacterial Cytochromes C and Molecular Evolution". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-09-07. Arnold, Michael L.; Fogarty, Nicole D. ( ... Jones, D.; Sneath, P. H. (1970-03-01). "Genetic transfer and bacterial taxonomy". Bacteriological Reviews. 34 (1): 40-81. ISSN ...
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (2008-02-01). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the emerging ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ... The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and ...
"Drug Resistance Plasmids in Lactobacillus Fermentum." Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 26, no. 1 (1979): 71-74. Type ... This would also increase resistance of the bacterial cell membranes to environmental challenge. A third mechanism is by causing ... So far no observed Lactobacillus fermentum strains have been observed to have transferable resistance or acquired resistance ... Different strains of Lactobacillus fermentum demonstrated uniform resistance patterns demonstrating resistance to glycopeptide ...
Mitomycin Resistance in Streptomyces lavendulae Includes a Novel Drug-Binding-Protein-Dependent Export System. Journal of ... Type strain of Streptomyces lavendulae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... Characterization of a Mitomycin-Binding Drug Resistance Mechanism from the Producing Organism, Streptomyces lavendulae. Journal ... Many studies show the presence of multiple pathways for resistance toward a single antibiotic with the resistance genes located ...
This may help guide antibiotic use, which can help save on cost and drug resistance. Patients with chronic kidney disease and ... 2012), "Bacterial infections in the neonate", Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (4th ed.), Elsevier, ... The level of procalcitonin rises in a response to a proinflammatory stimulus, especially of bacterial origin. It is therefore ... Procalcitonin levels may be useful to distinguish bacterial infections from nonbacterial infections. ...
Grynberg M, Erlandsen H, Godzik A (May 2003). "HEPN: a common domain in bacterial drug resistance and human neurodegenerative ... which includes several classes of enzymes that are responsible for some types of bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. These ... and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains: Single-domain HEPN proteins ... enzymes deactivate various antibiotics by transferring a nucleotidyl group to the drug. A multidomain sacsin protein in genomes ...
However, resistance has developed against some drugs, as a result of mutational changes in DHFR itself.[31] ... Trimethoprim has shown to have activity against a variety of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens.[37] However, resistance to ... Methotrexate, a competitive inhibitor of DHFR, is one such anticancer drug that inhibits DHFR.[34] Other drugs include ... Resistance can arise from DHFR gene amplification, mutations in DHFR, decrease in the uptake of the drugs, among others. ...
In later years she published many important studies on the occurrence and significance of drug resistance plasmids in ... Richard P. Novick et al., "Uniform Nomenclature for Bacterial Plasmids: A Proposal", Bacteriol. Rev., March 1976, pp. 168-189 ... Datta, Naomi (September 1962). "Transmissible drug resistance in an epidemic strain of Salmonella typhimurium". Journal of ... She found that some resistance genes, including those for gentamycin resistance, are located on transposons and are readily ...
Results showed efficacy against TB, albeit with minor toxicity and acquired bacterial resistance to the drug. Because ... It may be useful in cases where resistance to other drugs is identified. Plague (Yersinia pestis) has historically been treated ... Streptomycin controls bacterial diseases of certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. A major use is in the ... It binds to the small 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, interfering with the binding of formyl-methionyl- ...
Influenza viruses can show resistance to anti-viral drugs. Like the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance, this can ... Wu J, Yan P, Archibald C (2007). "Modelling the evolution of drug resistance in the presence of antiviral drugs". BMC Public ... However, virus strains have emerged that show drug resistance to both classes of drug. The United States authority on disease ... and over-use of these drugs has probably contributed to the spread of resistance. In particular, this high-level of resistance ...
2011). „An analogy between the evolution of drug resistance in bacterial communities and malignant tissues. Nat Rev Cancer 11: ... 2015). „Ancient hot and cold genes and chemotherapy resistance emergence. PNAS 112:10467-10472. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1512396112". ...
Drugs based on 2-nitromidazoles include benznidazole. Nitroimidazole antibiotics have been used to combat anaerobic bacterial ... 4-Nitroimidazole at Sigma-Aldrich Edwards, David I. "Nitroimidazole drugs - action and resistance mechanisms. I. Mechanism of ... 4- and 5-nitroimidazole are equivalent from the perspective of drugs since these tautomers readily interconvert. Drugs of the 5 ...
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ... the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic ... Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. They work mostly ...
Schuster, F.; Visvesvara, G. (2004). "Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment". Drug resistance updates ... contain diverse bacterial endosymbionts that are similar to human pathogens, so they are considered to be potential emerging ... A recent paper published in 2013 has shown substantial effects of some FDA approved drugs with an in-vitro kill rate above 90 ... Baig AM, Iqbal J, Khan NA (2013). "In vitro efficacies of clinically available drugs against the growth and viability of an ...
... see drug resistance). Contagion[edit]. Skin flora do not readily pass between people: 30 seconds of moderate friction and dry ... Lingaas E, Fagernes M (2009). "Development of a method to measure bacterial transfer from hands". J Hosp Infect. 72 (1): 43-9. ... It is important to note that the human skin is host to numerous bacterial and fungal species, some of which are known to be ... Current treatment includes topical and systemic antibacterial drugs which result in decreased P. acnes colonisation and/or ...
"Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella strains and between Shigella and E. coli strains" (in ... Bacterial conjugation, a process in which a bacterial cell transfers genetic material to another cell by cell-to-cell contact. ... Transduction, the process in which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a bacterial virus (a bacteriophage, ... Integrons, a bacterial "kit" for transferring gene cassettes.. History[change , change source]. Horizontal gene transfer was ...
These bacterial enzymes rapidly destroy earlier-generation cephalosporins by breaking open the drug's beta-lactam chemical ring ... leading to antibiotic resistance. Though initially active against these bacteria, with widespread use of third-generation ... As such, drug levels in the blood may build up in persons with kidney injury or kidney disease. This includes those on dialysis ... The drug is given intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM) every 8-12 hours (two or three times a day), with dose and ...
Drug resistance Microbiome Microorganism Human Microbiome Project Human virome Initial acquisition of microbiota List of ... Pulmonary bacterial microbiota belong to 9 major bacterial genera: Prevotella, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, ... However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial ... The bacterial makeup for a given site on a body varies from person to person, not only in type, but also in abundance. Bacteria ...
... implication in drug resistance." Journal of Molecular Biology 299.2 (2000): 477-485. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3740 Colette, and ... "Bacterial wall peptidoglycan, DD-peptidases and β-lactam antibiotics." Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl 42 (1984): 17-37. PMID ... This enzyme is an excellent drug target because it is essential, is accessible from the periplasm, and has no equivalent in ... "Mechanism of penicillin action: penicillin and substrate bind covalently to the same active site serine in two bacterial D- ...
... increases bacterial resistance. This resistance threatens the efficiency of medical treatment for humans fighting bacterial ... Due to the various antibiotics and pharmaceutical drugs found at a high density in contaminated water, antibiotic resistance ... "Antibiotic resistance". World Health Organization. 2017. Retrieved 2018-03-26.. *^ Landers, T. F. (2012). "A Review of ... World Health Organization(WHO). "Antibiotic use in food-producing animals must be curtailed to prevent increased resistance in ...
... mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs. Possibly, many AbgT-family transporters act as exporters, ... Sulfonamide drugs (in) + H+ (out) → Sulfonamide drugs (out) + H+ (in) Antimicrobial resistance Membrane transport protein ... The AbgT family consists of the AbgT (YdaH; TC# 2.A.68.1.1) protein of E. coli and the MtrF drug exporter (TC# 2.A.68.1.2) of ... The 3-d structures of MtrF and a YdaH homologue have been solved, and functional studies show that it is a drug exporter. The 3 ...
... bacterial colonies can build up resistance to the drugs through the natural selection of bacteria resistant to these ... Seventy percent of all antibiotics and related drugs are given to animals as feed additives. Nearly half of the antibiotics ...
In many cases, this leads to bacterial cell death. Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, ... A stable drug-ribosome complex is created when the two drugs are used together. This complex inhibits protein synthesis through ... Constitutive ribosome modification has been seen in staphylococci with resistance seen in quinupristin only. While resistance ... Enzymatic drug inactivation may occur in staphylococcal and enterococcal species through production of dalfopristin- ...
... (also spelled sulphadoxine) is an ultra-long-lasting sulfonamide used in combination with pyrimethamine to treat malaria. It was previously used to prevent malaria but due to high levels of resistance, this use is no longer recommended routinely. It is also used, usually in combination with other drugs, to treat or prevent various infections in livestock.[citation needed] Sulfadoxine competitively inhibits dihydropteroate synthase, interfering with folate synthesis. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine Medical Treatment - Sulphadoxine and Pyrimethamine. Matondo SI, Temba GS, Kavishe AA, et al. (2014). "High levels of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance Pfdhfr-Pfdhps quintuple mutations: a cross sectional survey of six regions in Tanzania". Malar J. 13: 152. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-152. PMC 3998221 . PMID 24751352 ...
... is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. Even the immune system of an organism is in essence a drug delivery system, albeit endogenous, and faces the same arms race problems as external drug delivery. The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost always proteins). Because the drug is so specific, any mutation in these molecules ...
ସଲଫାଡକ୍‌ସିନ/ପାଇରିମେଥାମିନ (ଇଂରାଜୀ ଭାଷାରେ Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, ବିକ୍ରୟ ନାମ ଫାନ୍‌ସିଡାର/Fansidar) ଏକ ଯୁଗ୍ମ ଔଷଧ ଯାହା ମ୍ୟାଲେରିଆ ରୋଗର ଚିକିତ୍ସା ପାଇଁ ଦିଆଯାଏ ।[୧][୨] ଏହି ଯୁଗ୍ମ ଔଷଧରେ ସଲଫାଡକ୍‌ସିନ (sulfadoxine) ନାମ ଥିବା ଏକ ପ୍ରକାର ସଲଫୋନାମାଇଡ (sulfonamide) ଓ ପାଇରିମେଥାମିନ (pyrimethamine) ଭଳି ଏକ ପ୍ରୋଟୋଜୋଆ ବିରୋଧୀ (antiprotozoal) ଔଷଧ ଥାଏ । ଏହା ଆର୍ଟେସୁନେଟ ଭଳି ମ୍ୟାଲେରିଆ ବିରୋଧୀ (antimalarial medication ) ଔଷଧମାନଙ୍କ ସ‌ହିତ ଦିଆଯାଏ ।[୩] ସଲଫାଡକ୍‌ସିନ/ପାଇରିମେଥାମିନର ପାର୍ଶ୍ୱ ...
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance (sometimes called civil resistance), or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ both violent and non-violent methods, usually operating under different organizations and acting in different phases or geographical areas within a country.[1]. The term resistance is generally used to designate a movement considered legitimate (from the speaker's point of view). Organizations and individuals critical of foreign intervention and supporting forms of organized movement (particularly where citizens are affected) tend to favor the term. When such ...
... (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The first NRTI was zidovudine, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987, which was the first step towards treatment of HIV. Six NRTI agents and one NtRTI have followed. The NRTIs and the NtRTI are analogues of endogenous 2´-deoxy-nucleoside and nucleotide. Drug-resistant viruses are an inevitable consequence of prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to anti-HIV drugs. In the summer of 1981 the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first reported. Two years later the etiological link to AIDS, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified. Since the identification of HIV the development of effective antiretroviral drugs and the scientific ...
... (INN) is an HIV fusion inhibitor, the first of a novel class of antiretroviral drugs used in combination therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It is marketed under the trade name Fuzeon (Roche). Enfuvirtide therapy costs an estimated US$25,000 per year in the United States. Its cost and inconvenient dosing regimen are factors behind its use as a reserve, for salvage therapy in patients with multi-drug resistant HIV. Ac-Tyr-Thr-Ser-Leu-Ile-His-Ser-Leu-Ile-Glu-Glu-Ser-Gln-Asn-Gln-Gln-Glu-Lys-Asn-Glu-Gln-Glu-Leu-Leu-Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala-Ser-Leu-Trp-Asn-Trp-Phe-NH2 Enfuvirtide originated at Duke University, where researchers formed a pharmaceutical company known as Trimeris. Trimeris began development on enfuvirtide in 1996 and initially designated it T-20. In 1999, Trimeris entered into partnership with Hoffmann-La Roche to complete the development of the drug. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on ...
Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NNRTIs inhibit reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of HIV. RT is one of the most popular targets in the field of antiretroviral drug development. Discovery and development of NNRTIs began in the late 1980s and in the end of 2009 four NNRTI had been approved by regulatory authorities and several others were undergoing clinical development. Drug resistance develops quickly if NNRTIs are administered as monotherapy and therefore NNRTIs are always given as part of combination therapy, the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a leading cause of death in the world. It was identified as a disease in 1981. Two years later the etiology agent for AIDS, the HIV was described. HIV is a retrovirus and has ...
... (ETR,[1] brand name Intelence, formerly known as TMC125) is a drug used for the treatment of HIV. Etravirine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Unlike the currently available agents in the class, resistance to other NNRTIs does not seem to confer resistance to etravirine.[2] Etravirine is marketed by Tibotec, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. In January 2008, the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for patients with established resistance to other drugs, making it the 30th anti-HIV drug approved in the United States and the first to be approved in 2008.[3] It was also approved for use in Canada on April 1, 2008.[4]. Etravirine is licensed in the United States, Canada, Israel, Russia, Australia and the European Union,[5] and is under regulatory review in Switzerland.[6]. ...
Aseksuaalsena võivad määratleda väga erinevad inimesed. Seetõttu võivad aseksuaalsuse definitsioonid olla suhteliselt laiad.[13] Uurijad määratlevad üldiselt aseksuaalsust seksuaalse külgetõmbe või seksuaalse huvi puudumisena.[14][15][16] Samas nende definitsioonid varieeruvad: nad võivad kasutada mõistet, et "viidata isiku madalale või puuduvale seksuaalsele ihale või külgetõmbele, madalale või puuduvale seksuaalsele käitumisele, eksklusiivselt romantilisele mitteseksuaalsele suhtele või puuduva seksuaalse iha ja käitumise kombinatsioonile."[16][17] Enesemääratlus aseksuaalsusena võib olla määramisel otsustavaks teguriks.[17] AVEN defineerib aseksuaalset inimest kui "kedagi, kes ei koge seksuaalset külgetõmmet". Nad lisavad, et "väike osa inimestest peab end aseksuaalseks lühikest aega, kui nad uurivad ja avastavad enda seksuaalsust". AVEN-i järgi "ei ole määravat faktorit, mille alusel kindlaks teha, kas keegi on aseksuaalne. Aseksuaalne on oma olemuselt nagu ...
Hodgkini lümfoomi levinuimad sümptomid on kaela, kaenlaaluse või vaagna piirkonnas paikneva ühe või mitme lümfisõlme, harilikult valutu, suurenemine. Lümfoomi korral suurenevad lümfisõlmed aeglaselt ja võib kuluda kuid või aastaid, enne kui neid märgatakse. Mõnikord võivad lümfisõlmed suureneda väga kiiresti.[11] Rohkem kui 80%-l patsientidest on leitud lümfadenopaatia ülalpool diafragmat.[2] Kolmandikul (25%) patsientidest esineb Hodgkini lümfoomi korral ka üldsümptomeid (nn B-sümptomid), näiteks öine higistamine, kõrge kehatemperatuur, mis tõuseb ja alaneb spontaanselt, märgatav kaalukaotus lühikese aja jooksul, sügelemine, mis võib pärast alkoholi seespidist tarbimist intensiivistuda, köha või hingeldus, kõhuvalu või oksendamine pärast alkoholi joomist.[11] ...
Logistiline regressioon saab olla nii binaarne, järjestatud või multinomiaalne. Binoomse või binaarse logistilise regressiooni puhul uuritakse olukorda, kus uuritaval tunnusel on kaks võimalikku väärtust: 0 ja 1. Multinominaalse regressiooni puhul on tegemist olukorraga, kus väljundiks on 3 või rohkem sõltumatut väärtust ning väärtustel puudub järjestus. Järjestatud logistilise regressiooni korral uuritakse tunnust, millel on mitu sõltuvat taset ning tasemed on järjestatud. Logit-mudel on kõige enam kasutatud meetod binaarse tunnuse modelleerimiseks. Sellel on ühtlasi ka kerge ja arusaadav interpretatsioon[5]. Sündmuse toimumisel ("ravimi tarvitamine", "võit" jne.) märgitakse tavaliselt "1" ning vastandsündmuse ("platseebo tarvitamine", "kaotus" jne) korral vastavalt "0". Mudeli parameetrite interpreteerimisel kasutatakse šansside suhte muutusi, kust sündmuse šanss on defineeritud kui sündmuse esinemise tõenäosuse ja sündmuse mitteesinemise tõenäosuse suhe. ...
Inimese kloonimine tähendab olemasolevast või varem eksisteerinud inimesest geneetiliselt identse koopia loomist. Seda mõistet kasutatakse tavaliselt selleks, et määratleda inimese kunstlikku kloonimist. Loomuliku paljunemise ajal võib toimuda samuti kloonimine, selle tulemusena sünnivad identsed kaksikud. Eristatakse kahte inimkloonimist - üks on terapeutiline kloonimine ja teine reproduktiivne kloonimine. Teoreetiliselt on võimalik ka kolmas koonimise variant, kus ühendatakse nii terapeutiline kui ka reproduktiivne kloonimine. Seda kutsutakse asenduskloonimiseks. See tähendaks ulatuslikult kahjustunud kehaosa asendamist, millele järgneks osaline või täielik ajusiirdamine. Erinevad inimkloonimise tüübid on tekitanud palju vaidlusi.[24] Enamik teadus-, valitsus- ja usuorganisatsioone on rangelt reproduktiivse kloonimise vastu. Ameerika Ühendriikide teaduse edendamise liit (AAAS) ja paljud teised teadusühingud on teinud avaldusi, et inimese kloonimine tuleks keelustada seni, ...
Asendamatuteks rasvhapeteks kutsutakse neid rasvhappeid, mis on inimesele vajalikud, kuid mida inimese organism suudab vaid väheses koguses ise toota ja seega peab ta neid saama toidust. On kahte tüüpi asendamatuid rasvhappeid: need, kus kaksikside asub kolme süsinikuaatomi kaugusel ahela lõpus olevast metüülrühmast, ja need, kus kaksikside asub kuue süsinikuaatomi kaugusel ahela lõpus olevast metüülrühmast. Inimese organismil puudub võime sünteesida rasvhappeid, kus kaksiksidemed asuvad karboksüülrühmast loendatult kaugemal kui 9. või 10. süsinikuaatomi juures.[7] Asendamatud rasvhapped on näiteks linoolhape ja linoleenhape, mida leidub paljudes taimeõlides. Inimese võime muuta linoleenhape pikema ahelaga oomega-3-rasvhappeks (nt eikosapentaeenhappeks või dokosaheksaeenhappeks) on piiratud, aga ta saab neid rasvhappeid omastada kalast. ...