*  Bioavailability
ISBN 978-1-58488-668-6. Routes of Drug Administration Bioavailability of Drugs. ... of the same drug, usually an established standard, or through administration via a different route. When the standard consists ... a route of administration that guarantees that all of the administered drug reaches the systemic circulation. Such studies come ... for drugs as opposed to dietary supplements primarily due to the method of administration and Food and Drug Administration ...
*  Host-guest chemistry
Cheng, Y.; Xu, Z; Ma, M.; Xu, T. (2007). "Dendrimers as drug carriers: Applications in different routes of drug administration ... D'Emanuele, A; Attwood, D (2005). "Dendrimer-drug interactions". Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57 (15): 2147-2162. doi:10.1016/j.addr. ... for each drug in different environments. The data indicated that the binding stoichiometry of the drug with the membrane was 1: ... Dendrimers in drug-delivery systems is an example of various host-guest interactions. The interaction between host and guest, ...
*  Microbial drug delivery
... is not currently used as a standard route of drug administration due to its experimental nature. During ... Research into microbial drug delivery refers to this route of administration as topical, since the microbes release the drug ... Microbial drug delivery is an emerging form of drug administration characterized by the use of commensal microbes that have ... As this route of administration is experimental, it is currently not available as a standard treatment option. In a 2013 animal ...
*  Substance dependence
... the addict away from more dangerous routes of drug administration such as injecting to safer routes such as oral administration ... Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and ... Drug dependence means that a person needs a drug to function normally. Abruptly stopping the drug leads to withdrawal symptoms ... route of administration, and time are critical factors for developing a drug dependence. An article in The Lancet compared the ...
*  First pass effect
"Influence of route of administration on drug availability". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 61 (1): 70-74. doi:10.1002/jps. ... Alternative routes of administration like suppository, intravenous, intramuscular, inhalational aerosol, transdermal and ... In drug design, drug candidates may have good druglikeness but fail on first-pass metabolism because it is biochemically ... The liver metabolizes many drugs, sometimes to such an extent that only a small amount of active drug emerges from the liver to ...
*  Lotion
Though this has limited use as a route of drug administration, it more commonly results in unintended, and often undesirable, ... Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 January 2016. "Fragrances in Cosmetics". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved ... The Food and Drug Administration voiced concern about lotions not classified as drugs that advertise anti-aging or anti-wrinkle ... "Wrinkle Treatments and Other Anti-aging Products". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 January 2016. "Hand ...
*  Antimicrobial stewardship
Appropriate administration route and feasibility of drug conversion from intravenous to by mouth (PO)? If the answer is no, the ... weight and renal function or drug-drug interaction? Appropriate deescalation of antimicrobials after culture results are final ... In the US it has become customary to present a business plan to the executive officers of the hospital administration. As of ... It can be difficult to decide if a clinical syndrome or a particular drug should be targeted for interventions and education. ...
*  Route of administration
Identical drugs can produce different results depending on the route of administration. For example, some drugs are not ... A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is ... A.S.P.E.N. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition As Drug Administration Routes at the US National Library of ... The reason for choice of routes of drug administration are governing by various factors: Physical and chemical properties of ...
*  Nasya
Administration of drugs by the route of nasal cavity is termed as nasya, nāvana, nasya karma, etcetera are synonymous to nasya ...
*  Gholam A. Peyman
This method has now become an alternative route of drug administration to the systemic and topical medication that in majority ... Intravitreal antineoplastic (cancer) - Toxicity of antineoplastic drugs in vitrectomy infusion fluids (1983 and 1984) drugs ... Toxicity of intravitreal antiviral drugs (1984) Vitrectomy and intravitreal antiviral drug therapy in acute retinal necrosis ... Presently, intraocular drug delivery is accepted and is performed routinely in the treatment of the wet form of age-related ...
*  Nasal administration
... is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either ... Drugs which are poorly absorbed orally can also be given by this route. Nasal administration is primarily suitable for potent ... The nasal drug administration of naloxone was found to be as effective as the intravenous route. In opioid overdoses, where ... This "transcribrial route" published first in 2014 was suggested by the author (Baig AM. et al,) for drugs to be given for ...
*  Insufflation (medicine)
... most notably as a route of administration for various drugs. Nasal inhalation of recreational drugs ("snorting") is often ... Drugs Forum". drugs-forum.com. Retrieved 2016-03-25. "Ways of Taking Drugs". Alcohol Rehab. Retrieved 2016-03-25. "Insufflation ... Drugs administered in this way can have a local effect or a systemic effect. The time of onset for systemic drugs delivered via ... The bioavailability of drugs administered nasally is generally significantly higher than drugs taken orally. Steroids (local ...
*  Pharmaceutical formulation
The drug form varies by the route of administration. Like capsules , tablets and pills etc. Oral drugs are normally taken as ... If concentrated by evaporation, the drug may be diluted before administration. For IV administration, the drug may be ... Pesticide formulation Drug development Dosage form Drug delivery Excipient, an inactive carrier Drug design Drug discovery ... the ratio of the active drug to the total contents of the dose. A low drug load may cause homogeneity problems. A high drug ...
*  Tablet (pharmacy)
Some drugs may be unsuitable for administration by the oral route. For example, protein drugs such as insulin may be denatured ... For drugs that need to have rapid onset, or that have severe side effects, the oral route may not be suitable. For example, ... Such drugs cannot be made into tablets. Some drugs may be deactivated by the liver when they are carried there from the ... The oral bioavailability of some drugs may be low due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Such drugs may need ...
*  Skin popping
... is any of several routes of administration whereby street drugs are injected or deposited under the skin. It is ... After deposition, the drug then diffuses slowly from the depot into the capillary networks, where it enters circulation. Skin ... Skin popping increases the duration of the high one gets from drugs such as cocaine. The sites where skin popping with cocaine ... popping is distinct from intravenous injection in that the latter deposits the drug directly into the bloodstream via a vein. ...
*  Drug tolerance
This type of tolerance is most evident with oral ingestion, because other routes of drug administration bypass first-pass ... further reducing the drug's effects. Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not necessarily associated with drug ... is called drug desensitization. The opposite concept to drug tolerance is drug reverse tolerance (or drug sensitization), in ... neurons increases an animal's sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably ...
*  Equianalgesic
A frequently-seen format has the drug names in the left column, the route of administration in the center columns and any notes ... 4 Narcotics: Synthetic Narcotics: Dextropropoxyphene". Drugs of Abuse. Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of ... Repeated administration of a medication is also different from single dosing, as many drugs have active metabolites that can ... Values for the potencies represent opioids taken orally unless another route of administration is provided. As such, their ...
*  Intravitreal administration
Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance is delivered into the eye. ... Intravitreal administration of drugs is used to treat various conditions of the eye. The following methods are known. ... "Drugs of Abuse". Retrieved 10 May 2014. Google video: Intravitreal injection. ...
*  Intravaginal administration
"Drug Delivery by the Intravaginal Route". Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 17 (5). doi:10.1615/ ... Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina. Pharmacologically, ... Drugs may also be administered intravaginally as an alternative to oral route in the cause of nausea or other digestive ... Drugs primarily delivered by intravaginal administration include vaginally administered estrogens and progestogens (a group of ...
*  Ancient Iranian medicine
Physicians stress the importance of dose, and route of administration and define a schedule for drug administration. Recent ... An antiepileptic drug-therapy plan in medieval Iranian medicine is individualized, given different single and combined drug- ...
*  Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetic properties of chemicals are affected by the route of administration and the dose of administered drug. These ... of drug distribution to be that volume in which the drug is distributed at that elapsed time following drug administration. ... is the drug's rate of administration and τ {\displaystyle \tau } is the rate at which the absorbed drug reaches the circulatory ... This concept depends on a series of factors inherent to each drug, such as: Pharmaceutical form Chemical form Route of ...
*  Electronic prescribing
... potential inappropriate dose or route of administration, drug-drug interactions, allergy concerns, or warnings of caution ... of prescribed drugs Avoid more adverse drug interactions and reactions More reliably offer to substitute less expensive drug ... known as a Drug Utilization Review. Safety checks include: automated prompts that offer information on the drug being ... amendments to Part C of the Food and Drugs Regulations made under the Food and Drugs Act, regulations made under the Controlled ...
*  Sedation dentistry
The parenteral route involves the administration of sedative drugs other than absorption across enteric membranes (outside of ... Sedation by pharmacologic methods may be obtained by two general routes. The enteral route involves absorption of medication ... This route includes medications that are either swallowed, absorbed through the mucosa of the oral cavity, or inserted rectally ... The pharmacological agents usually belong to a class of drugs called sedatives, which exert their action by depressing the ...
*  Respiratory route
The respiratory route may refer to: Airborne disease A route of administration of drugs, including nasal administration, ...
*  Poppy straw
"Excretion profile of opiates in dependent patients in relation to route of administration and type of drug measured in urine ... "1. The world drug problem: A status report". World Drug Report. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2004 "Part IV, ... World Drug Report. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2008. p. 213. Bruhn, J. G.; Nyman, U. (1981). "A note on the ... The production of licit opium in India was in accord with terms of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. After the ...
*  Classical Anatolia
The administration was hierarchical, often referred to as Great, Main and Minor Satrapies. The main administrative units in ... A major east-west trading route passed through it exiting through the Cilician Gates. Cilicia had historically been ruled by ... central government in rome was often far from civil and military commanders in the field, and local ambitions often dragged ... In the mean time Sulla set about re-organising the Roman administration in Western anatolia until 84 BC. Those cities that had ...