Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much ... Warn, RM (1986). "The cytoskeleton of the early Drosophila embryo". Journal of Cell Science. Supplement. 5: 311-28. PMID ... In Drosophila, each stripe (segment) is subdivided into anterior and posterior halves. The posterior half of one segment and ... Drosophila melanogaster larvae contained in lab apparatus to be used for experiments in genetics and embryology ...
Morgan's small Mendelian genes in Drosophila, 1912[edit]. Thomas Hunt Morgan's work on Drosophila melanogaster found many small ... By 1912, after years of work on the genetics of Drosophila fruit flies, Thomas Hunt Morgan showed that these animals had many ... 3.4 Morgan's small Mendelian genes in Drosophila, 1912. *3.5 Muller's balanced lethal explanation of Oenothera "mutations", ... He compared the behaviour of balanced lethals in Drosophila with De Vries's supposed mutations in Oenothera, showing that they ...
Drosophila[edit]. Work using Drosophila has dispensed with stimulating electrodes and developed a 3-part remote control system ... that evokes action potentials in pre-specified Drosophila neurons using a laser beam. The central component of the remote ...
Chromosome polymorphism in Drosophila[edit]. In the 1930s Theodosius Dobzhansky and his co-workers collected Drosophila ... "An altitudinal transect of Drosophila robusta". Evolution 1, 237-48. *^ Dobzhansky T. 1970. Genetics of the evolutionary ...
Drosophila[edit]. A fly-controlled heat-box has been designed to study operant conditioning in several studies of Drosophila.[ ... Tracey, W.D. Jr; Wilson, R.I.; Laurent, G.; Benzer, S. (2003). "Painless, a Drosophila gene essential for nociception". Cell. ... A Drosophila flight simulator has been used to examine operant conditioning.[93] The flies are tethered in an apparatus that ... Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to acids[50] and menthol[51] with a stereotyped nociceptive rolling response, identical ...
Due to their low-maintenance and highly mapped genomes, mice, Drosophila,[19] and C. elegans[20] are very common. Zebrafish[21] ... His pioneering work with Drosophila helped to elucidate the link between circadian rhythms and genes, which led to further ... Seymour Benzer in his office at Caltech in 1974 with a big model of Drosophila ... "Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ...
Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 actin activated ATPase no inhibition[31] Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 M466I mutation actin ... Drosophila cardiac tubes heart wall motion 100 μM resulted in full inhibition[32] ... "Kinetic characterization of the sole nonmuscle myosin-2 from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster". FASEB Journal. 29 (4 ... "A Drosophila melanogaster model of diastolic dysfunction and cardiomyopathy based on impaired troponin-T function" ...
When a fertile female worker produces drones, a conflict arises between her interests and those of the queen. The worker shares half her genes with the drone and one-quarter with her brothers, favouring her offspring over those of the queen. The queen shares half her genes with her sons and one-quarter with the sons of fertile female workers.[65] This pits the worker against the queen and other workers, who try to maximize their reproductive fitness by rearing the offspring most related to them. This relationship leads to a phenomenon known as "worker policing". In these rare situations, other worker bees in the hive who are genetically more related to the queen's sons than those of the fertile workers will patrol the hive and remove worker-laid eggs. Another form of worker-based policing is aggression toward fertile females.[66] Some studies have suggested a queen pheromone which may help workers distinguish worker- and queen-laid eggs, but others indicate egg viability as the key factor in ...
Eggs take about 14 days to hatch into larvae, which eat continuously. They have a preference for white mulberry, having an attraction to the mulberry odorant cis-jasmone. They are not monophagous since they can eat other species of Morus, as well as some other Moraceae, mostly Osage orange. They are covered with tiny black hairs. When the color of their heads turns darker, it indicates they are about to molt. After molting, the instar phase of the silkworms emerge white, naked, and with little horns on their backs. After they have molted four times, their bodies become slightly yellow and the skin becomes tighter. The larvae then prepare to enter the pupal phase of their lifecycle, and enclose themselves in a cocoon made up of raw silk produced by the salivary glands. The final molt from larva to pupa takes place within the cocoon, which provides a vital layer of protection during the vulnerable, almost motionless pupal state. Many other Lepidoptera produce cocoons, but only a few-the ...
The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila, have made ...
Fontdevila A, Pla C, Hasson E, Wasserman M, Sanchez A, Naveira H, Ruiz A (1988). "Drosophila koepferae: a new member of the ... Drosophila serido (Diptera: Drosophilidae) superspecies taxon". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 81 (3): 380-385 ...
Animals are called pests when they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock, such as codling moth on apples, or boll weevil on cotton. An animal could also be a pest when it causes damage to a wild ecosystem or carries germs within human habitats. Examples of these include those organisms which vector human disease, such as rats and fleas which carry the plague disease, mosquitoes which vector malaria, and ticks which carry Lyme disease. A species can be a pest in one setting but beneficial or domesticated in another (for example, European rabbits introduced to Australia caused ecological damage beyond the scale they inflicted in their natural habitat). Many weeds are also seen as useful under certain conditions, for instance Patterson's curse is often valued as food for honeybees and as a wildflower, even though it can poison livestock. The term "plant pest" has a specific definition in terms of the International Plant Protection Convention and phytosanitary ...
Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, can be major agricultural pests in many parts of the world. Examples include corn borers and bollworms.[5] The caterpillar of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) causes severe damage to forests in the northeastern United States, where it is an invasive species. In temperate climates, the codling moth causes extensive damage, especially to fruit farms. In tropical and subtropical climates, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is perhaps the most serious pest of brassicaceous crops. Also in sub-Saharan Africa, the African sugarcane borer is a major pest of sugarcane, maize, and sorghum.[6] Several moths in the family Tineidae are commonly regarded as pests because their larvae eat fabric such as clothes and blankets made from natural proteinaceous fibers such as wool or silk.[7] They are less likely to eat mixed materials containing some artificial fibers. There are some reports that they may be repelled by the scent of wood from juniper and cedar, ...
Primary screwworms are primary, obligate parasites in the larval stage, and as a result are capable, unlike secondary screwworms, of initialising the penetration of the skin barrier to create an entry wound. Despite this, they are most commonly seen as colonisers of previously existing wounds, and frequently are hatched from eggs laid at the perimeter of a wound. Once the infestation commences, a dark brown or reddish-brown discharge begins leaking from the wound, sometimes accompanied by an unpleasant smell as the flesh begins to decay. This is often the first sign in both livestock and human victims that something is amiss, and often initiates consultation with a professional. As the infestation increases, the victim begins to experience escalating tissue irritation, and in the case of domesticated animals, may be observed to become withdrawn, listless, and anorexic.[5][17] Once the process of clinical diagnosis begins and myiasis is recognised, the larvae are fairly easy to identify. Their ...
The Dynastinae are among the largest of beetles, reaching more than 150 mm (6 in) in length, but are completely harmless to humans because they cannot bite or sting. Some species have been anecdotally claimed to lift up to 850 times their own weight.[1] Their common names refer to the characteristic horns borne only by the males of most species in the group. Each has a horn on the head and another horn pointing forward from the center of the thorax. The horns are used in fighting other males during mating season, and for digging. The size of the horn is a good indicator of nutrition and physical health.[2] The body of an adult rhinoceros beetle is covered by a thick exoskeleton. A pair of thick wings lie atop another set of membranous wings underneath, allowing the rhinoceros beetle to fly, although not very efficiently, owing to its large size. Their best protection from predators is their size and stature. Additionally, since they are nocturnal, they avoid many of their predators during the ...
The deathwatch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, is a woodboring beetle. The adult beetle is 7 millimetres (0.28 in) long, while the xylophagous larvae are up to 11 mm (0.43 in) long. To attract mates, these woodborers create a tapping or ticking sound that can be heard in the rafters of old buildings on quiet summer nights. They are therefore associated with quiet, sleepless nights and are named for the vigil (watch) kept beside the dying or dead, and by extension the superstitious have seen the deathwatch beetle as an omen of impending death. The term "death watch" has been applied to a variety of other ticking insects, including Anobium striatum, some of the so-called booklice of the family Psocidae, and the appropriately named Atropos divinatoria and Clothilla pulsatoria (Greek goddesses Atropos and Clotho were associated with death). The larva is very soft, yet can bore its way through wood, which it is able to digest using a number of enzymes in its alimentary canal, provided that the wood ...
Insects have often been taken to represent qualities, for good or ill, and accordingly have been used as amulets to ward off evil, or as omens that predict forthcoming events. A blue-glazed faience dragonfly amulet was found by Flinders Petrie at Lahun, from the Late Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt.[32] During the Greek Archaic Era, the grasshopper was the symbol of the polis of Athens,[33] possibly because they were among the most common insects on the dry plains of Attica.[33] Native Athenians wore golden grasshopper brooches to symbolize that they were of pure, Athenian lineage and did not have any foreign ancestors.[33] In later times, this custom became seen as a mark of archaism.[33] For some Native American tribes, dragonflies represent swiftness and activity; for the Navajo, they symbolize pure water. They are a common motif in Zuni pottery; stylized as a double-barred cross, they appear in Hopi rock art and on Pueblo necklaces.[34] Among the classical names of Japan are Akitsukuni ...
In Britain, John Curtis wrote the influential 1860 treatise Farm Insects, dealing with the insect pests of corn, roots, grass and stored grain. Fruit and pests were described by authors such as Saunders, Joseph Albert Lintner, Eleanor Anne Ormerod, Charles Valentine Riley, Mark Vernon Slingerland in America and Canada. The pioneers in Europe were Ernst Ludwig Taschenberg, Sven Lampa (1839-1914), Enzio Reuter (1867-1951) and Vincenze Kollar. Charles French (1842-1933), Walter Wilson Froggatt (1858-1937) and Henry Tryon (1856-1943) pioneered in Australia.. It was not until the last quarter of the 19th century that any real advance was made in the study of economic entomology. Among the early writings, besides the book of Curtis, there was a publication by Pohl and Kollar, entitled Insects Injurious to Gardeners, Foresters and Farmers, published in 1837, and Taschenberg's Praktische Insecktenkunde. During the 19th century Italian entomologists made significant progress in controlling diseases of ...
Fruit fly: Drosophila melanogaster.[39] Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics.. *Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans.[40] ... St Johnston D (2002). "The art and design of genetic screens: Drosophila melanogaster". Nat Rev Genet. 3 (3): 176-188. doi: ... In Bate and Martinez-Arias (eds.), The Development of Drosophila melanogaster, Cold Spring Harbor Press ... Maves L., Schubiger G. (2003). "Transdetermination in Drosophila imaginal discs: a model for understanding pluripotency and ...
Ichneumonoids are solitary insects, and the vast majority are parasitoids; the larvae feed on or in another insect until it finally dies. Most hosts are holometabolus insect larvae, but there are many exceptions. In general, ichneumonoids are host specific, and only attack one or a few closely related host species. Many species use polydnaviruses to suppress the immune systems of their host insects. Due to the wide variety in hosts and lifestyles, see subfamily pages for more detail. The female ichneumonoid finds a host and lays an egg on, near, or inside the host's body.[8] The ovipositor of ichneumonoids generally cannot deliver a sting as many wasps or bees do. It can be used to bore wood and lay eggs on hosts deep inside, or reach hosts hidden inside leaf shelters. Upon hatching, the larva feeds either externally or internally, killing the host when it is ready to pupate. Various ichneumonoids are used as biological control agents in controlling horticultural or forest pests. An example is ...
Sexual cannibalism is common among most predatory species of mantises in captivity. It has sometimes been observed in natural populations, where about a quarter of male-female encounters result in the male being eaten by the female.[57][58][59] Around 90% of the predatory species of mantises exhibit sexual cannibalism.[60] Adult males typically outnumber females at first, but their numbers may be fairly equivalent later in the adult stage,[5] possibly because females selectively eat the smaller males.[61] In Tenodera sinensis, 83% of males escape cannibalism after an encounter with a female, but since multiple matings occur, the probability of a male's being eaten increases cumulatively.[58] The female may begin feeding by biting off the male's head (as they do with regular prey), and if mating has begun, the male's movements may become even more vigorous in its delivery of sperm. Early researchers thought that because copulatory movement is controlled by a ganglion in the abdomen, not the head, ...
... was widely traded in Europe during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In the 15th and 16th centuries, along with grain, timber, and salt, it was one of Poland's chief exports, mainly to southern Germany and northern Italy as well as to France, England, the Ottoman Empire, and Armenia.[7] In Poland, the cochineal trade was mostly monopolized by Jewish merchants,[7] who bought the dye from peasants in Red Ruthenia and other regions of Poland and Lithuania. The merchants shipped the dye to major Polish cities such as Kraków, Gdańsk (Danzig), and Poznań. From there, the merchandise was exported to wholesalers in Breslau (Wrocław), Nuremberg, Frankfurt, Augsburg, Venice,[7] and other destinations. The Polish cochineal trade was a lucrative business for the intermediaries; according to Marcin of Urzędów (1595), one pound of Polish cochineal cost between four and five Venetian pounds. In terms of quantities, the trade reached its peak in the 1530s. In 1534, 1963 stones (about ...
"Drosophila Genome Project". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2009-04-14.. ...
Versuche an Drosophila". Biologisches Zentralblatt. 49: 437-448.. *Goldschmidt, R. B. (1931). Die sexuellen Zwischenstufen, ... Goldschmidt, R. B. (1949). "The beaded minute-intersexes in Drosophila melanogaster Meig". J. Exp. Zool. (published Nov 1949). ... Goldschmidt, R. B. (1945). "Podoptera, a homoeotic mutant of Drosophila and the origin of the insect wing". Science (published ... Goldschmidt, R. B.; Piternick, L K (1957). "The genetic background of chemically induced phenocopies in Drosophila". J. Exp. ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
Arias AM (2008). "Drosophila melanogaster and the development of biology in the 20th century". Drosophila. Methods in Molecular ... In normal unmutated Drosophila, each segment produces bristles called denticles in a band arranged on the side of the segment ... Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus took advantage of the segmented form of Drosophila larvae to address the logic of the genes ... The subsequent study of these mutants and their interactions led to important new insights into early Drosophila development, ...
"; "Drosophila"; "The Two of Cups"; "Triptych", Kimera: A Journal of Fine Writing "On a Line by Su Tung-p'o"; "Another Line ...
"Drosophila". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.19334. PMC 5119887. PMID 27873574. Donlea JM, Alam MN, Szymusiak R (June 2017). " ...
Because the immune function of toll in Drosophila was not then known, it was assumed that TIL (now known as TLR1) might ... The prototypic member of the family, the toll receptor (P08953; Tl) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, was discovered in ... June 2019). "Drosophila". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294 (26): 10172-10181. doi:10.1074/jbc.RA118.006804. PMC 6664172 ... Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ...
Inversions in Hawaiian Drosophila. In: Krimbas C.B. & Powell J.R. (eds) Drosophila inversion polymorphism. CRC Press, Boca ... Hawaiian Drosophila[change , change source]. In about 6,500 sq mi (17,000 km2), the Hawaiian Islands have the most diverse ... William Rice and G.W. Salt bred fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, using a maze with three different choices of habitat such ... Diane Dodd was also able to show how reproductive isolation can develop from mating preferences in Drosophila pseudoobscura ...