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*  Bacteriophage pRNA
... the viral genome is packaged into the pre-formed viral procapsid. The packaging of DNA into the procapsid requires a molecular ... Only the first 120 bases of the pRNA are essential for packing the viral DNA. The pRNA is proposed to be composed of two ... Guo PX, Erickson S, Anderson D (1987). "A small viral RNA is required for in vitro packaging of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA". ... Guo P (2002). "Structure and function of phi29 hexameric RNA that drives the viral DNA packaging motor: review". Prog. Nucleic ...
*  Hepatitis B
... stranded viral DNA is then made fully double stranded by a viral polymerase and transformed into covalently closed circular DNA ... The viral DNA is found in the nucleus soon after infection of the cell. The partially double-stranded DNA is rendered fully ... The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse transcriptase activity. The outer envelope ... but it is unusual because the DNA is not fully double-stranded. One end of the full length strand is linked to the viral DNA ...
*  Enterobacteria phage T2
... while most of the viral proteins remain outside. The injected DNA molecules cause the bacterial cells to produce more viral DNA ... Its genome consists of linear double-stranded DNA, with repeats at either end. The phage is covered by a protective protein ... Experiments conducted by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase demonstrated how the DNA of viruses is injected into the bacterial ... These discoveries supported that DNA, rather than proteins, is the hereditary material. The first phages that were studied in ...
*  Discovery and development of HIV-protease inhibitors
Activation of the host cell leads to the transcription of the viral DNA into mRNA. The mRNA is then translated into viral ... The viral DNA enters the nucleus where it is integrated into the genetic material of the cell by the integrase, a second ... The viral RNA and viral proteins assemble at the surface of the cell into new virions. The virions bud from the cell and are ... This fusion creates a pore through which the viral capsid enters the cell. Following entry into the cell the RNA of the virus ...
*  Endogenous retrovirus
Reverse transcriptase functions to synthesize viral DNA from the viral RNA in the host cell's cytoplasm before it entering the ... When integration of viral DNA occurs in the germ-line, it can give rise to an ERV, which can later become fixed in the gene ... The replication cycle of a retrovirus entails the insertion ("integration") of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the nuclear ... Integrase guides the integration of viral DNA into the host genome. Endogenous retroviruses can play an active role in shaping ...
*  Ribonucleotide
Methylated forms of the major bases are most common in DNA. In viral DNA, some bases may be hydroxymethylated or glucosylated. ... In both DNA and RNA, one of the pyrimdines is cytosine (C). However, DNA and RNA differ in the second major pyrimidine. DNA ... During DNA synthesis, DNA polymerases must select against ribonucleotides, present at much higher levels compared with ... However, many nuclear replicative and repair DNA polymerases incorporate ribonucleotides into DNA, suggesting that the ...
*  Simian foamy virus
Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. Env proteins are ... Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA is covalently integrated into the cell's genome by the viral integrase, forming a provirus. ... The spliced mRNAs encode pol (PR, RT, RnaseH, IN) and env (SU, TM) that will be used to later assemble the viral particles. The ... The entry receptor that triggers viral entry has not been identified, but the absence of heparan sulfate in one study resulted ...
*  Adenovirus genome
Adenovirus DNA replication begins at each end of the viral DNA, using the TP protein (rather than RNA) as a primer, so the ... The three proteins coded for by the E2A and E2B transcription units are all involved in replication of viral DNA. ... The control proteins of the E4 transcription unit are involved in regulating transcription of viral DNA. "Viruses - Complete ... The L3 protease cleaves viral precursor proteins pTP, pVI, pVII, pVIII, and IIIa to produce the mature viral proteins. Control ...
*  Vidarabine
When used as a substrate for viral DNA polymerase, ara-ATP competitively inhibits dATP leading to the formation of 'faulty' DNA ... Viral strains resistant to vidarabine show changes in DNA polymerase. It is prone to deamination by adenosine deaminase to ... The Mechanism of action of vidarabine Vidarabine works by interfering with the synthesis of viral DNA. It is a nucleoside ... This is the active form of vidarabine and is both an inhibitor and a substrate of viral DNA polymerase. ...
*  JC virus
JC viral DNA can be detected in both non-PML affected and PML-affected (see below) brain tissue. JCV found in the central ... "Potential transmission of human polyomaviruses through the gastrointestinal tract after exposure to virions or viral DNA". J. ... Monaco, M.C., Jensen, P.N., Hou, J., Durham, L.C. and Major, E.O. (1998). "Detection of JC virus DNA in human tonsil tissue: ... The Spi-B factor was shown to be crucial in initiating viral replication in certain strains of transgenic mice. The protein ...
*  Abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine
Lamivudine is a cytosine analogue that inhibits HIV reverse transcription by terminating the viral DNA chain. Efficacy of ... Specifically, abacavir is a guanosine analogue that interferes with HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, ultimately ... Tivicay + Epzicom compared to Atripla showed a reduction in viral load of HIV-1 RNA 100,000 copies/mL, Tivicay + Epzicom ... inhibits the HIV replication cycle by binding to the integrase active site and inhibiting the strand transfer step of HIV-1 DNA ...
*  SV40
Once in the nucleus the large T antigen binds three viral DNA sites, I, II and III. Binding of sites I and II autoregulates ... In contrast, when multiple viral genomes infected a host cell, psoralen-induced DNA cross-links were repaired; that is, MR ... Sowd, GA; Fanning, E (2012). "A wolf in sheep's clothing: SV40 co-opts host genome maintenance proteins to replicate viral DNA ... The complete viral genome was sequenced by Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent (Belgium) in 1978. SV40 consists of an ...
*  Hepatitis B vaccine
In theory, this would be very safe, as these excess surface proteins lacked infectious viral DNA. The immune system, ... This allows the yeast to produce only the noninfectious surface protein, without any danger of introducing actual viral DNA ... "CDC Viral Hepatitis". Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009-07-24. Archived from the original on ... Hilleman collected blood from gay men and intravenous drug users-groups known to be at risk for viral hepatitis. This was in ...
*  Actinic keratosis
The HPV virus has been detected in AKs, with measurable HPV viral loads (1 HPV-DNA copy per less than 50 cells) measured in 40 ... Similar to UV radiation, higher levels of HPV found in AKs reflect enhanced viral DNA replication; this is suspected to be ... This tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 17p132, allows for cell cycle arrest when DNA or RNA is damaged. ... Topical fluorouracil (5-FU) destroys AKs by blocking methylation of thymidylate synthetase, thereby interrupting DNA and RNA ...
*  Structure and genome of HIV
This arrest activates the host DNA repair machinery which may enable integration of the viral DNA. HIV-2 and SIV encode an ... RT is required to transcribe DNA from RNA template, and IN is necessary to integrate the double-stranded viral DNA into the ... Viral structural proteins are encoded by long ORFs, whereas smaller ORFs encode regulators of the viral life cycle: attachment ... Rev is important for the synthesis of major viral proteins and is hence essential for viral replication. vpr (lentivirus ...
*  HHV Latency Associated Transcript
The LAT RNA is produced by genetic transcription from a certain region of the viral DNA. LAT regulates the viral genome and ... LAT expression results in changes to Histones, thus converting portions of viral DNA into a non-productive form known as ... The DNA region containing LAT-DNA is known as the Latency Associated Transcript Region. Apoptosis is the process of normal cell ... The region of HHV DNA which encodes LAT is known as LAT-DNA. After splicing, LAT is a 2.0-kilobase transcript (or intron) ...
*  Lambda phage
The single-strand viral DNA ends are ligated by host DNA ligase. Host DNA gyrase puts negative supercoils in the circular ... The original B-O-B' sequence is changed by the integration to B-O-P'-phage DNA-P-O-B'. The phage DNA is now part of the host's ... The 48 kb DNA fragment of lambda phage is not essential for productive infection and can be replaced by foreign DNA. Lambda ... Packaging cannot occur from circular phage DNA, only from concatomeric DNA. Q is similar to N in its effect: Q binds to RNA ...
*  Integrase
Integration occurs following production of the double-stranded viral DNA by the viral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase reverse ... ends of the viral DNA to expose the invariant CA dinucleotides at both 3'-ends of the viral DNA. the strand transfer reaction, ... The main function of IN is to insert the viral DNA into the host chromosomal DNA, a step that is essential for HIV replication ... ends of the viral DNA are covalently ligated to the host chromosomal DNA. Both reactions are catalysed by the same active site ...
*  HT-TALENS
... stopping the drugs sets the viral DNA free to attack the patient. HT-TALENs binds to that sequence and cuts the HIV DNA, but ... 60% of the cells making the protein damage the viral DNA. TALENs Hock, Lindsay (October 5, 2015). "Gene-editing Technique Stops ... The HIV genome is made from RNA rather than DNA. The enzyme that converts RNA to DNA and then inserts it into a cell makes ... When the HIV virus infects someone, it copies its DNA and inserts into the DNA of white blood cells, making the virus part of ...
*  DNA beta-glucosyltransferase
... modified DNA through beta-Glycosidic bond. The role of the enzyme is to protect the infecting viral DNA from the bacteria's ... which modify DNA by transferring glucose from uridine diphosphoglucose to 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine bases of phage T4 DNA. Beta- ... In enzymology, a DNA beta-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which a beta-D ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:DNA beta-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common use include T4- ...
*  BRD4
"Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 tethers the viral DNA to host mitotic chromosomes". Cell. 117 (3 ... Abbate EA, Voitenleitner C, Botchan MR (Dec 2006). "Structure of the papillomavirus DNA-tethering complex E2:Brd4 and a peptide ...
*  Emtricitabine
The drug works by inhibiting reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that copies HIV RNA into new viral DNA. By interfering with this ... In studies involving individuals with chronic HIV infection, viral replication also resumes when study subjects are taken off ... October 2002). "Stimulation of HIV-specific cellular immunity by structured treatment interruption fails to enhance viral ... process, which is central to the replication of HIV, emtricitabine can help to lower the amount of HIV, or "viral load", in a ...
*  Human Endogenous Retrovirus-W
... hosts can also keep viral DNA in their genome in some advantageous or non-deleterious cases. In the case of HERVs, viral DNA ... This new retroviral DNA can now be passed on vertically from parents to child. Furthermore, the integrated viral genome has ... Since the fetus only share half of the mother's DNA it is critical that the mother's immune system does not reject or attack ... Thus, all the progeny of the infected human ancestor would have this viral genome integrated into every cell in their bodies. ...
*  Herpesviridae
... allowing viral DNA to migrate to the cell nucleus. Within the nucleus, replication of viral DNA and transcription of viral ... All herpesviruses are nuclear-replicating-the viral DNA is transcribed to mRNA within the infected cell's nucleus. Infection is ... Viral proteins inhibit TAP preventing the MHC from picking up a viral antigen peptide. This prevents proper folding of the MHC ... During symptomatic infection, infected cells transcribe lytic viral genes. In some host cells, a small number of viral genes ...
*  TLR9
CpG sites are relatively rare (~1%) on vertebrate genomes in comparison to bacterial genomes or viral DNA. TLR9 is expressed by ... within the endosomal compartments and functions to alert the immune system of viral and bacterial infections by binding to DNA ... HMGB1-DNA complex then binds to RAGE, and activates TLR9. TLR9 can work through MyD88, an adaptor molecule that increases the ... TLR9 preferentially binds DNA present in bacteria and viruses, and triggers signaling cascades that lead to a pro-inflammatory ...