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*  TOP2A
Watt PM, Hickson ID (1994). "Structure and function of type II DNA topoisomerases". Biochem. J. 303 (3): 681-95. PMC 1137600 . ... Mao, Y; Desai S D; Liu L F (August 2000). "SUMO-1 conjugation to human DNA topoisomerase II isozymes". J. Biol. Chem. UNITED ... This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. ... TOP2A topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha 170kDa". Tsai, S C; Valkov N; Yang W M; Gump J; Sullivan D; Seto E (November 2000). "Histone ...
*  DNA topoisomerase
There are two types of DNA topoisomerase; I and II. Both of which are further classified into sub families IA, IB, IIA, and IIB ... Only mammalian DNA topoisomerase II can break up two intertwined DNA strands. The unique ability of DNA unlinking is necessary ... DNA topoisomerase (EC 5.99.1.2, type I DNA topoisomerase, untwisting enzyme, relaxing enzyme, nicking-closing enzyme, swivelase ... Through this reaction DNA topoisomerase is able to break and rejoin the phosphate backbone of DNA. Topoisomerase probably ...
*  Topoisomerase inhibitor
Mammalian DNA topoisomerase type II poison in vivo". Mutation Research Letters. 301 (2): 87-92. doi:10.1016/0165-7992(93)90029- ... Examples of topoisomerase poisons include the following: eukaryotic type II topoisomerase inhibitors (topo II): amsacrine, ... These inhibitors are split into two main classes: topoisomerase poisons, which target the topoisomerase-DNA complex, and ... Topoisomerase inhibitors are chemical compounds that block the action of topoisomerase (topoisomerase I and II), which are ...
*  CcdA/CcdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system
The target of CcdB is the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase, an essential type II topoisomerase in Escherichia coli. In absence of the ... Bernard P, Couturier M (1992). "Cell killing by the F plasmid CcdB protein involves poisoning of DNA-topoisomerase II complexes ... The CcdA/CCdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two ... Regulation of the ccd operon by the CCdA/CCdB complex is dependent upon the ratio of the two molecules to each other in the ...
*  Clinafloxacin
... like other fluoroquinolones is derived from its activity against type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. ... reactive oxygen species that can damage cellular structures-including DNA. For this reason clinafloxacin can also be classified ... It is soluble in methanol (about 2 mg/mL at 25 °C) and water. In the 1990s, clinafloxacin showed promise as a novel, broad- ... 58 Suppl 2: 60-4. PMID 10553708. Retrieved 13 September 2017. "Clinafloxacin Hydrochloride (CAS 105956-99-8)". scbt.com. Santa ...
*  Type I topoisomerase
... break single-strand DNA, and type II enzymes (EC; topoisomerases II, IV and VI) break double-strand DNA. Type IA topoisomerases ... type IA and type IB. Type IA topoisomerases change the linking number of a circular DNA strand by units of strictly 1. Type IB ... DNA topoisomerases are divided into two classes: type I enzymes (EC; topoisomerases I, III and V) ... Unlike type II topoisomerases, type IA topoisomerases do not use energy to do its work (with the notable exception of reverse ...
*  DNA supercoil
Topoisomerases such as DNA gyrase (Type II Topoisomerase) play a role in relieving some of the stress during DNA/RNA synthesis ... Supercoiled DNA forms two structures; a plectoneme or a toroid, or a combination of both. A negatively supercoiled DNA molecule ... Many topoisomerase enzymes sense supercoiling and either generate or dissipate it as they change DNA topology. DNA of most ... The linking number is the most descriptive property of supercoiled DNA. Lko, the number of turns in the relaxed (B type) DNA ...
*  Bacillus safensis
The gyrB gene, subunit B protein, is a type II topoisomerase that is essential for DNA replication. This gene is conserved ... DNA gyrase is made of two subunits, A and B. These subunits are denoted as gyrA and gyrB. ... DNA gyrase is an important enzyme that introduces a negative supercoil to the DNA and is responsible for the biological ... 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization in the Bacillus subtilis group". International Journal of Systematic and ...
*  Topoisomerase IV
... is one of two type-II topoisomerases in bacteria, the other being DNA gyrase. Like gyrase, topoisomerase IV is ... Topoisomerase IV has two functions in the cell. First, it is responsible for unlinking, or decatenating, DNA following DNA ... DNA gyrases are analogous enzymes in other organisms. While topoisomerase IV does relax positive supercoils like DNA gyrase, it ... The double-helical nature of DNA and its semiconservative mode of replication causes the two newly replicated DNA strands to be ...
*  Norfloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, enzymes necessary to separate bacterial ... Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377- ... Norfloxacin does not bind to DNA gyrase but does bind to the substrate DNA. As noted above, under licensed use, norfloxacin is ... "Warning over two types of antibiotic". Republic of Ireland. Retrieved 17 July 2009. Runyon BA (1986). "Low-protein- ...
*  Moxifloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, enzymes necessary to separate bacterial ... Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377- ... In 2007, the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware held that two Bayer patents on Avelox are valid and enforceable, ... However, this patent was extended for an additional two and one half years on 16 September 2004, and as such was not expected ...
*  Flumequine
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, enzymes necessary to separate bacterial ... "Effect of 4-quinolones and novobiocin on calf thymus DNA polymerase alpha primase complex, topoisomerases I and II, and growth ... Identification of topoisomerase II as the primary cellular target for the quinolone CP-115,953 in yeast". The Journal of ... feature of drugs based on the quinolone structure is their remarkable ability to target different type II topoisomerase enzymes ...
*  DNA base flipping
DNA polymerases, and Type II topoisomerases. Much research has been done in the years subsequent to this discovery and it has ... various DNA repair mechanisms, RNA transcription and DNA replication. DNA can have mutations that cause a base in the DNA ... There are two mechanisms of DNA base flipping: active and passive. In the active mechanism, an enzyme binds to the DNA and then ... DNA repair Base excision repair DNA replication RNA transcription DNA methylation DNA methyltransferase Genetic recombination ...
*  Pefloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, which is an enzyme necessary to separate ... http://www.pefloxacin.com/pefloxacin_other.html Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4- ... replicated DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division. Tendinitis and rupture, usually of the Achilles tendon, are a class-effects ...
*  Phycodnaviridae
... a type II DNA topoisomerase, and RNase H. Although both EsV-1 and PBCV-1 possess genes for essential elements of the eukaryotic ... Both EsV-1 and PBCV-1 encode DNA polymerase which belong to the DNA polymerase-δ family, and they all contain a proof-reading 3 ... PBCV-1 also encodes other proteins involved in DNA replication including an ATP-dependent DNA ligase, ... "Massive Prevalence of Viral DNA in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) from Two Habitats in the North Atlantic and South ...
*  Type II topoisomerase
There are two subclasses of type II topoisomerases, type IIA and IIB. Type IIA topoisomerases include the enzymes DNA gyrase, ... type II topoisomerases are needed for the same reason. Small molecules that target type II topoisomerase are divided into two ... Eukaryotic type II topoisomerases are homodimers (A2), while prokaryotic type II topoisomerases are heterodimers (A2B2). ... The roles of type IIB topoisomerases are less understood. Unlike type IIA topoisomerases, type IIB topoisomerases cannot ...
*  Ofloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, which is an enzyme necessary to separate ... Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377- ... Two deaths were observed in the levofloxacin group, neither of which was thought to be treatment-related. Spontaneous reports ... It works by interfering with the bacterium's DNA. Ofloxacin was patented in 1980 and approved for medical use in 1985. It is on ...
*  Quinolone antibiotic
Topoisomerase II is also a target for a variety of quinolone-based drugs. High activity against the eukaryotic type II enzyme ... This modification, coupled with the constant action of the topoisomerase II in the bacterial cell, leads to DNA fragmentation ... Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... First and second generation fluoroquinolones selectively inhibit the topoisomerase II ligase domain, leaving the two nuclease ...
*  Cinoxacin
... a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase iv, which is an enzyme necessary to separate replicated DNA, thereby inhibiting cell ... "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377-92. PMC 232616 . PMID 9293187. A ... Urinary tract infections only 250 mg, capsules (prescription only) Cinoxacin mode of action involves the inhibiting of DNA ... 1979 Feb;15(2):165-70. Pharmacology of cinoxacin in humans.Black HR, Israel KS, Wolen RL, Brier GL, Obermeyer BD, Ziege EA, ...
*  DNA
"Recent advances in understanding structure-function relationships in the type II topoisomerase mechanism". Biochemical Society ... DNA exists in many possible conformations that include A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA forms, although, only B-DNA and Z-DNA have been ... Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA strands are ... The type of DNA damage produced depends on the type of mutagen. For example, UV light can damage DNA by producing thymine ...
*  Toxin-antitoxin system
... affects DNA gyrase by poisoning DNA topoisomerase II whereas MazF protein is a toxic endoribonuclease that cleaves cellular ... of all predicted type II loci. Type II systems are organised in operons with the antitoxin protein typically being located ... As of the existing knowledge in 2017, the chromosomal Type II TA systems are horizontally propagating selfish DNA which may ... Bernard P, Couturier M (August 1992). "Cell killing by the F plasmid CcdB protein involves poisoning of DNA-topoisomerase II ...
*  FLP-FRT recombination
... performs its function via a type IB topoisomerase mechanism causing the recombination of two separate strands of DNA. ... This pentad is made up of a lysine (Lysβ), two arginines (Arg I and II), a histidine (His-II), and a histidine/tryptophan (His/ ... If two different FRT sites are present within a cell, and FLP is present in appropriate concentrations, the FRT cassette will ... 2015) had a two-fold objective: characterize and compare the efficacy of Flp recombinase "knock-out" to Cre recombinase "knock- ...
*  Circular bacterial chromosome
... there are two types of topoisomerases: type I produces transient single-strand breaks in DNA and types II produces transient ... and bacterial topo IV belong to the type II. We often forget that DNA gyrase does in fact have topoisomerase type II activity; ... As a result, the type I enzyme removes supercoils from DNA one at a time, whereas the type II enzyme removes supercoils two at ... also having topoisomerase II activity) we expect similarity in the two proteins' functions. DNA gyrase preliminary role is to ...
*  Mitoxantrone
... is a type II topoisomerase inhibitor; it disrupts DNA synthesis and DNA repair in both healthy cells and cancer ... "On the structural basis and design guidelines for type II topoisomerase-targeting anticancer drugs". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 ... Mitoxantrone is used to treat certain types of cancer, mostly metastatic breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and non- ... "The geometry of intercalation complex of antitumor mitoxantrone and ametantrone with DNA: molecular dynamics simulations". Acta ...
*  DNA replication
"Toprim-a conserved catalytic domain in type IA and II topoisomerases, DnaG-type primases, OLD family nucleases and RecR ... DNA helicases, DNA clamps and DNA topoisomerases, and replication proteins; e.g. single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB). In ... This structure is also found in the catalytic domains of topoisomerase Ia, topoisomerase II, the OLD-family nucleases and DNA ... ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. DNA Replication Mechanisms: DNA Topoisomerases Prevent DNA Tangling During Replication Reece, Richard J.; ...
*  Prokaryotic DNA replication
This catenation can be visualised as two interlinked rings which cannot be separated. Topoisomerase 2 in E. coli unlinks or ... "DNA elongation rates and growing point distributions of wild-type phage T4 and a DNA-delay amber mutant". Journal of Molecular ... DNA replication initially produces two catenated or linked circular DNA duplexes, each comprising one parental strand and one ... into two phosphates. This hydrolysis drives DNA synthesis to completion. Furthermore, DNA polymerase III must be able to ...