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*  Pradofloxacin
Reversible association between pradofloxacin and DNA gyrase or DNA topoisomerase IV in the target bacteria results in ... The primary targets for pradofloxacin are the bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. ... The primary mode of action of fluoroquinolones involves interaction with enzymes essential for major DNA functions such as ...
*  Norfloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, enzymes necessary to separate bacterial ... Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377- ... Norfloxacin does not bind to DNA gyrase but does bind to the substrate DNA. As noted above, under licensed use, norfloxacin is ... Shen LL, Pernet AG (1985). "Mechanism of inhibition of DNA gyrase by analogues of nalidixic acid: the target of the drugs is ...
*  Cinoxacin
... a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase iv, which is an enzyme necessary to separate replicated DNA, thereby inhibiting cell ... "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377-92. PMC 232616 . PMID 9293187. A ... Urinary tract infections only 250 mg, capsules (prescription only) Cinoxacin mode of action involves the inhibiting of DNA ... The usual adult dosage for the treatment of urinary tract infections is 1 g daily, administered orally in 2 or 4 divided doses ...
*  Moxifloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, enzymes necessary to separate bacterial ... Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377- ... At least four additional United States patents have been filed regarding moxifloxacin hydrochloride since the 1989 United ... It usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to duplicate DNA. Moxifloxacin was approved for use in the ...
*  Ofloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, which is an enzyme necessary to separate ... Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377- ... However, four to eight percent of an ofloxacin dose is excreted in the feces. This would indicate a small degree of biliary ... By 1992 an IV solution was approved for marketing, In 1997 an indication for pelvic inflammatory disease was approved by the ...
*  Flumequine
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, enzymes necessary to separate bacterial ... 3, 1988 Drlica K, Zhao X (September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiology and Molecular ... display high activity not only against bacterial topoisomerases, but also against eukaryotic topoisomerases and are toxic to ... Identification of topoisomerase II as the primary cellular target for the quinolone CP-115,953 in yeast". The Journal of ...
*  Pefloxacin
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV, which is an enzyme necessary to separate ... http://www.pefloxacin.com/pefloxacin_other.html Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4- ... replicated DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division. Tendinitis and rupture, usually of the Achilles tendon, are a class-effects ... 32 (4): 495-502, vi. doi:10.1016/j.cps.2005.05.004. PMID 16139623. Casparian JM, Luchi M, Moffat RE, Hinthorn D (May 2000). " ...
*  Levofloxacin
... it functions by inhibiting the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerase IV is necessary to separate DNA that has been ... Drlica K, Zhao X (1 September 1997). "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61 (3): 377- ... DNA gyrase, on the other hand, is responsible for supercoiling the DNA, so that it will fit in the newly formed cells. Both ... Doses in excess of 1500 mg/kg orally and 250 mg/kg IV produced significant mortality in rodents. In the event of an acute ...
*  Sparfloxacin
Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... For many gram-negative bacteria DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ... Eukaryotic cells do not contain DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV. Quinolones Psaty, BM. (Dec 2008). "Clinical trial design and ... 37 (4): 633-636. doi:10.1128/aac.37.4.633. PMC 187726 . PMID 8388193. Rubinstein E (May 1996). "Safety profile of sparfloxacin ...
*  Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea
Topoisomerase IV acts similarly to DNA gyrase and is involved in unwinding DNA for replication. Ceftriaxone and cefixime are ... High-level resistance to quinolones has been seen through target modification acting on the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. ... Biochemical Pharmacology 60:457-470 Drlica, Zhao (1997) DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiology and ... DNA gyrase is an enzyme that binds to DNA and introduces negative supercoiling. This helps unwind the DNA for replication. If ...
*  Repressor lexA
Bacteria require topoisomerases such as DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV for DNA replication. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin ... LexA contains a DNA binding domain. The winged HTH motif of LexA is a variant form of the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. ... that represses SOS response genes coding primarily for error-prone DNA polymerases, DNA repair enzymes and cell division ... DNA damage can be inflicted by the action of antibiotics, bacteriophages and UV light. Of potential clinical interest is the ...
*  Fleroxacin
... is a bactericidal drug that inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Like other quinolones and ... fluoroquinolones the compound eradicates bacteria by interfering with DNA replication (bacterial DNA replication, transcription ... "Mechanism of action of quinolones against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 37 (4): 839-45. ... 28 (4): 581-6. doi:10.1128/aac.28.4.581. PMC 180310 . PMID 3000292. Retrieved 2014-09-26. Chin NX, Brittain DC, Neu HC (April ...
*  Enoxacin
Like other fluoroquinolones, enoxacin functions by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The inhibition of ... Wise R, Lister D, McNulty CA, Griggs D, Andrews JM (1986). "The comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of four ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA replication. ... "Mechanism of action of quinolones against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37 (4): 839-45. doi: ...
*  Quinolone antibiotic
Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... It is believed eukaryotic cells do not contain DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV. However, there is debate concerning whether the ... For many gram-negative bacteria, DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ... Finally, mutations at key sites in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV can decrease their binding affinity to quinolones, decreasing ...
*  Prulifloxacin
It is believed that eukaryotic cells do not contain DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV. There are only four contraindications found ... Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... For many gram-negative bacteria, DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ... resulting in inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. ...
*  Nalidixic acid
... and related antibiotics inhibit a subunit of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and induce formation of cleavage ... Pommier, Y.; Leo, E.; Zhang, H.; Marchand, C. (2010). "DNA topoisomerases and their poisoning by anticancer and antibacterial ... It also inhibits the nicking-closing activity on the subunit of DNA gyrase that releases the positive binding stress on the ... It selectively and reversibly blocks DNA replication in susceptible bacteria. ...
*  Trovafloxacin
... that inhibits the uncoiling of supercoiled DNA in various bacteria by blocking the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV ... against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae selected in vitro". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 40 ... 7-difluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate (9). Alatrofloxacin, a prodrug of trovafloxacin for intravenous ...
*  Clinafloxacin
... like other fluoroquinolones is derived from its activity against type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. ... reactive oxygen species that can damage cellular structures-including DNA. For this reason clinafloxacin can also be classified ... 58 Suppl 2: 60-4. PMID 10553708. Retrieved 13 September 2017. "Clinafloxacin Hydrochloride (CAS 105956-99-8)". scbt.com. Santa ...
*  Circular bacterial chromosome
Topoisomerase IV also relaxes positive supercoils, therefore, DNA Gyrase and topoisomerase IV play an almost identical role in ... DNA topoisomerase IV plays the major role in the separation of the catenated chromosomes, transiently breaking both DNA strands ... The results obtained suggest that Topoisomerase IV is the primary decatenase in vivo, and although DNA gyrase does play a role ... Contrasting Enzymatic Activities of Topoisomerase IV and DNA Gyrase from Escherichia coli. Volume 271, Number 49, Issue of ...
*  Leonard Klevan
"DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61 (3): 377-92. September 1997. PMC 232616 . ... 2 protein core L Klevan, JC Wang - Biochemistry, 1980 - ACS Publications Stabilization of Z-DNA by polyarginine near ... "Novel biotinylated nucleotide--analogs for labeling and colorimetric detection of DNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 15 (11): 4513-34. ... Wiley Online Library 31P NMR studies of the solution structure and dynamics of nucleosomes and DNA L Klevan, IM Armitage, DM ...
*  Besifloxacin
... the bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Besifloxacin is indicated in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by ... of besifloxacin involves inhibition of two enzymes which are essential for the synthesis and replication of bacterial DNA: ... 4): 243-52. doi:10.1007/s40268-013-0029-1. PMC 3851703 . PMID 24142473. Retrieved 2015-01-06. Majmudar PA, Clinch TE (May 2014 ...
*  GHKL domain
... a Single Residue Dictates Differences in Novobiocin Potency against Topoisomerase IV and DNA Gyrase". Antimicrob. Agents ... McDowall J (2006). "DNA Topoisomerase". Protein of the month. InterPro. This article incorporates text from the public domain ... This domain is found in several ATP-binding proteins for example: histidine kinase, DNA gyrase B, topoisomerases, heat shock ... More information about this protein can be found at Protein of the Month: DNA Topoisomerase. Histidine kinase related protein, ...
*  Gatifloxacin
... inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Bristol-Myers Squibb introduced Gatifloxacin in 1999 under the ...
*  Topoisomerase IV
... is one of two type-II topoisomerases in bacteria, the other being DNA gyrase. Like gyrase, topoisomerase IV is ... Topoisomerase IV has two functions in the cell. First, it is responsible for unlinking, or decatenating, DNA following DNA ... DNA gyrases are analogous enzymes in other organisms. While topoisomerase IV does relax positive supercoils like DNA gyrase, it ... Topoisomerase IV's second function in the cell is to relax positive supercoils. It shares this role with DNA gyrase, which is ...
*  Ribonuclease H
"Mutagenic processing of ribonucleotides in DNA by yeast topoisomerase I". Science. 332 (6037): 1561-4. doi:10.1126/science. ... The active site of nearly all RNases H contains four negatively charged amino acid residues, known as the DEDD motif; often ... DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity synthesizes plus-strand DNA, generating double-stranded DNA as the final product. The ... RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity produces minus-strand DNA from the plus-strand RNA template, generating an RNA:DNA hybrid ...
*  Caspase-activated DNase
Durrieu F, Samejima K, Fortune JM, Kandels-Lewis S, Osheroff N, Earnshaw WC (2001). "DNA topoisomerase IIalpha interacts with ... "Direct cleavage of the human DNA fragmentation factor-45 by granzyme B induces caspase-activated DNase release and DNA ... "The 40-kDa subunit of DNA fragmentation factor induces DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis". ... DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for ...