Waga, S; Bauer, G; Stillman, B (April 1994). "Reconstitution of complete SV40 DNA replication with purified replication factors ... Stillman, B (December 1996). "Cell cycle control of DNA replication". Science. 274: 1659-64. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1659S. doi: ... RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ... In 1994, Bruce Stillman reconstitutes DNA replication in a test tube;[37] ...
DNA replication). 1st g.. *Cinoxacin‡. *Flumequine‡. *Nalidixic acid‡. *Oxolinic acid‡. *Pipemidic acid‡ ...
Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... Naphthyridone and quinolone classes of antibiotics prevent bacterial DNA replication by inhibition of DNA unwinding events, and ... Castora, F. J.; Vissering, F. F.; Simpson, M. V. (September 1983). "The effect of bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors on DNA ... Structure of bacterial DNA gyrase complexed with DNA and two ciprofloxacin molecules (green) ...
"A separate editing exonuclease for DNA replication: the epsilon subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme". ... Kornberg A, Baker T (2005). DNA Replication (2nd ed.). California: University Science Books. p. 499. ISBN 1-891389-44-0. .. ... It functions as a 3'→5' DNA directed proofreading exonuclease that removes incorrectly incorporated bases during replication.[2 ... a fidelity subunit for DNA replication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 80 ( ...
Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... For many gram-negative bacteria DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ...
It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, and a type II topoisomerase, topoisomerase IV,[68][69] necessary to separate bacterial ... Pommier, Yves; Leo, Elisabetta; Zhang, Hongliang; Marchand, Christophe (2010). "DNA Topoisomerases and Their Poisoning by ... "DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 61 (3): 377-92. PMC 232616 ... DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division.. Pharmacokinetics[edit]. Ciprofloxacin for systemic administration is available as ...
Maxwell A (February 1999). "DNA gyrase as a drug target". Biochemical Society Transactions. 27 (2): 48-53. doi:10.1042/ ... Maxwell A (August 1993). "The interaction between coumarin drugs and DNA gyrase". Molecular Microbiology. 9 (4): 681-6. doi: ... The potency of novobiocin is considerably higher than that of the fluoroquinolones that also target DNA gyrase, but at a ... Lewis RJ, Tsai FT, Wigley DB (August 1996). "Molecular mechanisms of drug inhibition of DNA gyrase". BioEssays. 18 (8): 661-71 ...
... and adding DNA polymerase to the reaction. This led to exponential DNA replication,[9] greatly amplifying the amounts of DNA ... DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I. II. III. IV. V. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse transcriptase Telomerase. ... However, after each round of replication the mixture needs to be heated above 90 °C to denature the newly formed DNA, allowing ... He was familiar with the use of DNA oligonucleotides as probes for binding to target DNA strands, as well as their use as ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ...
When the DNA double-strand helix is unwound, during DNA replication or transcription, for example, the adjacent unopened DNA ... This prevents DNA replication and transcription, causes DNA strand breaks, and leads to programmed cell death (apoptosis). ... reducing the tension in the DNA strand. This allows the normal unwinding of DNA to occur during replication or transcription. ... they prevent mitosis because the DNA cannot duplicate itself. Also, after misincorporation of the molecules into DNA, DNA ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... As a purine analogue, it is taken up into rapidly proliferating cells like lymphocytes to be incorporated into DNA synthesis. ... Activated, triphosphorylated, cladribine is incorporated into mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, which triggers apoptosis. Non- ... which causes it to accumulate in cells and interfere with the cell's ability to process DNA. Cladribine is taken up by cells ...
"DNA Virus Replication". Daniels R, Sadowicz D, Hebert DN (July 2007). "A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of ... A late protein is a viral protein that is formed after replication of the virus. One example is VP4 from simian virus 40 (SV40 ... "The l2 minor capsid protein of low-risk human papillomavirus type 11 interacts with host nuclear import receptors and viral DNA ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... Unlike in radiation therapy, where damage is done by targeting cell DNA, most photosensitizers target other cell structures. ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... The compound is known to bind and alkylate DNA at the N2 position of guanine. It is known from in-vitro work that this binding ... Recently, it has been shown that Trabectedin blocks DNA binding of the oncogenic transcription factor FUS-CHOP and reverses the ... Once bound, this reversible covalent adduct bends DNA toward the major groove, interferes directly with activated transcription ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... It acts as an alkylating agent causing intra-strand and inter-strand cross-links between DNA bases. ... It works by interfering with the function of DNA and RNA.[2] ... Crosslinking of DNA. (CCNS). Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... allowing the compound to stop or slow critical enzymes involved in DNA synthesis which then triggers cell death.[1] Because of ... of a group of compounds known as antimetabolites with structural similarity to naturally occurring molecules involved in DNA ... their primary effect on DNA synthesis, the antimetabolites are most effective against actively dividing cells and are largely ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number ... Melphalan chemically alters the DNA nucleotide guanine through alkylation, and causes linkages between strands of DNA. This ... chemical alteration inhibits DNA synthesis and RNA synthesis, functions necessary for cells to survive. These changes cause ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... It is a monofunctional alkylating agent, alkylates both DNA and RNA, has the ability to cross-link DNA.[4] As with other ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... Experiments indicate that radiolabeled mercaptopurine may be recovered from the DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine. ... this alters the synthesis and function of RNA and DNA.[citation needed] Mercaptopurine interferes with nucleotide ...
In particular, oxaliplatin forms both inter- and intra-strand cross links in DNA,[18] which prevent DNA replication and ... Like other platinum compounds, its cytotoxicity is thought to result from inhibition of DNA synthesis in cells. ... It is believed to work by blocking the duplication of DNA.[2] ... Crosslinking of DNA. (CCNS). Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... Guanine is one of the four nucleotides that makes up DNA. The methylated DNA strands stick together such that cell division ... Kewitz, S; Stiefel, M; Kramm, CM; Staege, MS (January 2014). "Impact of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter ...
DNA replication. inhibitor. DNA precursors/. antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor ( ... "DNA Repair. 8 (9): 1004-8. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2009.04.006. PMC 2725225. PMID 19464237.. ...
"DNA Replication in Chloroplasts". Journal of Cell Science. 104 (104): 1. Retrieved July 2, 2013.. ... "Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis in Spinach Leaves" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological ... relying on DNA sequences as data. Molecular analysis of DNA sequences from most families of flowering plants enabled the ... Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in the underlying DNA ...
... and it undergoes many structural changes as different cellular events such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription ... the DNA metabolic enzymes flap endonuclease-1, thymine DNA glycosylase, and Werner syndrome DNA helicase, STAT6, Runx1 (AML1), ... March 2016). "Expression homeostasis during DNA replication". Science. 351 (6277): 1087-90. doi:10.1126/science.aad1162. PMID ... The phosphodiester backbone of DNA is negative, which allows for strong ionic interactions between histone proteins and DNA. ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... supercoiled double-stranded DNA, 12 kilobase pairs in length. The genome has a rather high G-C content of ~32%. The genome has ...
This method was also used in Meselson and Stahl's famous experiment in which they proved that DNA replication is semi- ... gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after cycles of replication. ...