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*  DNA polymerase
... and therefore needs a primer at which it can add the first nucleotide. Primers consist of RNA or DNA bases (or both). In DNA ... The main function of DNA polymerase is to synthesize DNA from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The DNA copies ... Sutton MD, Walker GC (July 2001). "Managing DNA polymerases: coordinating DNA replication, DNA repair DNA recombination". Proc ... which degrades RNA base-paired to DNA. An example of a retrovirus is HIV. Biological machines DNA repair DNA replication DNA ...
*  Thermal cycler
The thermal cycler (also known as a thermocycler, PCR machine or DNA amplifier) is a laboratory apparatus most commonly used to ... This is particularly useful when testing suitable annealing temperatures for PCR primers. Weier, HU; Gray, JW (Jul-Aug 1988). " ... The earliest thermal cyclers were designed for use with the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I. Since this enzyme is destroyed ... Later, the PCR process was adapted to the use of thermostable DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus, which greatly simplified ...
*  DNA polymerase I
DNA polymerases also cannot initiate DNA chains so they must be initiated by short RNA or DNA segments known as primers. In ... E. coli bacteria contains 5 different DNA polymerases: DNA Pol I, DNA Pol II, DNA Pol III, DNA Pol IV, and DNA Pol V. ... all DNA polymerases must have both a template strand and a primer strand. Unlike RNA, DNA polymerases cannot synthesize DNA ... Eukaryotic DNA polymerase β is most similar to E. coli DNA Pol I because its main function is associated with DNA repair, ...
*  T7 DNA polymerase
For T7 DNA polymerase, the fingers, palm and thumb (Figure 1) position the primer-template so that the 3'-end of the primer ... T7 DNA polymerase is an enzyme used during the DNA replication of the T7 bacteriophage. During this process, the DNA polymerase ... It is a member of the Family A DNA polymerases, which include E. coli DNA polymerase I and Taq DNA polymerase. This polymerase ... Figure 2. Nucleotidyl transfer by DNA polymerase. T7 DNA polymerase catalyzes the phosphoryl transfer during DNA replication of ...
*  Nested polymerase chain reaction
The target DNA undergoes the first run of polymerase chain reaction with the first set of primers, shown in green. The ... Conventional PCR requires primers complementary to the termini of the target DNA. The amount of product from the PCR increases ... A commonly occurring problem is primers binding to incorrect regions of the DNA, giving unexpected products. This problem ... Polymerase chain reaction itself is the process used to amplify DNA samples, via a temperature-mediated DNA polymerase. The ...
*  Inverse polymerase chain reaction
One limitation of conventional PCR is that it requires primers complementary to both termini of the target DNA, but this method ... Under low DNA concentrations, self-ligation is induced to give a circular DNA product. PCR is carried out as usual, with ... Then, like other polymerase chain reaction processes, the DNA is amplified by the temperature-sensitive DNA polymerase: A ... genomic DNA. The amplified product can then be sequenced and compared with DNA databases to locate the sequence which has been ...
*  OLIGO Primer Analysis Software
... was the first publicly available software for DNA primer design. The first papers describing ... Oligo Primer Analysis Software by Molecular Biology Insights FastPCR Gene Designer Geneious MacVector Netprimer Primer Premier ... Retrieval of Entire Genes from Environmental DNA by Inverse PCR with Pre-Amplification of Target Genes Using Primers Containing ... degenerate primer studies, microsatellite analysis, DNA microarray detection, inverse PCR, genome walking, nucleotide ...
*  Site-directed mutagenesis
The basic procedure requires the synthesis of a short DNA primer. This synthetic primer contains the desired mutation and is ... cassette mutagenesis need not involve primer extension using DNA polymerase. In this method, a fragment of DNA is synthesized, ... The single-strand primer is then extended using a DNA polymerase, which copies the rest of the gene. The gene thus copied ... An oligonucleotide containing the desired mutation is used for primer extension. The heteroduplex DNA, that forms, consists of ...
*  Twisted intercalating nucleic acid
Certain configurations have been shown to stabilize Watson-Crick antiparallel duplex DNA. TINA-DNA primers have been shown to ... stabilize Hoogsteen triplex DNA formation from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and TFOs. Its ability to twist around a triple bond ... Diagnostic assays using DNA hybridization are limited by the dissociation of antiparallell duplex helices. This can be improved ... Studies show that the greatest increase in stability occurred when intercalating primers were used at the 3' and 5' ends. ...
*  Dimethyl sulfoxide
DMSO is used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to inhibit secondary structures in the DNA template or the DNA primers. It is ... final concentration of DMSO in the PCR mixture with Phusion decreases primer annealing temperature (i.e. primer melting ... DMSO in a PCR reaction is applicable for supercoiled plasmids (to relax before amplification) or DNA templates with high GC- ... "Guidelines for PCR Optimization with Phusion High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase". Sawai M1, Takase K, Teraoka H, Tsukada K. (1990). " ...
*  Toeprinting assay
To do a toeprint assay, you need the mRNA of interest, ribosomes, a DNA primer, free nucleotides, and reverse transcriptase, ... Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA from RNA; it is used to generate cDNA because RNA is ... The toeprinting assay, also known as the primer extension inhibition assay, is a method used in molecular biology that allows ... It is different from the more commonly used DNA footprinting assay. The toeprinting assay has been utilized to examine the ...
*  DNA replication
In contrast, DNA Pol I is the enzyme responsible for replacing RNA primers with DNA. DNA Pol I has a 5' to 3' exonuclease ... The RNA primers are then removed and replaced with DNA, and the fragments of DNA are joined together by DNA ligase. As helicase ... Replication machineries include primosotors are replication enzymes; DNA polymerase, DNA helicases, DNA clamps and DNA ... DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a ...
*  Maturase K
Universal matK primers can be used for DNA barcoding of angiosperms. LtrA, an open reading frame found in the Lactococcus ... Yu J, Xue J, Zhou S (2011). "New universal matK primers for DNA barcoding angiosperms". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. ...
*  Peanut
Halward, Tracy; Stalker, Tom; LaRue, Elizabeth; Kochert, Gary (1992-01-01). "Use of single-primer DNA amplifications in genetic ...
*  Complementary DNA
From the hairpin loop, a DNA polymerase can then use it as a primer to transcribe a complementary sequence for the ss cDNA. Now ... This is achieved by designing sequence-specific DNA primers that hybridize to the 5' and 3' ends of a cDNA region coding for a ... In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) ... A poly-T oligonucleotide primer is hybridized onto the poly-A tail of the mature mRNA template, or random hexamer primers can ...
*  Triticale
Thus, DNA primers (a generally short sequence of nucleotides are used to direct a copying reaction during PCR) designed for one ... a low number of introduced copies of the transforming DNA, stable integration of an a-priori characterized T-DNA fragment ( ... Molecular markers (small lengths of DNA of a characterized/known sequence) are used to 'tag' and thus track such translocations ... More than 750 wheat microsatellite primer pairs are available in public wheat breeding programmes, and could be exploited in ...
*  DNA profiling
Two oligonucleotide DNA primers are used to hybridize to two corresponding nearby sites on opposite DNA strands in such a ... DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA ... Cases: Baron Moynihan Pringle baronets DNA barcoding DNA database National DNA database DNA paternity testing Capillary ... this man's DNA was accidentally and illegally entered in the DNA database. New DNA is automatically compared to the DNA found ...
*  Molecular Biology Core Facilities
... synthesis of fluorescent DNA primers for use in DNA sequence analysis. Note that Oxford University Press, the publishers of the ... Because of the growing demand for oligonucleotide primers to initiate DNA replication and for probes, a plan was put into place ... since 1992 and began receiving primer sequence for high throughput DNA synthesis by web forms in 1995 when new high volume DNA ... We have developed a method for the partial automation of DNA sequence analysis. Fluorescence detection of the DNA fragments is ...
*  Sanger sequencing
Limitations include non-specific binding of the primer to the DNA, affecting accurate read-out of the DNA sequence, and DNA ... The classical chain-termination method requires a single-stranded DNA template, a DNA primer, a DNA polymerase, normal ... Following rounds of template DNA extension from the bound primer, the resulting DNA fragments are heat denatured and separated ... Automated DNA-sequencing instruments (DNA sequencers) can sequence up to 384 DNA samples in a single batch. Batch runs may ...
*  Nucleic acid structure determination
Adduct formation is quantified for each nucleotide in a given RNA by extension of a complementary DNA primer with reverse ... DMS modification can also be used for DNA, for example in footprinting DNA-protein interactions. 1-cyclohexyl-(2- ... Addess, Kenneth J.; Feigon, Juli (1996). "Introduction to 1H NMR Spectroscopy of DNA". In Hecht, Sidney M. Bioorganic Chemistry ... Selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension, or SHAPE, takes advantage of reagents that preferentially modify ...
*  Restriction fragment length polymorphism
TRFLP works by PCR amplification of DNA using primer pairs that have been labeled with fluorescent tags. The PCR products are ... Although now largely obsolete due to the rise of inexpensive DNA sequencing technologies, RFLP analysis was the first DNA ... It requires a large amount of sample DNA, and the combined process of probe labeling, DNA fragmentation, electrophoresis, ... The resulting DNA fragments are then separated by length through a process known as agarose gel electrophoresis, and ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... dna primers MeSH D13.695.578.424.480 --- oligonucleotides, antisense MeSH D13.695.578.424.480.640 --- oligodeoxyribonucleotides ... dna adducts MeSH D13.444.308.142 --- dna, a-form MeSH D13.444.308.148 --- dna, algal MeSH D13.444.308.150 --- dna, antisense ... dna, c-form MeSH D13.444.308.243 --- dna, catalytic MeSH D13.444.308.283 --- dna, circular MeSH D13.444.308.283.084 --- dna, ... dna, fungal MeSH D13.444.308.315 --- dna, helminth MeSH D13.444.308.324 --- dna, intergenic MeSH D13.444.308.324.230 --- dna, ...
*  Phi X 174
Primosomes gives RNA primers for DNA synthesis to strands. Phi X is regularly used as a positive control in DNA sequencing due ... The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. ... The DNA is ejected through a hydrophilic channel at the 5-fold vertex (McKenna et al. 1992). It is understood that H protein ... Nobel prize winner Arthur Kornberg used ΦX174 as a model to first prove that DNA synthesized in a test tube by purified enzymes ...
*  Detection of genetically modified organisms
DNA replication enzymes use the primers as docking points and start doubling the target sequences. The process is repeated over ... DNA based detection looks for a part of the foreign DNA inserted in a GMO. For technical reasons, certain DNA sequences are ... The method works by pairing the targeted genetic sequence with custom designed complementary bits of DNA called primers. In the ... Detection methods based on DNA rely on the complementarity of two strands of DNA double helix that hybridize in a sequence- ...
*  Biomolecular engineering
The primer must also be long enough such that the primer will anneal to the wild type plasmid. After the primer anneals, a DNA ... Furthermore, as the DNA primer is created certain functional groups of nucleotides to be added to the growing primer require ... PCR implements a cycle of repeated heated and cooling known as thermal cycling along with the addition of DNA primers and DNA ... a crucial step in ensuring the accurate replication of the desired DNA fragment is the creation of the correct DNA primer. The ...
*  Cervical cancer
Dürst M, Gissmann L, Ikenberg H, zur Hausen H (1983). "A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in ... Gottlieb, Nicole (2002-04-24). "A Primer on HPV". Benchmarks. National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on 2007-10- ... A description of human papillomavirus (HPV) by electron microscopy was given in 1949, and HPV-DNA was identified in 1963. It ... Harald zur Hausen and Gisam found HPV DNA in cervical cancer and genital warts; Hausen later won the Nobel Prize for his work ...
*  Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
... excising it from the primer DNA. To achieve efficient inhibition of HIV-1 replication in patients, and to delay or prevent ... It converts the viral single-stranded RNA into an integration competent double stranded DNA. Subsequently, the generated DNA is ... The other role of the RT is its ribonuclease H activity that degrades RNA only when it is in a heteroduplex with DNA. HIV-1 RT ... Subsequently, it is fully phosphorylated and the carbovir is incorporated by the RT into the DNA chain and acts as a chain ...