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*  Ubiquitin
"DNA copy number losses in human neoplasms". The American Journal of Pathology. 155 (3): 683-94. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65166 ... Hofmann K (April 2009). "Ubiquitin-binding domains and their role in the DNA damage response". DNA Repair. 8 (4): 544-56. doi: ... Monoubiquitinated PCNA recruits polymerases that can carry out DNA synthesis with damaged DNA; but this is very error-prone, ... Ubiquitination of histone H2AX is involved in DNA damage recognition of DNA double-strand breaks. Lysine 63-linked ...
*  Topoisomerase inhibitor
Use of topoisomerase inhibitors for antineoplastic treatments may lead to secondary neoplasms because of DNA damaging ... Human DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is an essential enzyme that relaxes DNA supercoiling during replication and transcription. ... Top1 also religates the cleaved strand to reestablish intact duplex DNA. The Top1-DNA intermediates, known as cleavage ... in homologous recombinational DNA repair and also has roles in non-homologous end joining DNA repair and base excision DNA ...
*  Muir-Torre syndrome
2009). "Towards identification of hereditary DNA mismatch repair deficiency: sebaceous neoplasm warrants routine ... Along with neoplasms of the sebaceous gland, this patient developed cerebral neoplasms, characteristic of Turcot syndrome. ... Routine immunohistochemical detection of DNA mismatch repair proteins help identify hereditary DNA mismatch repair deficiency. ... Colorectal cancer is the most common visceral neoplasm in Muir-Torre syndrome patients. It is named for EG Muir and D Torre. A ...
*  Hürthle cell
Some scientists have identified these mutations as deletions in the mitochondrial DNA of Hürthle cells found in neoplasms and ... Hürthle cell neoplasms are somewhat difficult to differentiate between being benign or malignant. Since the size and growth ... The mitochondrial DNA of Hürthle cell carcinoma contain somatic mutations. Hürthle cell carcinomas consists of at least 75% ... This high amount of mitochondria is reported to be a result of mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. ...
*  Differentially methylated regions
... compared the DNA methylomes of B cell neoplasms with those of their normal cell counterparts. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia ... Note: this is different from histone modification.) DNA is mostly methylated at a CpG site, which is a cytosine followed by a ... In addition, there are aDMRs, also known as intra-individual DMRs (Intra-DMRs), which are changes in global DNA methylation as ... It is well known that DNA methylation is associated with cell differentiation and proliferation. Many DMRs have been found in ...
*  Oncogenomics
... caused by accumulation of DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell proliferation and neoplasm ... If DNA repair is deficient, DNA damage tends to accumulate. Such excess DNA damage can increase mutational errors during DNA ... Excess DNA damage can also increase epigenetic alterations due to errors during DNA repair. Such mutations and epigenetic ... July 2007). "DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation". PLoS Genetics. 3 (7): e110. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ...
*  Folate
... folate deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting hematopoietic cells and neoplasms the most because of ... This pathology results from persistently thwarted attempts at normal DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell division, and ... Folic acid is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolise amino acids which are required for cell division. As ... 5-MTHF also plays both direct & indirect roles in DNA methylation, NO2 synthesis, and one-carbon metabolism. A sub study of the ...
*  DNA glycosylase
MBD4 expression is reduced in almost all colorectal neoplasms due to methylation of the promoter region of MBD4. Also MBD4 is ... Uracil-DNA glycosylases are DNA repair enzymes that excise uracil residues from DNA by cleaving the N-glycosydic bond, ... Lindahl, T. (1986). "DNA Glycosylases in DNA Repair". Mechanisms of DNA Damage and Repair: 335-340. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-9462 ... This was the most frequent DNA repair abnormality found among the 8 DNA repair genes tested. NEIL1 was also one of six DNA ...
*  Cancer epigenetics
Such mutations and epigenetic alterations can give rise to cancer (see malignant neoplasms). Germ line mutations in DNA repair ... If DNA repair is deficient, DNA damage tends to accumulate. Such excess DNA damage can increase mutational errors during DNA ... Reduced DNA repair likely allows accumulation of DNA damages. Error prone translesion synthesis past some of these DNA damages ... a DNA repair gene; APC, a cell cycle regulator; MLH1, a DNA-repair gene; and BRCA1, another DNA-repair gene. Indeed, cancer ...
*  Cancer in dogs
Cancer alters the DNA of cells and the mutated genetic material is passed on to daughter cells, resulting in neoplasms. The ... Selection for specific phenotypes in dog breeding causes long-range linkage disequilibrium in their DNA. Certain areas of ... Carcinogenesis is linked with DNA mutations, chromosomal translocations, chocolate, dysfunctional proteins, and aberrant cell ... which leads to long ranges of repeated DNA sequences. These repeated sequences caused by decreased genetic diversity within ...
*  Myeloproliferative neoplasm
... serum urate or direct sequencing of the patient's DNA. According to the WHO Classification of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid ... Although not a malignant neoplasm like other cancers, MPNs are classified within the hematological neoplasms. There are four ... The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), previously myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs), are a group of diseases of the bone ... Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2. N Engl J Med 2013;369:2391-2405 Baxter EJ, Scott ...
*  Azzopardi phenomenon
It can occur in small cell carcinomas and in some high-grade malignant neoplasms. The effect is well known in diagnostic ... Azzopardi was able to correctly characterize the effect as due to DNA; it had been thought previously but incorrectly to be ... Necrosis results in the release of cellular DNA, which adheres in patches to the walls of blood vessels, showing as intensely ... The Azzopardi phenomenon, or Azzopardi effect, is the presence of DNA in necrotic venules. ...
*  Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2
TET2 may also be a candidate for active DNA demethylation, the catalytic removal of the methyl group added to the fifth carbon ... Mutations in this gene were first identified in myeloid neoplasms with deletion or uniparental disomy at 4q24. ... TET2 encodes a protein that catalyzes the conversion of the modified DNA base methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. ... Somatic TET2 mutations are frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), MDS/MPN ...
*  Photoaging
The damage of DNA due to exposure of UV rays will lead to expression of p53, thereby leading to eventual arrest of the cell ... These enhance angiogenesis and aid in the growth of UV-induced neoplasms. It has been reported that UV radiation leads to local ... This allows DNA repair mediated by endogenous mechanisms like the nucleotide excision repair system. In addition, apoptosis ... UVB rays are a primary mutagen that can only penetrate through the epidermal (outermost) layer of the skin, resulting in DNA ...
*  Colorectal polyp
This occurs through multiple mutations which affect the DNA-mismatch-repair pathways. As such DNA mutations during replication ... A neoplasm is a tissue whose cells have lost its normal differentiation. They can be either benign growths or malignant growths ...
*  Carcinogenesis
... would reflect the earliest event in formation of a malignant neoplasm. In experimental evaluation of specific DNA repair ... www.intechopen.com/books/new-research-directions-in-dna-repair/dna-damage-dna-repair-and-cancer Kastan MB (April 2008). "DNA ... The protein-coding DNA within the nucleus is about 1.5% of the total genomic DNA. Within this protein-coding DNA (called the ... Bernstein C, Prasad AR, Nfonsam V, Bernstein H. (2013). DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer, New Research Directions in DNA ...
*  Rous sarcoma virus
... transcribes viral RNA into the full length DNA complement. Rous P (September 1910). "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of ... 4S RNA is the primer for RSV and 70S RNA serves as the template for DNA synthesis. Reverse transcriptase, an RNA-dependent DNA ... RSV is a class VI enveloped virus with a positive sense RNA genome having a DNA intermediate. RSV has four genes: gag - encodes ... Dahlberg JE, Sawyer RC, Taylor JM, Faras AJ, Levinson WE, Goodman HM, Bishop JM (May 1974). "Transcription of DNA from the 70S ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... dna, neoplasm MeSH D13.444.308.435 --- dna, plant MeSH D13.444.308.435.275 --- dna, chloroplast MeSH D13.444.308.442 --- dna, ... dna adducts MeSH D13.444.308.142 --- dna, a-form MeSH D13.444.308.148 --- dna, algal MeSH D13.444.308.150 --- dna, antisense ... dna, c-form MeSH D13.444.308.243 --- dna, catalytic MeSH D13.444.308.283 --- dna, circular MeSH D13.444.308.283.084 --- dna, ... dna, fungal MeSH D13.444.308.315 --- dna, helminth MeSH D13.444.308.324 --- dna, intergenic MeSH D13.444.308.324.230 --- dna, ...
*  H19 (gene)
... single stranded breaks in DNA, double stranded breaks in DNA, the intercalation of foreign substances into the DNA double helix ... In contrast to most other cancers, adrenocortical neoplasms appear to have decreased expression of H19. To determine a possible ... Cellular DNA integrity is often compromised in cancer. Genome instability can refer to the accumulation of extra copies of DNA/ ... or any abnormal changes in DNA tertiary structure that can cause either the loss of DNA, or the misexpression of genes. It ...
*  Astrocytoma
... mainly due to late detection of the neoplasm). A genome-wide pattern of DNA copy-number alterations (CNAs) has been uncovered, ... K. A. Aiello; O. Alter (October 2016). "Platform-Independent Genome-Wide Pattern of DNA Copy-Number Alterations Predicting ...
*  Colorectal cancer
As summarized in the articles Carcinogenesis and Neoplasm, for sporadic cancers in general, a deficiency in DNA repair is ... Bernstein, C; Prasad, AR; Nfonsam, V; Bernstein, H. (2013). "DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer". In Chen, Clark. New Research ... These include miR-124a, miR-34b/c and miR-342 which are silenced by CpG island methylation of their encoding DNA sequences in ... The stool DNA screening test looks for biomarkers associated with colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions, including altered ...
*  Translin
Sengupta K, Rao BJ (Dec 2002). "Translin binding to DNA: recruitment through DNA ends and consequent conformational transitions ... These binding activities may play a crucial role in chromosomal translocation in lymphoid neoplasms. Translin has been shown to ... Translin is a DNA-binding protein that in humans is encoded by the TSN gene. Together with translin-associated factor X, ... Erdemir T, Bilican B, Oncel D, Goding CR, Yavuzer U (Jan 2002). "DNA damage-dependent interaction of the nuclear matrix protein ...
*  Malignancy
They also frequently have reduced expression of DNA repair enzymes due to epigenetic methylation of DNA repair genes or altered ... microRNAs that control DNA repair gene expression. Uses of "malignant" in oncology: Malignancy, malignant neoplasm and ...
*  Anthramycin
It works by inhibiting the synthesis of RNA and DNA of carcinoma cells. It is a competitive inhibitor of cell-free RNA and DNA ... Anthramycin has been shown particularly effective against sarcomas, lymphomas, and gastrointestinal neoplasms. Use of ... forms a complex with DNA which blocks off synthesis by prohibiting DNA binding with proper enzymes. The species is heavily ...
*  CpG site
DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer. If accurate DNA repair is deficient, DNA damages tend to ... Such mutations and epigenetic alterations can give rise to cancer (see malignant neoplasms). Thus, CpG island hyper/hypo- ... Such excess DNA damage can increase mutational errors during DNA replication due to error-prone translesion synthesis. Excess ... July 2007). "DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation". PLoS Genetics. 3 (7): e110. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ...
*  Cervical cancer
Myung SK, Ju W, Kim SC, Kim H (2011). "Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: A meta- ... Dürst M, Gissmann L, Ikenberg H, zur Hausen H (1983). "A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in ... A description of human papillomavirus (HPV) by electron microscopy was given in 1949, and HPV-DNA was identified in 1963. It ... Harald zur Hausen and Gisam found HPV DNA in cervical cancer and genital warts; Hausen later won the Nobel Prize for his work ...