Haering, CH; Farcas, AM; Arumugam, P; Metson, J; Nasmyth, K (17 July 2008). "The cohesin ring concatenates sister DNA molecules ... At the same time, during S phase all cells must duplicate their DNA very precisely, a process termed DNA replication. Once DNA ... A few cohesin rings are found in chromosome arms that have AT-rich DNA sequences indicating that DNA sequence may be an ... The complexes associate with chromosomes before DNA replication occurs. Once cells start replicating their DNA, cohesin rings ...
"Circular and branched circular concatenates as possible intermediates in bacteriophage T4 DNA replication". J. Mol. Biol. 77 (3 ... A concatemer is a long continuous DNA molecule that contains multiple copies of the same DNA sequence linked in series. These ... Bacteriophage T4 replicating DNA was labeled with tritiated thymidine and examined by autoradiography. The observed DNA ... As an example, if the genes in the phage DNA are arranged ABC, then in a concatemer the genes would be ABCABCABCABC and so on ( ...
The amplicons are concatenated and ligated into a plasmid vector. The clonal vectors are then sequenced and mapped to the ... RNA-seq DNA microarray Riddle, Donald L. (1997). C. elegans II. Plainview, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 978-0 ... The fragments are further purified away from extraneous DNA material by using the biotin labels to bind them to a strepdavidin ... They are then ligated to adapter DNA, in six separate reactions, containing six different restriction endonuclease recognition ...
After extracting the PETs from many DNA fragments, they are linked (concatenated) together for efficient sequencing. On average ... Fragmented genomic DNA or complementary DNA (cDNA) of interest is cloned into plasmid vectors. The cloning sites are flanked ... DNA-PET: Because PET represent connectivity between the tags, the use of PET in genome re-sequencing has advantages over the ... Next-Generation DNA sequencing of paired-end tags (PET) for transcriptome and genome analyses. Genome Research. 19:521-532. ...
DNA sequencing technologies such as next-generation sequencing have made it possible to study amplicons in genome biology and ... With amplicon sequencing the high number of different amplicons resulting from amplification of a usual sample are concatenated ... In molecular biology, an amplicon is a piece of DNA or RNA that is the source and/or product of amplification or replication ... PCR can be used to determine sex from a human DNA sample. The loci of Alu element insertion is selected, amplified and ...
This resulting dual stranded DNA is digested with the Mme1 endonuclease, cutting the CAGE linker and producing a 20-27bp CAGE ... The tags can then be sequenced, concatenated or cloned. At the time, CAGE was carried out using the RISA 384 capillary ... 26 March 2014). "Analysis of the DNA methylome and transcriptome in granulopoiesis reveals timed changes and dynamic enhancer ... one such example describes the interplay of DNA methylation and CAGE-defined regulatory sequences during differentiation of a ...
The structure is made up of a network of concatenated circular DNA molecules and their related structural proteins along with ... The kinetoplast, after which the class is named, contains the mitochondrial genome and is a dense DNA-containing granule within ... Their distinguishing feature, the presence of a kinetoplast, is an unusual DNA-containing granule located within the single ... and characterised by the presence of an organelle with a large massed DNA called kinetoplast (hence the name). The organisms ...
Treponema denticola cells lacking the CfpA protein form long concatenated cells with a chromosomal DNA segregation defect, a ... ParM affixes to ParR, a DNA-binding protein that specifically binds to 10 direct repeats in the parC region on the R1 plasmid. ... Møller-Jensen J, Jensen RB, Löwe J, Gerdes K (June 2002). "Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament". The EMBO ... Garner EC, Campbell CS, Mullins RD (November 2004). "Dynamic instability in a DNA-segregating prokaryotic actin homolog". ...
Similar contigs are concatenated together into short pseudo-chromosomes. Data from NCBI shows that GOLGA8H in Homo sapiens has ... an assembled set of overlapping DNA sequences) that cannot be confidently placed on a specific chromosome. ...
... dna_sequence = Seq('AGGCTTCTCGTA', IUPAC.unambiguous_dna) >>> dna_sequence Seq('AGGCTTCTCGTA', IUPACUnambiguousDNA()) >>> dna_ ... can be concatenated with other sequences and is immutable. In addition, it includes sequence-specific methods and specifies the ... This script creates a DNA sequence and performs some typical manipulations >>> from Bio.Seq import Seq >>> from Bio.Alphabet ... dna_sequence.transcribe() >>> rna_sequence Seq('AGGCUUCUCGUA', IUPACUnambiguousRNA()) >>> rna_sequence.translate() Seq('RLLV', ...
If the branched and complex structures seen in cpDNA experiments are real and not artifacts of concatenated circular DNA or ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons. Unlike prokaryotic DNA molecules, chloroplast DNA ... Chromatophores have transferred much less of their DNA to the nucleus of their host. About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in ... New chloroplasts may contain up to 100 copies of their DNA, though the number of chloroplast DNA copies decreases to about 15- ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit sequences and whole genome trees". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 54 (Pt 3): 791-801. doi: ... "Evaluation of the phylogenetic position of the planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH 1 by means of concatenated ribosomal ... Chlamydiae including their biphasic lifecycle and obligation to replicate within a eukaryotic host has enabled the use of DNA ...
"Circular and branched circular concatenates as possible intermediates in bacteriophage T4 DNA replication". Journal of ... are now known to have complex biochemical processes for repairing DNA damages (see DNA repair). DNA repair processes are also ... The T4 DNA packaging motor has been found to load DNA into virus capsids at a rate up to 2000 base pairs per second. The power ... The time it takes for DNA replication in a living cell was measured as the rate of virus T4 DNA elongation in virus-infected E ...
Although only two species have been described formally, DNA sequences collected from seawater suggest there are many more ... The evolutionary origin of Telonemia was inferred from phylogenetic reconstruction of single- and concatenated sequences ...
... and concatenate those images. This is a useful way to visually identify coding and non-coding regions of DNA and to inspect ... DNA creates RNA which then helps synthesize proteins. Thus, coding DNA is defined as the sections of the genome that are ... Noncoding DNA is sections of a DNA sequence that don't necessarily code for proteins. Identification of coding regions is ... non-coding DNA segments. These are discussed in the next section. This method has been applied to sequence data from a number ...
DNA cloning, shotgun sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis became widely used to sequence large DNA molecules like human ... Because fragmentation produces overlapping fragments, sequences can be concatenated by overlapping sequence information, ... The method is based on fragmenting DNA into small sizes, purifying them by cloning, and defining the start of sequencing with a ... In the late seventies and early eighties, Jo Messing and his colleagues developed the shotgun DNA sequencing method with single ...
"Circular and branched circular concatenates as possible intermediates in bacteriophage T4 DNA replication". J Mol Biol. 77 (3 ... A DNA virus is a virus that has a genome made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is replicated by a DNA polymerase. They can ... DNA viruses constitute two Baltimore groups: Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses, and Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses. ... called double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, and those that have one strand of DNA in their genome, called single-stranded DNA ( ...
If the branched and complex structures seen in cpDNA experiments are real and not artifacts of concatenated circular DNA or ... Chloroplast DNA has long been thought to have a circular structure, but some evidence suggests that chloroplast DNA more ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons. Introns are common in chloroplast DNA molecules, while ... image Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum. Segments with labels on the inside reside ...
The DNA copies concatenate head to tail in a long strand, and are compacted into a DNA nanoball. The nanoballs are then ... Adapter DNA sequences must be attached to the unknown DNA fragment so that DNA segments with known sequences flank the unknown ... The result is a completed circular DNA template. Once a single-stranded circular DNA template is created, containing sample DNA ... "Highly efficient DNA synthesis by the phage phi 29 DNA polymerase. Symmetrical mode of DNA replication". The Journal of ...
If DNA repair is deficient, DNA damage tends to accumulate. Such excess DNA damage can increase mutational errors during DNA ... These tags are then linked to into ditags, concatenated, cloned, sequenced and mapped back to the reference genome to evaluate ... Excess DNA damage can also increase epigenetic alterations due to errors during DNA repair. Such mutations and epigenetic ... July 2007). "DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation". PLoS Genetics. 3 (7): e110. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ...
T7 DNA polymerase, assisted by E. coli thioredoxin, performs both leading and lagging-strand DNA synthesis. In phage T7, DNA ... and can occur in the form of highly concatenated linear strands up to 66 times the length of the mature phage chromosome. The ... PMID 10792729 Yu M, Masker W. T7 single strand DNA binding protein but not T7 helicase is required for DNA double strand break ... 2005) "refactored" the genome of T7, replacing approximately 12 kbp of its genome with engineered DNA. The engineered DNA was ...
This DNA has often been referred to as "junk DNA". However, more recent analyses suggest that, although protein-coding DNA ... proteins by alternative splicing and coding sequences split in short section across the genome whose mRNAs are concatenated by ... DNA Repair 5.5: General Recombination Ch 6: How Cells Read the Genome: From DNA to Protein 6.1: DNA to RNA 6.2: RNA to Protein ... DNA and Chromosomes 4.1: The Structure and Function of DNA 4.2: Chromosomal DNA and Its Packaging in the Chromatin Fiber Ch 5: ...
"Circular and branched circular concatenates as possible intermediates in bacteriophage T4 DNA replication". J. Mol. Biol. 77 (3 ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons.[24] Unlike prokaryotic DNA molecules, chloroplast DNA ... Green DNA: BIOSCIENCE EXPLAINED.. *^ a b c d e Clegg, M. T.; Gaut, BS; Learn Jr, GH; Morton, BR (1994). "Rates and Patterns of ... DNA repair. In chloroplasts of the moss Physcomitrella patens, the DNA mismatch repair protein Msh1 interacts with the ...
SH 1 by means of concatenated ribosomal protein sequences, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit sequences and whole genome trees ...
... dna, concatenated MeSH D13.444.308.295 - dna, cruciform MeSH D13.444.308.300 - dna, fungal MeSH D13.444.308.315 - dna, helminth ... dna adducts MeSH D13.444.308.142 - dna, a-form MeSH D13.444.308.148 - dna, algal MeSH D13.444.308.150 - dna, antisense MeSH ... dna, bacterial MeSH D13.444.308.227 - dna, c-form MeSH D13.444.308.243 - dna, catalytic MeSH D13.444.308.283 - dna, circular ... dna, ribosomal spacer MeSH D13.444.308.425 - dna, neoplasm MeSH D13.444.308.435 - dna, plant MeSH D13.444.308.435.275 - dna, ...
If the branched and complex structures seen in cpDNA experiments are real and not artifacts of concatenated circular DNA or ... DNA replicationEdit. Leading model of cpDNA replicationEdit. Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D loop mechanisms. ... Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum. Segments with labels on the inside reside on ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons.[10] Introns are common in chloroplast DNA molecules, ...
DNA polymerization then fills this gap and a DNA circle is created by DNA ligation. Another way, barcode-targeted sequencing, ... Tagged transcripts are amplified in the second in situ reaction, retrieved copies are concatenated, and new randomized ... Each DNA probe carries an initiator for the same HCR amplifier. Then, fluorophore-labeled DNA HCR hairpins penetrate the sample ... These DNA molecules are then subjected to sequencing by ligation, decoding either a gap-filled sequence or an up to four-base- ...
Expert reviews in molecular medicine (2 December 2002). "Structure of the major UV-induced photoproducts in DNA" (PDF). ... "Linearly concatenated cyclobutane lipids form a dense bacterial membrane". Nature. 419 (6908): 708-712. Bibcode:2002Natur.419.. ...
... is a stochastic process model that describes the genealogical relationships for a sample of DNA ... Kubatko LS, Degnan JH (February 2007). Collins T (ed.). "Inconsistency of phylogenetic estimates from concatenated data under ... Rannala B, Yang Z (August 2003). "Bayes estimation of species divergence times and ancestral population sizes using DNA ... Yang, Z.; Rannala, B. (2014-12-01). "Unguided Species Delimitation Using DNA Sequence Data from Multiple Loci". Molecular ...
"Concatenated Analysis Sheds Light on Early Metazoan Evolution and Fuels a Modern "Urmetazoon" Hypothesis" (Free full text). ... A study in 2001 based on comparisons of ribosome DNA concluded that the most fundamental division within sponges was between ... A comparison in 2007 of nuclear DNA, excluding glass sponges and comb jellies, concluded that: Homoscleromorpha are most ...
In NGS, DNA is fragmented into small pieces, of which the first few bases are sequenced, yielding several millions of "reads", ... These are then concatenated to get ... each 30 to 500 base pairs ("DNA characters") long. In many ... "Mapping short DNA sequencing reads and calling variants using mapping quality scores". Genome Research. 18 (11): 1851-1858. ... "Ultrafast and memory-efficient alignment of short DNA sequences to the human genome". Genome Biology. 10 (3): R25. doi:10.1186 ...
Comparison to DNA microarrays[edit]. The general goal of the technique is similar to the DNA microarray. However, SAGE sampling ... These tags are concatenated and sequenced using long-read Sanger sequencing (different shades of blue indicate tags from ... In 1979 teams at Harvard and Caltech extended the basic idea of making DNA copies of mRNAs in vitro to amplifying a library of ... June 1991). "Complementary DNA sequencing: expressed sequence tags and human genome project". Science. 252 (5013): 1651-6. ...
DNA and Cell Biology. 25 (3): 135-41. doi:10.1089/dna.2006.25.135. PMID 16569192. Lin R, Maeda S, Liu C, Karin M, Edgington TS ... These two loosely structured domains may even be concatenated to other ncRNAs such as B1 elements to impart their repressive ... For example, the induction of an antisense transcript by a genetic mutation led to DNA methylation and silencing of sense genes ... A ncRNA transcribed from an upstream minor promoter of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene forms a stable RNA-DNA triplex ...
Molecular studies of concatenated nuclear sequences have yielded a widely varying estimated date of divergence between ... Recent studies involve comparing DNA to examine both the variation in the expression of the dimorphism among primates and the ... using the complex DNA transfer method that produced Dolly the sheep, for the first time.[61][62][63][64][65] ...
Therapeutic DNA vaccine VGX-3100, which consists of plasmids pGX3001 and pGX3002, has been granted a waiver by the European ... "Concatenated multitype L2 fusion proteins as candidate prophylactic pan-human papillomavirus vaccines". Journal of the ... 3] This research was difficult due to the fact that only parts of the viral DNA were integrated into the host genome. He found ... The virus possesses circular double stranded DNA and a viral shell that is composed of 72 capsomeres. Every subunit of the ...
... and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". ... making building blocks for concatenated polymers (proanthocyanidins) and higher order polymers (anthocyanidins). Flavanols ...
Olson WK, Gorin AA, Lu XJ, Hock LM, Zhurkin VB (September 1998). "DNA sequence-dependent deformability deduced from protein-DNA ... a consensus of the available gene trees or concatenated alignments of orthologs. The failure to reject the six evaluated ... Just as the nucleotide composition of a DNA molecule can be represented by a sequence of letters, its structural features can ... Clusters of excess of polymorphic sites can thus be used to detect tracks of DNA recombined with a distant relative. This ...
Paris, 1892, S. 68 (PDF) Goro Kokubugata; Ken D. Hill; Katsuhiko Kondo (January 2002). abstract "Ribosomal DNA distribution in ... congruence of concatenated parsimony, likelihood and species tree inference methods". Annals of Botany. 112 (7): 1263-1278. doi ...
Circumlunar Space Stations (Concatenates): a series of large Space Stations orbiting the Earth's Moon. The most "Earth like" of ... He also reveals that Vera Constantine's DNA comes as much from Lindsay as Vera Kelland. Philip reconciles with Abelard, then ... created from DNA taken from Vera Kelland decades before). As time goes on, eventually Czarina-Kluster, in its turn, faces ...
Shalon D, Smith SJ, Brown PO (July 1996). "A DNA microarray system for analyzing complex DNA samples using two-color ... which worked by Sanger sequencing of concatenated random transcript fragments. Transcripts were quantified by matching the ... "ENCODE: Encyclopedia of DNA Elements". encodeproject.org. Ritchie ME, Phipson B, Wu D, Hu Y, Law CW, Shi W, Smyth GK (April ... cDNA is generated from the RNA but is then digested into 11 bp "tag" fragments using restriction enzymes that cut DNA at a ...
DNA Research. 21 (6): 673-83. doi:10.1093/dnares/dsu029. PMC 4263300. PMID 25267831. Haus T, Akom E, Agwanda B, Hofreiter M, ... Vero F6 was transfected via a concatenated plasmid with the gH gene after a copy of the HHV-1 glycoprotein-D (gD) promoter ...
Highly conserved DNA sequences are thought to have functional value, although the role for many highly conserved non-coding DNA ... Concatenated sequence tree versus consensus gene tree". Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental ... The discovery of the role of DNA in heredity, and observations by Frederick Sanger of variation between animal insulins in 1949 ... In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are identical or similar sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins ...
Recognition sequence: Sequence of DNA recognized by the enzyme and to which it specifically binds. Cut: Cutting site and DNA ... "Genomic representations using concatenates of Type IIB restriction endonuclease digestion fragments". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (15 ... Kessler C, Manta V (August 1990). "Specificity of restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases a review ( ... Rina M, Bouriotis V (October 1993). "Cloning, purification and characterization of the BseCI DNA methyltransferase from ...
The DNA sequences analysed fell into two clades. One clade included all the human strains: the second clade seems likely to be ... Another paper examining the dates of evolution using the concatenated sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase III, cytochrome c ... A study of DNA sequences suggests that the genus is paraphytic with Hepatocystis being related to the mammalian species and ... This species was identified from mitochondrial DNA in the blood of the hosts. It appears to be related to the other members of ...
Molecular studies of concatenated nuclear sequences have yielded a widely varying estimated date of divergence between ... Recent studies involve comparing DNA to examine both the variation in the expression of the dimorphism among primates and the ... using the complex DNA transfer method that produced Dolly the sheep, for the first time. The primate skull has a large, domed ... evidence from mitochondrial DNA". Animal Behaviour. 54 (3): 559-70. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0450. PMID 9299041. S2CID 18223362. ...
The de novo assembly of DNA sequences is a very computationally challenging process and can fall into the NP-hard class of ... Firstly, contigs were generated de novo, secondly, the contigs were ordered and concatenated into supercontigs, and, thirdly, ... Within genomes, there are often tandem repeats of DNA segments that can be thousands of base pairs in length, which can cause ... The term genome assembly refers to the process of taking a large number of DNA fragments that are generated during shotgun ...
It is based on the fact that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or some parts of the ribosomal DNA cistron have relatively fast mutation ... but instead concatenates the sequences of the gene fragments of the housekeeping genes and uses this concatenated sequence to ... But these DNA banding-based subtyping methods do not provide meaningful evolutionary analyses. Despite PFGE being considered by ... MLST should not be confused with DNA barcoding. The latter is a taxonomic method that uses short genetic markers to recognize ...
... they can be concatenated together to get a common substring of the whole strings. It follows from a lemma of Michael Fekete ... in the comparison of DNA and protein sequences and the reconstruction of evolutionary trees), geology (in stratigraphy), and ...