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*  Extrachromosomal DNA
One of these is 6-kb linear DNA and the second is 35-kb circular DNA. These DNA molecules have been researched as potential ... Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found ... It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA ... Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) is present in all eukaryotic cells, is usually derived from genomic DNA, and consists of ...
*  Circular DNA
... technique for finding unknown DNA flanking known DNA Effect of circular DNA on gel electrophoresis Cyclic nucleotide Cyclic ... Circular DNA is DNA that forms a closed loop and has no ends. Examples include: Plasmids - mobile genetic elements cccDNA - ... formed by some viruses inside cell nuclei Circular bacterial chromosomes Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and ... adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) Circular RNA Cyclic peptide. ...
*  Extrachromosomal Circular DNA
... (eccDNA) is circular DNA found in the nuclei of plant and animal cells, including human cells, in ... Extrachromosomal DNA Extrachromosomal rDNA circle Selfish genetic elements Elizabeth Pennisi (2017) Circular DNA throws ... addition to chromosomal DNA. eccDNA can be from 200 up to 5 million base pairs in length. eccDNA has been found in the nuclei ...
*  Begomovirus
Single stranded closed circular DNA. Many begomoviruses have a bipartite genome: this means that the genome is segmented into ... Briddon RW, Patil BL, Bagewadi B, Nawaz-ul-Rehman MS, Fauquet CM (2010). "Distinct evolutionary histories of the DNA-A and DNA- ... referred to as DNA A and DNA B) that are packaged into separate particles. Both segments are generally required for successful ... The DNA A segment typically encodes five to six proteins including replication protein Rep, coat protein and transport and/or ...
*  Marc Van Montagu
Supercoiled circular DNA in crown gall inducing Agrobacterium strains. J. Mol. Biol. 86:109-27 Van Montagu, Marc (2011). "It is ...
*  Extrachromosomal rDNA circle
The population of circular rDNA is decreased in embryos, indicative of the circular rDNA migrating to linear DNA, as was shown ... are extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA), are self replicating sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) found in a strain of yeast, ... Circular extrachromosomal DNA are not only found in yeast but other eukaryotic organisms. Cohen et al. developed a regulated ... 2003). "Extrachromosomal Circular DNA of Tandemly Repeated Genomic Sequences in Drosophila". "extrachromosomal rDNA circle ...
*  Chimpanzee stool associated circular virus
... is a single stranded DNA virus isolated from chimpanzee stool. The genome is ~2.6 ... "Novel circular DNA viruses in stool samples of wild-living chimpanzees". J. Gen. Virol. 91 (Pt 1): 74-86. doi:10.1099/vir. ... This virus appears to be related to the bovine stool associated circular virus but to no other known group of viruses. Blinkova ...
*  Senescence
Despite the lack of a connection between circular DNA and aging in higher organisms, extra copies of Sir2 are capable of ... Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) has been found in worms, flies, and humans. The origin and role of eccDNA in aging, if ... and further indicated that DNA damage due to reactive oxygen species was a major source of the DNA damages causing aging. The ... Horvath S (2013). "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types". Genome Biology. 14: R115. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-10- ...
*  Gene cassette
They may exist incorporated into an integron or freely as circular DNA. Gene cassettes can move around within an organism ... It can be transferred from one DNA sequence (usually on a vector) to another by 'cutting' the fragment out using restriction ... In genetic engineering, a gene cassette is a manipulable fragment of DNA carrying, and capable of expressing, one or more genes ... The gene cassettes are speculated to be inserted and excised via a circular intermediate. This would involve recombination ...
*  DNA nanoball sequencing
The result is the completed circular DNA template. Once a circular DNA template, containing sample DNA that is ligated to four ... The restriction enzyme is used again to cleave the circular DNA 13 bp to the left of Ad1. The result is a linear DNA fragment ( ... DNA sequences must be attached to the unknown DNA fragment so that DNA segments with known sequences flank the unknown DNA. In ... "Highly efficient DNA synthesis by the phage phi 29 DNA polymerase. Symmetrical mode of DNA replication". The Journal of ...
*  Bovine stool associated circular virus
... is a single stranded DNA virus with a circular genome that was isolated from bovine ... This is like chimpanzee stool associated circular virus and unlike any other known circular DNA virus. This virus appears to ... Kim HK, Park SJ, Nguyen VG, Song DS, Moon HJ, Kang BK, Park BK (2011) Identification of a novel single stranded circular DNA ... The genome is a single stranded circular DNA molecule 2600 bases in length. It has two open reading frames encoding a replicase ...
*  Mitochondrial matrix
One to many double stranded mainly circular DNA is present in mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondrial DNA is 1% of total DNA of a ... The mitochondrial DNA only codes for about thirteen proteins that are used in processing mitochondrial transcripts, ribosomal ... Protein synthesis makes use of mitochondrial DNA, RNA, and tRNA. Regulation of processes makes use of ions(Ca2+/K+/Mg+). ... Matrix (biology) Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondrion Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith; Pratt, Charlotte (2013). Fundamentals of ...
*  Hepadnaviridae
... by the viral polymerase to form a complete circular dsDNA genome (called covalently-closed-circular DNA or cccDNA). The genome ... In replication, this pds genome is converted in the host cell nucleus to covalently-closed-circular DNA (cccDNA) by the viral ... Hepadnaviruses have very small genomes of partially double-stranded, partially single stranded circular DNA. The genome ... and DNA-dependent-DNA-polymerase activity (used to create cccDNA from pdsDNA in the first step of the replication cycle). The ...
*  Type II topoisomerase
... these enzymes change the linking number of circular DNA by ±2. Once cut, the ends of the DNA are separated, and a second DNA ... A strand of DNA, called the gate, or G-segment, is bound by a central DNA-binding gate (DNA-gate). A second strand of DNA, ... Catenation is the process by which two circular DNA strands are linked together like chain links. This occurs after DNA ... Type II topoisomerases cut both strands of the DNA helix simultaneously in order to manage DNA tangles and supercoils. They use ...
*  Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids
DNA damage due to increased cross-linking will also reduce electrophoretic DNA migration in a dose-dependent way. Circular DNA ... Unless supercoiled DNA markers are used, the size of a circular DNA like plasmid therefore may be more accurately gauged after ... and the mobility of larger circular DNA may be more strongly affected than linear DNA by the pore size of the gel. Separation ... All naturally occurring DNA circles are underwound, but ethidium bromide which intercalates into circular DNA can change the ...
*  CccDNA
... (covalently closed circular DNA) is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the ... transcription of viral DNA can occur from the circular form only. The cccDNA of viruses is also known as episomal DNA or ... It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form that is ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring ... Kunisada, T.; H. Yamagishi (November 1984). "Sequence repetition and genomic distribution of small polydisperse circular DNA ...
*  Cryptogene
The many strands of circular DNA are organized into a system of interlocking rings. There are two types of rings in the system ... Vargas-Parada, L. (2010). "Kinetoplastids and their networks of interlocked DNA". Nature Education. 3 (9): 63. Retrieved 2015- ...
*  Superhelix
This is significant to both proteins and genetic material, such as overwound circular DNA. The earliest significant reference ... In DNA this property does not change and can only be modified by specialized enzymes called topoisomerases. Knot theory ... This study originated in response to questions that arise in the study of supercoiled double-stranded DNA rings. About the ... DNA Structure and Topology at Molecular Biochemistry II: The Bello Lectures.. ...
*  Agarose gel electrophoresis
Ethidium bromide which intercalates into circular DNA can change the charge, length, as well as the superhelicity of the DNA ... Overloading of DNA - overloading of DNA slows down the migration of DNA fragments. Contamination - presence of impurities, such ... and the mobility of larger circular DNA may be more strongly affected than linear DNA by the pore size of the gel. ... the faster the DNA moves. The resolution of large DNA fragments however is lower at high voltage. The mobility of DNA may also ...
*  Lactobacillus paracasei
L. paracasei's genome contains circular DNA and varies slightly among the different strains isolated. On average, the genomes ... AFLP is a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tool used in DNA profiling to amplify a desired DNA fragment with the use of ... Live bacteria might not be essential because of beneficial effects of probiotics seems to be mediated by their DNA and by ... to account for the species that it shares DNA homology with. It has been shown their names have been used interchangeably in ...
*  Inverse polymerase chain reaction
Under low DNA concentrations, self-ligation is induced to give a circular DNA product. PCR is carried out as usual, with ... Then, like other polymerase chain reaction processes, the DNA is amplified by the temperature-sensitive DNA polymerase: A ... genomic DNA. The amplified product can then be sequenced and compared with DNA databases to locate the sequence which has been ... Inverse polymerase chain reaction (Inverse PCR) is a variant of the polymerase chain reaction that is used to amplify DNA with ...
*  Canna virus
Evidence for a Double-Stranded Circular DNA Genome in a second Group of Plant Viruses. The American Phytopathology Society, 80 ...
*  Duck circovirus
... is a small nonenveloped virus with a monomeric single-stranded circular DNA genome. DuCV has been clustered in ...
*  Genetically modified crops
... circular DNA fragment (plasmid). When Agrobacterium infects a plant, it transfers this T-DNA to a random site in the plant ... The DNA separates from the metal and is integrated into plant DNA inside the nucleus. This method has been applied successfully ... DNA is bound to tiny particles of gold or tungsten which are subsequently shot into plant tissue or single plant cells under ... The DNA was injected into the soybeans using the particle acceleration method. Soybean cultivar A54O3 was used for the ...
*  Beet curly top virus
BCTV contains a single-stranded circular DNA that is encapsulated in a twinned icosahedral capsid. The virus DNA contains a ... Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a pathogenic plant virus of the family Geminiviridae, containing a single-stranded DNA. The ... Horn, J.; Lauster, S.; Krenz, B.; Kraus, J.; Frischmuth, T.; Jeske, H. (2011). "Ambivalent effects of defective DNA in beet ...
*  Antonius Suwanto
He has found two circular chromosomes or plasmids in Rhodobacter with Kaplan S in 1989. He received an award as cum laude from ... Seumahu, C. A.; Suwanto, A.; Rusmana, I.; Solihin, D. D. (2012). "Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Microbial Community ... DNA sequence and mechanism of transfer". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (1): 81-90. doi:10.1128/jb.182.1.81-90.2000. PMC 94243 . ... Hfr formation and genetic evidence for two unique circular chromosomes". Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (4): 1135-45. PMC 206406 ...
*  Non-helical models of DNA structure
... the duplex DNA resulting from association of complementary, circular single-stranded DNA". J. Mol. Biol. 131 (1): 21-40. doi: ... Casey J, Davidson N (1977). "Rates of formation and thermal stabilities of RNA:DNA and DNA:DNA duplexes at high concentrations ... and since DNA-RNA interactions are stronger than DNA-DNA interactions, the sense and anti-sense strands would thus have ... Vinograd J, Lebowitz J, Radloff R, Watson R, Laipis P (May 1965). "The twisted circular form of polyoma viral DNA". Proc. Natl ...