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*  DNA adduct
DNA adducts are a type of DNA damage. DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of carcinogenesis. Adduct Adductomics ... "DMBA-DNA adduct" in a scientific journal refers to a piece of DNA that has DMBA attached to it. The presence of such an adduct ... of a specific type of DNA adduct called M1dG. When a chemical binds to DNA, the DNA becomes damaged, and proper and complete ... a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation DNA adducts include: etheno-DNA adducts: 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine ( ...
*  Mitosene
"Mitosene-DNA Adducts. Characterization of Two Major DNA Monoadducts Formed by 1,10-Bis(acetoxy)-7-methoxymitosene upon ...
*  Tobacco smoking
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... Bernstein C, Prasad AR, Nfonsam V, Bernstein H. (2013). DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer, New Research Directions in DNA ... www.intechopen.com/books/new-research-directions-in-dna-repair/dna-damage-dna-repair-and-cancer[page needed] Cunningham FH, ... Tompkins EM, McLuckie KI, Jones DJ, Farmer PB, Brown K (2009). "Mutagenicity of DNA adducts derived from ethylene oxide ...
*  Adductomics
... is the study of DNA adducts in the context of an entire genome. DNA adducts are compounds that bind to DNA, causing ... "DNA adductome strategy for detection of multiple DNA adducts." Nippon Kankyo Hen'igen Gakkai Taikai Puroguramu, Yoshishu. 34:77 ... The science of adductomics seeks to identify all DNA adducts and the target sequence of each adduct. The term "adductome" first ... Although originally the term related to adducts of DNA, the adductomic approach has now been adopted by protein chemists in ...
*  Glycidamide
... reacts with DNA to form DNA adducts and is more reactive to DNA than acrylamide. Several glycidamide-DNA adducts ... This reactive ion can bind to DNA and alkylate it. Alkylation of DNA forms DNA adducts and can cause mutagenicity. There are ... Studies with Big Blue mice and rats have shown mutations and DNA adducts that are consistent with those arising from ... The main DNA adducts are N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine (or N7-GA-Gua) and N3-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)adenine (or ...
*  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Stable adducts may lead to DNA replication errors, while unstable adducts react with the DNA strand, removing a purine base ( ... These metabolites can bind to DNA at specific sites, forming bulky complexes called DNA adducts that can be stable or unstable ... This enzyme then metabolically processes the PAHs to quinone metabolites that bind to DNA in reactive adducts that remove ... Baird, W. M.; Hooven, L. A.; Mahadevan, B. (1 February 2015). "Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and ...
*  Liver disease
... which can damage DNA). The level of oxidative stress and acetaldehyde-induced DNA adducts due to alcohol consumption does not ... Yu HS, Oyama T, Isse T, Kitagawa K, Pham TT, Tanaka M, Kawamoto T (2010). "Formation of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts due to ... Oxidative DNA damage is mutagenic and also causes epigenetic alterations at the sites of DNA repair. Epigenetic alterations and ... The excess DCA causes DNA damage and inflammation in the liver, which, in turn, can lead to liver cancer. A common form of ...
*  2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine
PhIP has been shown to induce DNA adducts and mutations. These adducts have been found in a wide variety of sensitive tissues ... DNA and protein adducts were formed in the colon and blood. However, the adducts were unstable and declined over a 24-hour ... 1999). DNA and protein adduct formation in the colon and blood of humans after exposure to a dietary-relevant dose of 2-amino-1 ... PhIP has also formed DNA adducts in vivo in both rats and monkeys. PhIP has been tested for carcinogenicity in both mice and ...
*  M1G
M1dG is the major endogenous DNA adduct in humans. M1dG adducts have been detected in cell DNA in liver, leucocytes, pancreas ... of a specific type of DNA adduct called M1dG. The M1dG adduct in turn is formed by a condensation reaction between guanosine ... Detection and quantification of M1dG adducts in the body as measured by free M1G is a tool for detecting DNA damage that may ... "Metabolism in vitro and in vivo of the DNA base adduct, M1G". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 20 (3): 550-7. doi:10.1021/tx600334x. PMID ...
*  N-Nitrosonornicotine
Missing or empty ,url= (help) Zarth, Adam T.; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Yang, Jing; Hecht, Stephen S. (2016-03-21). "DNA Adduct ... NNN binds with a nucleotide to form a DNA adduct. This causes deleterious mutations to both oncogenes and tumor suppressors, ...
*  Toxicodynamics
... most often with guanine and adenine to form stable adducts within the DNA structure. The binding of diol epoxides and DNA base ... One mechanism of action for genotoxic carcinogens includes the formation of DNA adducts. Once the PAH compound enters an ... DNA Damage Caused by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Mechanisms and Markers, Selected Topics in DNA Repair, Prof. Clark Chen ... www.intechopen.com/books/selected-topics-in-dna-repair/dna-damage-caused-by-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-mechanisms-and- ...
*  O-Toluidine
Kadlubar, F. F.; Badawi, A. F. (1995). "Genetic susceptibility and carcinogen-DNA adduct formation in human urinary bladder ... calf thymus DNA, and DNA fragments from key genes thought to be involved in carcinogenesis (the c-Ha-ras oncogene and the p53 ... including metabolic activation that results in binding of reactive metabolites to DNA and proteins, mutagenicity, oxidative DNA ... 2010). DNA damage was also observed in rats and mice exposed in vivo to o-toluidine (Robbiano et al. 2002, Sekihashi et al. ...
*  Long-term effects of alcohol consumption
Acetaldehyde can react with DNA to create DNA adducts including the Cr-Pdg adduct. This Cr-PdG adduct "is likely to play a ... Brooks P, Theruvathu J, Cho CH, Purohit V. "Acetaldehyde-DNA Adducts: Implications for the Molecular Mechanism of Alcohol- ... owing to its multiple mutagenic effects on DNA." ...
*  AGT II
Therefore, AGT II will repair alkylated DNA adducts even before Ada is fully induced. AGT II is similar to Ada in its suicide ... a protein that in humans is encoded by the O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. In humans, O6-alkylguanine DNA ... O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase II (O6 AGT II) previously known as O6 Guanine transferase (ogt) is a bacterial protein ... Friedberg E, Walker GC, Siede W, Wood RD, Schultz RA, Ellenberger T (2006). DNA Repair and Mutagenesis (2 ed.). Washington, DC ...
*  Hydroxylation of estradiol
E2-3,4-Q is a potent nucleophile, and will readily react with electrophilic DNA. This yields the formation of the DNA adducts 4 ... "Estrogen metabolism and formation of estrogen-DNA adducts in estradiol-treated MCF-10F cells". The Journal of Steroid ... In theory, 16α-OHE1 could also bind DNA, although this has not been observed. 16α-OHE2 is a potent ER agonist, capable of ... glycosyl bond between the nitrogenous base and ribose sugar creates apurinic sites as the unstable adducts are lost from DNA. 4 ...
*  XPC (gene)
XPC is involved in the recognition of bulky DNA adducts in nucleotide excision repair. It is located on chromosome 3. This gene ... If DNA repair is deficient, DNA damage tends to accumulate. Such excess DNA damage may increase mutations due to error-prone ... Bernstein C, Prasad AR, Nfonsam V, Bernstein H. (2013). DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer, New Research Directions in DNA ... www.intechopen.com/books/new-research-directions-in-dna-repair/dna-damage-dna-repair-and-cancer Harper JW, Elledge SJ (2007). " ...
*  Hexavalent chromium
This causes strand breaks and Cr-DNA adducts which are responsible for mutagenic damage. According to Shi et al., the DNA can ... 1994). "Reaction of Cr(VI) with ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide generates hydroxyl radicals and causes dnA damage: role of a Cr ...
*  Droloxifene
Unlike tamoxifen, droloxifene does not produce DNA adduct or liver tumors in animals. Afimoxifene (4-hydroxytamoxifen) ...
*  Benzo(c)fluorene
The benzo[c]fluorene metabolites bind in a yet unknown fashion to the DNA. When a DNA adduct forms at a site critical to the ... DNA adducts in these mice were analyzed and could be traced back to benzo[c]fluorene. This and another similar study suggest a ... The formation of DNA adducts in human breast tumors, hepatoma and colon adenocarcinoma by these metabolites has been shown in ... This figure shows the DNA adduct level after a certain dose of benzo[c]fluorene was applied to the skin of mice. This level is ...
*  Adduct
... ions are often formed in a mass spectrometer ion source. Adductomics DNA adduct IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical ... Adducts often form between Lewis acids and Lewis bases. A good example is the formation of adducts between the Lewis acid ... Adducts are not necessarily molecular in nature. A good example from solid-state chemistry is the adducts of ethylene or carbon ... An adduct ion is formed from a precursor ion and contains all of the constituent atoms of that ion as well as additional atoms ...
*  Isopimpinellin
... blocks DNA adduct formation and skin tumor initiation by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in SENCAR mice". Carcinogenesis. 23 (10 ... anthracene DNA adduct formation in mouse mammary gland". Carcinogenesis. 27 (6): 1204-13. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgi303. PMID ...
*  Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Harrigan JA, Vezina CM, McGarrigle BP, Ersing N, Box HC, Maccubbin AE, Olson JR (February 2004). "DNA adduct formation in ... Lusska A, Shen E, Whitlock JP (1993). "Protein-DNA interactions at a dioxin-responsive enhancer. Analysis of six bona fide DNA- ... Shen ES, Whitlock JP (1992). "Protein-DNA interactions at a dioxin-responsive enhancer. Mutational analysis of the DNA-binding ... The first is the basic-region (b), which is involved in the binding of the transcription factor to DNA. The second is the helix ...
*  Arsenic poisoning
"Oxidative DNA adducts and DNA-protein cross-links are the major DNA lesions induced by arsenite". Environmental Health ... Higher levels of DNA methltransferase mRNA and enzyme activity were found. Kitchin (2001) proposed a model of altered growth ... Hu Y, Jin X, Snow ET (July 2002). "Effect of arsenic on transcription factor AP-1 and NF-κB DNA binding activity and related ... Regarding DNA methylation, some studies suggest interaction of As with methyltransferases which leads to an inactivation of ...
*  Malachite green
2002). "Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in relation to DNA adduct formation in rats fed leucomalachite green". Mutation ... "a dose-related increase in liver DNA adducts" along with lung adenomas. Leucomalachite green causes an "increase in the number ... "DNA Analyst Training Laboratory Training Manual Protocol 2.18 Leucomalachite Green Presumptive Test for Blood" (PDF). National ...
*  Riddelliine
DHP subsequently binds covalently to DNA so that DHP-derived mono and dinucleotide DNA adducts are formed. Till now there is no ... In rats gavaged with Riddelliine, a set of DNA adducts of dehydroretronecine (DHS) in liver DNA can serve as biomarkers for the ... There are two possible pathways that lead to DHP- derived DNA adducts, which induce liver tumor formation. The first is the ... Yu-Ping Wang, P.P. (2005). Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct ...