Recorded outbreaks[edit]. Marburg virus disease (MVD) outbreaks due to Marburg virus (MARV) infection Year Geographic location ... "Marburg virus disease - Uganda Disease outbreak news". October 25, 2017.. *^ Pringle, C. R. (2005). "Order Mononegavirales". In ... Human disease[edit]. Main article: Marburg virus disease. MARV is one of two Marburg viruses that causes Marburg virus disease ... US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases". Archived from the original on 2014-07-22. ...
All human societies have medical beliefs - birth, death, disease and cures are explained in some manner. Historically, ... History of emerging infectious diseases. *Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western ... Disease outbreaks‎ (12 C, 7 P). P. *. ► History of pharmacy‎ (6 C, 49 P) ...
"Bat-transmitted Human Rabies Outbreaks, Brazilian Amazon". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (8): 1197-1202. doi:10.3201/ ... It is believed that civilization was later devastated by the spread of diseases from Europe, such as smallpox.[30] This ... There are also numerous parasites and disease vectors. Vampire bats dwell in the rainforest and can spread the rabies virus.[47 ... During the Amazon rubber boom it is estimated that diseases brought by immigrants, such as typhus and malaria, killed 40,000 ...
However, the disease has continued to spread; outbreaks were reported in Asia again in 2003. On December 21, 2009 the WHO ... Exotic Animal Disease Generic Contingency Plan - DEFRA generic contingency plan for controlling and eradicating an outbreak of ... This panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area) outbreak was stopped by the killing ... Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease - An overview of ...
"Recent Outbreaks". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). June 16, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016. v t e v t e. ... "Multistate Outbreak of Infections Caused by Elizabethkingia anophelis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). March ... An outbreak centered in Wisconsin began in early November 2015, with 48 people confirmed infected in 12 counties and at least ... E. anophelis has been reported to cause neonatal meningitis in the Central African Republic, and a nosocomial outbreak has been ...
"Infectious disease outbreaks reported in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in 2018 , News , Epidemic and pandemic diseases". www ... Epidemic and pandemic-prone diseases Infectious disease outbreaks reported in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in 2018 See 8. ... About 35% of those who are diagnosed with the disease die from it. Larger outbreaks have occurred in South Korea in 2015 and in ... "MERS Clinical Features". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2 August 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2020. "MERS outbreaks". ...
"Ash disease outbreaks in Northern Ireland stand at 16". BBC News. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2013.. ... Comparisons have been made to the outbreak of Dutch elm disease in the 1960s and 1970s.[41] In 2012 it was estimated that up to ... A Lithuanian trial searching for disease-resistance resulted in the selection of fifty disease-resistant trees for the ... "Ash dieback disease: Survey of Scottish tree stocks launched". BBC News. 4 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.. ...
As such, fire and disease outbreaks were constant concerns. Since the late 1990s, Saudi authorities have started using ...
Financial cutbacks have limited the tracking of disease outbreaks. Some outbreaks, such as food poisoning due to E. coli or ... Biosurveillance is the science of real-time disease outbreak detection. Its principles apply to both natural and man-made ... Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance Laboratory, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-03, retrieved 2009-05-22. ... Real-Time Outbreak Disease Surveillance). RODS is designed to draw collect data from many data sources and use them to perform ...
"Investigating Foodborne Outbreaks". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 15 September 2011. Archived from the original ... Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to ... Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which ... Most human diseases originated in animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve non-human to human transmission, such ...
"Measles Cases and Outbreaks". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 ... In populations not exposed to measles, exposure to the new disease can be devastating. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (February 2008). "Multistate measles outbreak associated with an international ... Howard J, Goldschmidt D (24 April 2019). "US measles outbreak is largest since disease was declared eliminated in 2000". CNN. ...
... such as heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, respiratory disease, the immunosuppressed, and the elderly, avoid any close ... Roos R (17 April 2014). "MERS outbreaks grow; Malaysian case had camel link". Retrieved 22 April 2014. "Camels May Transmit New ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) list MERS as transmissible from human to human. They state that "MERS-CoV ... None of the camels showed any sign of disease when the samples were collected. The Qatar Supreme Council of Health advised in ...
Valley fever outbreak[edit]. An unusual effect of the Northridge earthquake was an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever ... This respiratory disease is caused by inhaling airborne spores of fungus. The 203 cases reported, of which three resulted in ... "Coccidioidmycosis Outbreak". USGS Landslide Hazards Program. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.. ... This was the first report of such an outbreak following an earthquake, and it is believed that the spores were carried in large ...
Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection Year Geographic location Human cases/deaths (case- ... Disease[edit]. SUDV is one of four ebolaviruses that causes Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans (in the literature also often ... see Ebola virus disease). In the past, SUDV has caused the following EVD outbreaks:[citation needed] ... "Ebola outbreak: DR Congo confirms two deaths". BBC. 2014-08-24.. *^ Towner, J. S.; Amman, B. R.; Sealy, T. K.; Carroll, S. A. R ...
Outbreaks of disease may occur in childcare settings and schools. It is also relatively common among travelers. In the United ... vaccination to prevent the disease should be feasible. Shigellosis is resistant to many antibiotics used to treat the disease, ... US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Shigella - Shigellosis". Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Christopher, Prince RH; David, ...
As outbreaks easily occur in under-vaccinated populations, non-prevalence of disease is seen as a test of sufficient ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (July 2007). "Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 2007". MMWR. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1994). "Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1993". MMWR. Morbidity ... Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (13th ed.). Washington D.C.: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ...
"Myrtle Rust National Host List". National pests & disease outbreaks. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved ... A Disease with the Potential for Serious International Implications". Plant Disease. 82 (7): 819-825. doi:10.1094/PDIS.1998.82. ... Initially, the disease appears as small purple or red brown flecks with a faint chlorotic halo on the leaf surface, which ... "Serious fungal plant disease found on Raoul Island trees". 4 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 January 2021. ...
The last major outbreak was before the disease was eliminated, and occurred from 1989 to 1991. During this outbreak, 123 people ... "US measles outbreak is largest since disease was declared eliminated in 2000". CNN. Retrieved April 24, 2019. "New York City ... During the early stage of an outbreak in an unvaccinated population, each infected person spreads the disease to an average of ... "Measles Outbreaks and Cases". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 26, 2019. Retrieved August 30, 2019. ...
... previously known as Australian encephalitis or Australian X disease). In humans, it can cause permanent neurological disease or ... These outbreaks can be "...decades apart, with no or very few cases identified in between". MVEV is a mosquito-borne virus that ... When a patient appears to show MVE symptoms and has been in an MVE-endemic area during the wet season, when outbreaks usually ... Of those who contract MVE, one-quarter die from the disease. The scientific study of the genetics of MVEV has been facilitated ...
Australia has had three outbreaks of citrus canker, all of which have been successfully eradicated. The disease was found twice ... Beyond Florida, the disease was discovered in the Gulf states and reached as far north as South Carolina. It took more than 20 ... The disease can be detected in groves and on fruit by the appearance of lesions. Early detection is critical in quarantine ... The disease, which is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia, is extremely persistent when it becomes established in an ...
Disease outbreaks occurred afterwards. Reports of snowfall and unusual cold also came from the Yangtze River valley, and summer ... The city of Arequipa went from being a relatively wealthy city to be a place of famine and disease in the years after the ... Scotland saw the failure of barley and oat crops in 1602 and a plague outbreak during the preceding year, and in Italy silk ...
For example, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (9 April 2010). "2009 H1N1 Flu:Situation Update". Centers for Disease ... The initial outbreak of a novel swine-origin H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009 and the virus strain that caused it were called by many ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 April 2009. MacKenzie, Debora (27 May 2009). "Deadly new flu virus in US and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "Some immunity to novel H1N1 flu found in ...
Qureshi, Adnan (2016). Ebola Virus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak. London: Academic Press. p. 62. ISBN 0128042303.. ... The 1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia was the final outbreak of smallpox in Europe. The WHO fought the outbreak with ... "Regulations to control communicable diseases". gpo.gov. Retrieved 30 Oct 2014.. *^ "Specific Laws and Regulations Governing the ... however its marine hospital only qualified as a contagious disease facility to handle less virulent diseases like measles, ...
"PH declares polio outbreak as disease returns after 19 years". Rappler. Manila, Philippines. Retrieved 22 September 2019.. ... "Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (5th Edition, 2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Poliomyelitis has existed for thousands of years, with depictions of the disease in ancient art.[1] The disease was first ... The disease may be diagnosed by finding the virus in the feces or detecting antibodies against it in the blood.[1] The disease ...
Ellis, John A. (2006). "Outbreak! How can we approach emerging diseases?" (PDF). Proceedings of the North American Veterinary ... This causes a much more severe disease than either virus can separately. However, fatal intestinal disease associated with ... The disease is highly contagious and is spread through the feces of infected dogs, who usually shed the virus for six to nine ... Intestinal disease may be related to virus-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) of cells of the epithelial mucosa of the ...
"High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their ... Oman recorded more than 1,000 new cases in a single since the beginning of the outbreak on 31 May, the record being 1,014. At ... The Minister of Health, Dr Ahmed al Saeedi stated the same day that the sultanate could reach the peak of the outbreak during ... The country recorded the highest single day increase in cases since the beginning of the outbreak on 22 June, with a total of ...
Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and that the disease was probably Weil's disease, or hepatitis ... New York doctors finally admitted that they had had an outbreak of yellow fever in 1791 that killed more than 100 people. All ... The hope offered by any of these treatments was soon dashed when it became clear that they did not cure the disease, and the ... Devèze had arrived on the refugee ship from Saint-Domingue, which many accused of having carried the disease, but he thought it ...
In July 1970, there was an outbreak in Odessa and in 1972 there were reports of outbreaks in Baku, but the Soviet Union ... Symptoms of the disease appear between 12 hours and 5 days of infection, however, only 10% of infected people show severe ... This outbreak lasted 2 weeks, infecting 582 persons with 79 deaths (17% mortality). By August, the outbreak had reached ... experienced outbreaks. The west-African outbreak of cholera during 1970-1971 infected more than 400,000 persons. Africa carried ...
Originally a disease of fowl in Europe, it was first recorded in North America in 1943-44. Since then outbreaks have been ... Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42: 81-91. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in "Diseases of poultry", ed. ... Outbreaks occur in cold and wet weather (in late summer, fall and winter). The outbreaks are often traced back to the presence ... Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in Wetlands Following Avian Cholera Outbreaks. Journal of Wildlife Disease. 42: 33-39 ...
... the linking of human disease outbreaks to locust plagues was widespread. A pestilence in the northwestern provinces of China in ... The outbreak was contained and the elephants, hippopotamuses, and giraffes present in the area were unharmed.[40] ... The first outbreaks occurred in Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Sudan in 2003. The rain allowed swarms to develop and move north ... "The Desert Locust Outbreak in West Africa". OECD. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 3 July 2015.. ...
"Ash disease outbreaks in Northern Ireland stand at 16". BBC News. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2013.. ... Comparisons have been made to the outbreak of Dutch elm disease in the 1960s and 1970s.[38] Currently it is estimated that ... A Lithuanian trial searching for disease-resistance resulted in the selection of fifty disease-resistant trees for the ... Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is an Ascomycete fungus that causes ash dieback, a chronic fungal disease of ash trees in Europe ...
Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Philippines) ... Outbreak Management Team (Netherlands). *COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund. *Defeat COVID-19 Ad Hoc Committee ...
Higurashi no Naku Koro ni Kaku: Outbreak (2013). *Hiiro no Kakera Taizen: Totsugeki! Tonari no Ikemens (2012) ... Young Disease Outburst Boy (2019). *The Seven Deadly Sins: Wrath of the Gods (2019-2020) ...
For more about specific outbreaks, see List of Ebola outbreaks.. The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical regions ... "Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Virus Disease". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).gov. Archived from the original on ... "Ebola virus disease - Democratic Republic of the Congo - Disease outbreak news: Update 6 June 2019". World Health Organization ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ...
Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ... Repeated outbreaks of mange (scab) have led to large-scale extinctions.[2] The first study of the protozoa in blue and black ... Malignant catarrhal fever is a fatal disease of domestic cattle caused by a gammaherpesvirus. Like the blue wildebeest, the ... Wild individuals can be competitors of commercial livestock, and can transmit fatal diseases such as rinderpest, and cause ...
This article is about a skin disease common during adolescence. For other acneiform skin diseases, see Acne (disambiguation). ... Vitamin B12 may trigger skin outbreaks similar to acne (acneiform eruptions), or worsen existing acne when taken in doses ... Disease Primers. 1: 15033. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2015.33. PMID 27227877.. *^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions: Acne" (PDF). U.S. ... Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when dead skin cells and oil from the skin clog hair ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11, No. 4, April 2005: Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment, Stephen W. Hwang, ... "Bedbugs Bounce Back: Outbreaks inall 50 states". *Fox News, 15 January 2007: "Lawyer Sues London Hotel, Claims Bedbugs ...
Graft-versus-host disease[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ... are quite effective in prevention of HSCT-related outbreak of herpetic infection in seropositive patients.[33] The ... Veno-occlusive disease[edit]. Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of ... Major complications are veno-occlusive disease, mucositis, infections (sepsis), graft-versus-host disease and the development ...
Inggris) E. coli Outbreak From Fresh Spinach - U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Inggris) FDA information on the Spinach and E. coli Outbreak. *( ... Inggris) Investigation of a UK outbreak by Brian Deer. *( ...
By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his American commonwealth, the Lenape had been so reduced by disease, famine, and war ... shortly before the outbreak of the French and Indian War (a part of the Seven Years' War in Europe). ... as the diseases had arisen on the Asian continent and moved west into Europe, where they had become endemic in the cities. ... due to high fatalities from epidemics of infectious diseases carried by Europeans, such as measles and smallpox, to which they ...
The disease is most common in native laborers and in schoolchildren of the tropics and subtropics during the rainy season and ... Sometimes outbreaks can occur; one was recorded in Tanzania in sugarcane workers cutting the crops while barefoot. Tropical ... In some of these countries, such as northern Papua New Guinea, it is the most common skin disease. It is also a frequent ... Tropical ulcer has been described as a disease of the 'poor and hungry'; it may be that slowly improving socioeconomic ...
2018 Outbreak[edit]. An outbreak of Lassa fever occurred in Nigeria during 2018 and spread to 18 of the country's states; it ... "PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 6 (9): e1839. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001839. PMC 3459880 . PMID 23029594.. ... Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s.[1] The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ... The disease is usually initially spread to people via contact with the urine or feces of an infected multimammate rat.[1] ...
First, the winter rice crop was afflicted by a severe outbreak of fungal brown spot disease. Then, on 16-17 October a cyclone ... disease had become the most common cause of death.[205] Disease-related mortality then continued to take its toll through early ... and provided a more hospitable environment for water-borne diseases such as cholera and malaria. Such diseases clustered around ... Famine, disease, and the death tollEdit. Conditions drifted towards famine at different rates in different Bengal districts. ...
270) were outbreaks of two different diseases, one of smallpox and one of measles but not necessarily in that order. The severe ... "There is not enough evidence satisfactorily to identify the disease or diseases", concluded J. F. Gilliam in his summary (1961 ... As the disease swept north to the Rhine, it also infected Germanic and Gallic peoples outside the empire's borders. For years, ... Rats, Lice and History: A Chronicle of Disease, Plagues, and Pestilence (1935). Reprinted by Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, ...
... "first severe new disease of the 21st century." She observed that the two new diseases WHO is dealing with in 2013 are the novel ... Following the 2012 MERS outbreak, Saudi Arabia Deputy Minister of Health Ziad Memish raised concerns that scientists who ... Enhanced global actions for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, endorsed in 2011[8] ... DGWHO Margaret Chan traced a brief history of revisions to the International Health Regulations following the SARS outbreak in ...
Often larvae can survive through much of their crop consumption despite outbreaks of disease, because of the larva's fast life ... "Pests and Diseases". Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.. ... Parasites and disease[edit]. Fifty-three different parasite species have been discovered in fall armyworm larvae, spanning ten ... Outbreaks of the true armyworm usually occur during the early part of the summer; the fall armyworm does most damage in the ...
"Ebola outbreak Alert and response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Yellow fever : a current threat". WHO. Archived from ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ... The disease seems to have disappeared, with the next outbreak occurring in 1849. It was likely introduced with the importation ... The first definitive outbreak of yellow fever in the New World was in 1647 on the island of Barbados.[66] An outbreak was ...
"OIE Listed Diseases and Other Diseases of Importance" (PDF). Terrestrial Manual. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... ETO is the only low-temperature sterilant to stop outbreaks on these instruments.[17] In contrast, "high level disinfection" ... Examples of bacteria having terminal endospores include Clostridium tetani, the pathogen that causes the disease tetanus. ...
On 31 May 1940, following the outbreak of World War II, Gorton enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force Reserve.[13] At the ... his mother contracted tuberculosis and was sent to a sanatorium to avoid passing on the disease. She died in September 1920, ...
Yarmouth, Cumberland County (removed in 2010 due to Dutch elm disease) 244 inches (620 cm) 110 feet (34 m) 129 feet (39 m) 386 ... Having abandoned their original village in 1286 after cholera outbreaks, the villagers re-founded it in the hills where a young ... Main Street, Old Deerfield, Franklin County (removed in 2017 due to Dutch elm disease) 230.4 inches (585 cm) 104.4 feet (31.8 m ... "Historic Preston Park Twin to be felled following elm disease infection". Brighton and Hove City Council. 4 July 2019. ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention believed at the time that Speaker was suffering from extensively drug-resistant ... Progress of the SARS outbreak for a comparison to the last news-worthy international quarantining incident, 2002-2004 Border ... It was reported that Speaker's father-in-law, Robert C. Cooksey, works for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2007-06-03. "Odd twist in TB alert: Patient is TB researcher's son-in-law ...
Invasive exotic diseasesEdit. History is rife with the spread of exotic diseases, such as the introduction of smallpox into the ... 1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... Another example is the Dutch elm disease, which has severely reduced the American elm trees in forests and cities.[citation ...
"Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005-10-13. Archived from the original on 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2008-10-20.. ... biosecurity procedures and other important steps to ensure that should an outbreak from eggs occur, the traceback would ... A 2004 study of California egg farms in the journal Avian Diseases finds comparatively low Salmonella prevalence in indoor ... Their claim about salmonella cases linked to California eggs is supported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and that the disease was probably Weil's disease, or hepatitis ... Barnard, Bryn (2005). Outbreak! Plagues That Changed History. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 978-0-375-82986-4. .. ... Webster, Noah, A Brief History of Epidemic Disease, 1798. *^ LaRoche, Yellow Fever, considered in its historical, pathological ... Devèze, Jean (1794). An Inquiry into and Observations upon the Causes and Effects of the Epidemic Disease Which Raged in ...
The disease in question was either dysentery or typhus; Riley-Smith 2005, pp. 210-211 ... but the marriage was delayed by the outbreak of war.[106] ...
These drugs can cause cancer and other health conditions.[17] Healthcare workers are also at risk for diseases that are ... such as the 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic or the 2003 SARS outbreak, healthcare workers are at even greater risk ... Exposure to respiratory infectious diseases like tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and influenza can be ... Additional evaluation for TB disease as needed (e.g. chest x-ray for HCP with a positive TB test)[31] ...
... was first discovered after an outbreak of a mystery disease on Palm Island in Australia.[38] The outbreak was traced back to a ... Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease.[3] There is also an interest in the military potential of biological neurotoxins ... "Neurobiology of Disease. 25 (2): 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2006.10.002. PMC 3959771. PMID 17098435.. ... Byth S (July 1980). "Palm Island mystery disease". The Medical Journal of Australia. 2 (1): 40, 42. PMID 7432268.. ...
... it may originate from the disease of psittacosis, which can be passed to humans.[121][122] The first occurrence of a related ... following years of campaigning by NGOs and outbreaks of avian flu, the European Union (EU) halted the importation of all wild ...
On the outbreak of war in August 1914, the 1st Battalion of the WIR was stationed in Freetown where it had been based for two ... The WIR soldiers became a valued part of the British forces garrisoning the West Indies, where losses from disease and climate ...