Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β-glucan was not explored until the 20th century. β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981.[2] In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An example of an allowed label claim: Soluble fiber from foods such as oatmeal, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of ...
An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/[1]; from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide ... it is believed that N-linked glycosylation helps determine the folding of polypeptides due to the hydrophilic nature of sugars ... polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten[2][3][4][5]) of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Oligosaccharides can ... which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars. ...
Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, or saccharose) Glucose. Fructose. α(1→2)β ... A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are ... Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called ... The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
Coarse-grain, such as sanding sugar (also called "pearl sugar", "decorating sugar", nibbed sugar or sugar nibs) is a coarse ... from either sugar cane or sugar beet. Sugar mills are located where sugar cane is grown to crush the cane and produce raw sugar ... Powdered, 10X sugar, confectioner's sugar (0.060 mm), or icing sugar (0.024 mm), produced by grinding sugar to a fine powder. ... beet sugar is almost always labeled simply as sugar or pure sugar. Interviews with the 5 major beet sugar-producing companies ...
Viscous fibers thicken the contents of the intestinal tract and may attenuate the absorption of sugar, reduce sugar response ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][76] ... production with Xanthomonas-bacteria from sugar substrates Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1 ... Inulin is advantageous because it contains 25-30% the food energy of sugar or other carbohydrates and 10-15% the food energy of ...
The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a ... Next, C-5 uronyl epimerase coverts d-GlcA to l-IdoA followed by 2-O sulfation of the uronic acid sugar by 2-O sulfotransferase ... Finally, sulfation of the polymer occurs at the 6-position of both sugar residues. The enzyme KS-Gal6ST (CHST1) transfers ... uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.[3] Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water. They ...
Viscous fibers thicken the contents of the intestinal tract and may attenuate the absorption of sugar, reduce sugar response ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][86] ... production with Xanthomonas-bacteria from sugar substrates Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1 ... complex carbohydrates, such as long-chained sugars also called starch, oligo saccharides, or poly saccharides, are sources of ...
... /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Amylopectin bears a straight/linear chain along with a number of side chains which may be branched further. Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) Glycosidic bonds. Branching usually occurs at intervals of 25 residues. At the places of origin of a side chain, the branching that takes place bears an α(1→6) Glycosidic bond , resulting in a soluble molecule that can be quickly degraded as it has many end points onto which enzymes can attach. Wolform and Thompson (1956) have also reported α(1→3)linkages in case of Amylopectin. Amylopectin contains a larger number of Glucose units (2000 to 200,000) as compared to Amylose containing 200 to 1000 α-Glucose units. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed ...
It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, and by the fermentation of glycerin. ... AGEs are behind the damage to the skin that occurs with high blood sugar in diabetes where similar glycation occurs. Some of ...
The furanose ring is a cyclic hemiacetal of an aldopentose or a cyclic hemiketal of a ketohexose. A furanose ring structure consists of four carbon and one oxygen atom with the anomeric carbon to the right of the oxygen. The highest numbered chiral carbon (typically to the left of the oxygen in a Haworth projection) determines whether or not the structure has a ...
Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, ... Arabinoxylans are found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants and are the copolymers of two sugars: arabinose ... Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then ... Polysaccharides with unprotected vicinal diols or amino sugars (i.e. some OH groups replaced with amine) give a positive ...
ˌmɒnə-/, from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most ... Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. ...
... is an aldohexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide that is very rare in nature, but has been found in archaea, bacteria and ... Swain, M., Brisson, J. R., Sprott, G. D., Cooper, F. P. and Patel, G. B. (1997). "Identification of β-L-gulose as the sugar ...
... is classified as a sugar alcohol; that is, it can be derived from a sugar (mannose) by reduction. Other sugar alcohols ... Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sweetener and medication.[1][2] As a sweetener it is used in diabetic food as it ... Kearsley MW, Deis RC (2006). "Sorbitol and Mannitol". Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology. Ames: Oxford. pp. ... Kearsley MW, Deis RC (2006). "Sorbitol and Mannitol". Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp ...
Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast ... However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names ... More complex alcohols however are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids. ...
Deoxy sugar alcohols. *Fucitol. Cyclic sugar alcohols. *Inositol. Glycylglycitols. *Maltitol. *Lactitol. *Isomalt ...
... is a sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute. The name derives from Ancient Greek: ξύλον, xyl[on], "wood" + suffix - ... Sugar rationing during World War II led to an interest in sugar substitutes when interest in xylitol and other polyols became ... Absorbed more slowly than sugar, xylitol supplies 40% fewer calories than table sugar.[8] It is approved as a food additive in ... itol, used to denote sugar alcohols. Xylitol is categorized as a polyalcohol or sugar alcohol (specifically an alditol). It has ...
... is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties. It has little to ... Its energy value is 2 kcal/g, half that of sugars.[2] However, like most sugar alcohols, it carries a risk of gastric distress ... The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford University Press. 2015-04-01. ISBN 9780199313624. .. ... Isomalt is an equimolar mixture of two mutually diastereomeric disaccharides, each composed of two sugars: glucose and mannitol ...
Wang SF, Gabriel O (1969). "Biological mechanisms involved in the formation of deoxy sugars. V Isolation and crystallization of ... This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: nucleotide sugars metabolism, streptomycin biosynthesis, polyketide sugar ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-glucose 4,6-hydro-lyase (dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose-forming). Other ... dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, dTDP-glucose, and two products, dTDP-4-dehydro-6- ...
Gaugler RW, Gabriel O (1973). "Biological mechanisms involved in the formation of deoxy sugars VII. Biosynthesis of 6-deoxy-L- ... This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: nucleotide sugars metabolism, streptomycin biosynthesis, and polyketide sugar ... dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-L-mannose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose, and one product, dTDP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase. Other names in common use include ...
... they are all deoxy sugars. Rules for Nomenclature of Modified Sugars: State the Sugar is deoxy sugar. Specify the position of ... Examples Sugars in which -OH is protected by some modification are called protected sugars. Rules for Nomenclature for ... Modification of sugar is generally done by replacing one or more -OH group with other functional groups at all positions except ... deoxy, -iodo, -amino etc.). Di-, tri- etc. prefixes do not count. ...
... is a deoxy sugar and amino sugar of the hexosamine class. Daunosamine is a component of the anthracycline class of ...
... (Rha, Rham) is a naturally occurring deoxy sugar. It can be classified as either a methyl-pentose or a 6-deoxy-hexose ... Rhamnose occurs in nature in its L-form as L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose). This is unusual, since most of the naturally ... Brown, M. R. (1991). "The amino-acid and sugar composition of 16 species of microalgae used in mariculture". Journal of ... Rhamnose is commonly bound to other sugars in nature. It is a common glycone component of glycosides from many plants. Rhamnose ...
Macrolide Deoxy sugar Rodríguez E, Peirú S, Carney JR, Gramajo H (March 2006). "In vivo characterization of the dTDP-D- ... Desosamine in the US National Library of Medicine MeSH (Medical Subject Headings): Deoxy Sugar in the US National Library of ... Degradation of several of the aforementioned antibiotics yields the desosamine sugar. It is found in combination with the ... Alkaline degradation found the sugar to be a D-hexose derivative. Glycosidic cleavage of methomycin produces aglycone ...
... or 6-deoxy-tagatose is a ketohexose deoxy sugar. Fuculose is involved in the process of sugar metabolism. It is both a ...
... is a glycoside formed from the flavonoid quercetin and the deoxy sugar rhamnose. Austrian chemist Heinrich Hlasiwetz ...
... thereby making it a deoxy sugar) and the L-configuration. It is equivalent to 6-deoxy-l-galactose. In the fucose-containing ... Fucose is a hexose deoxy sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. It is found on N-linked glycans on the mammalian, insect and ... Two structural features distinguish fucose from other six-carbon sugars present in mammals: the lack of a hydroxyl group on the ... Roca, C (2015). "Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications". Front Microbiol ...
... producing dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-glucose. Xue M. He & Hung-wen Liu (2002). "Formation of unusual sugars: Mechanistic studies and ... It is the starting compound for the syntheses of many deoxysugars. DTDP-glucose is produced by the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate ... DTDP-glucose goes on to form a variety of compounds in nucleotide sugars metabolism. Many bacteria utilize dTDP-glucose to form ... During the syntheses of many of these exotic sugars, dTDP-glucose undergoes a combined oxidation/reduction reaction via the ...
doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2008.tb01115.x. Degens, E; Bajor, M (1963). "Amino acids and sugars in the bruderheim and Murray ... Nuevo, M; Cooper, G; Sandford, S (2018). "Deoxyribose and deoxysugar derivatives from photoprocessed astrophysical ice ... sugars and amino acids existed in space, via meteorites. This includes non-terrestrial amino acids. Multiple isotopes do not ...
1978). "Labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose analogs. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2 ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... The molecule most commonly used for this purpose is F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sugar, for which the waiting ... radiotracers in oncology-utility of 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-PET in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung ...
In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U.K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a ... and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shōga and gari or ...
15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ...
Yang, D; Hindra, H; Dong, LB; Crnovcic, I; Shen, B (23 August 2017). "Engineered production and evaluation of 6'-deoxy- ... Bleomycin naturally occurring-analogues have two to three sugar molecules, and DNA cleavage activities of these analogues have ...
... viruses bind through hemagglutinin onto sialic acid sugars on the surfaces of epithelial cells, typically in the nose ... "Efficacy of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluororibosides against influenza A and B viruses in ferrets". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ... by cleaving sugars that bind the mature viral particles.[66] Thus, these proteins are targets for antiviral drugs.[67] ...
In contrast, sugars have two fewer hydrogen atoms, for example HOCH2(CHOH)nCHO or HOCH2(CHOH)n−1C(O)CH2OH. The sugar alcohols ... Consumption of sugar alcohols affects blood sugar levels, although much less than does sucrose comparing by glycemic index.[6][ ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sugar alcohols.. *. "The Other 26 Sweeteners". The Sugar Association, Inc. Retrieved ... Unlike sugars, which tend to exist as rings, sugar alcohols do not. They can however be dehydrated to give cyclic ethers, e.g. ...
Long-term control of blood sugar concentration can be measured by the concentration of Hb A1c. Measuring it directly would ... require many samples because blood sugar levels vary widely through the day. Hb A1c is the product of the irreversible reaction ...
Deoxy sugars. *Biochemistry stubs. Hidden categories: *Articles without EBI source. *Articles without KEGG source ... Samuel G, Reeves P (2003). "Biosynthesis of O-antigens: genes and pathways involved in nucleotide sugar precursor synthesis and ... The sugar is also found in perimycin, an antibiotic produced by the Gram-positive organism Streptomyces coelicolor var. ...
sugar, saccharose, β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside ... "Sugar Daddie$". Mother Jones. 1997-05-01. Retrieved 2010-05-05.. *↑ ನ್ಯೂಯಾರ್ಕ್‌ ಟೈಮ್ಸ್‌‌ , ನವೆಂಬರ್‌‌ 11, 2003, ಅಮೆರಿಕಾ'ಸ್‌ ... "Sugar Daddie$". Mother Jones. 1997-05-01. Retrieved 2010-05-05.. *↑ FLO (ಫೇರ್‌‌ಟ್ರೇಡ್‌ ಲೇಬಲಿಂಗ್‌ ಆರ್ಗನೈಸೇಷನ್ಸ್‌‌ ... ಕಾಳು ಸಕ್ಕರೆ , baker's sugar , ಅಥವಾ ತುಂಡು ಸಕ್ಕರೆ ಎಂದೂ ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಅತಿಸೂಕ್ಷ್ಮ ಸಕ್ಕರೆಯು, ಪಾನೀಯಗಳ ಸಿಹಿಗೊಳಿಸುವಿಕೆಗೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದಂತೆ ಅಥವಾ ...
Combinations of English mustard with honey or Demerara sugar are used in British cuisine to coat grilled lamb cutlets or pork ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Sweet mustard is from Bavaria, made from kibbled mustard seed sweetened with sugar, apple sauce, or honey. It is typically ... Bavarian sweet mustard contains very little acid, substituting copious amounts of sugar for preservation. The Tecuci mustard ...
The hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate begins with a nucleophilic attack on the sugar-bound phosphate by His176 resulting in the ... either deoxy- or ribo- *Nuclease S1 *Mung bean nuclease. *Serratia marcescens nuclease ...
Conversion of 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphateEdit. The KDPG is then converted into ... The aldehyde groups of the triose sugars are oxidised, and inorganic phosphate is added to them, forming 1,3- ... Conversion of 6-phosphogluconic acid to 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconateEdit. The 6-phosphogluconic acid is converted to 2- ... Next, gluconate dehydratase converts gluconate into 2-keto-3-deoxy-gluconate (KDG). The next step is where phosphorylation ...
1978). "Labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose analogs. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2 ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... The molecule most commonly used for this purpose is F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sugar, for which the waiting ...
Long-term control of blood sugar concentration can be measured by the concentration of Hb A1c. Measuring it directly would ... require many samples because blood sugar levels vary widely through the day. Hb A1c is the product of the irreversible reaction ... Animation of hemoglobin: from deoxy to oxy form. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hemoglobin&oldid= ...
O-GlcNAcylation is the process of adding a single N-acetylglucosamine sugar to the serine or threonine of a protein.[4] ... β-D-(Acetylamino)-2-deoxy-glucopyranose. Other names N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. GlcNAc. NAG ... "Sugar supplement may treat immune disease - health - 07 June 2007 - New Scientist". Retrieved 8 June 2007.. ...
Deoxy sugar (Deoxyribose). Hexoses. Ketohexose (Psicose, Fructose, Sorbose, Tagatose) Aldohexose (Allose, Altrose, Glucose, ...
Polyprenol phosphate sugars and polyprenol diphosphate sugars function in extra-cytoplasmic glycosylation reactions, in ... a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine that is glycosylated with two 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residues.[53] ... Saccharolipids describe compounds in which fatty acids are linked directly to a sugar backbone, forming structures that are ... which are characterized by the presence of one or more sugar residues attached to glycerol via a glycosidic linkage. Examples ...
HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[2] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin ... However, fasting blood sugar tests are crucial in making treatment decisions. The American Diabetes Association guidelines are ... Higher levels of HbA1c are found in people with persistently elevated blood sugar, as in diabetes mellitus. While diabetic ... Glycated hemoglobin testing is recommended for both checking the blood sugar control in people who might be pre-diabetic and ...
15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ...
Nucleotides are initially made with ribose as the sugar component, which is a feature of RNA. DNA, however, requires deoxy ... In order to synthesize thymidine, a component of DNA which only exists in the deoxy form, uridine is converted to deoxyuridine ... Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of ... They both contain a sugar and a phosphate, but have nitrogenous bases that are different sizes. Because of this, the two ...