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*  Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus
"Molecular cloning of natural paramyxovirus copy-back defective interfering RNAs and their expression from DNA". Virology. 191 ( ... parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses, Ebola virus, Marburg virus are included within the NSV. The life cycle of NSV has a ... includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and NDV Family Pneumoviridae - includes RSV and Metapneumovirus ... Viruses of the family Tenuivirus only infect plants. A few viruses known to infect humans include Marburg virus, Ebola, measles ...
*  Mycovirus
Fungi are frequently infected with two or more unrelated viruses and also with defective dsRNA and/or satellite dsRNA. There ... However, many virus families containing mycoviruses have only sparsely been sampled. Mycovirology is the study of viruses ... Although the origin of viruses is still not well understood, recently presented data which suggest that viruses invaded the ... Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have ...
*  Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3
... is an important cis-regulatory region identified in the 3' UTR of ... Page for Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 at Rfam. ... Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA Red clover necrotic mosaic virus translation enhancer elements Ray D, White KA (2003). "An ... Defective interfering RNAs are small sub-viral replicons which are non-coding deletion mutants of the virus that maintain cis- ...
*  Virus
It is, therefore, a defective virus. Although hepatitis delta virus genome may replicate independently once inside a host cell ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range. The viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
*  Tony Minson
"Generation of Replication-Defective Virus-Based Vaccines That Confer Full Protection in Sheep against Virulent Bluetongue Virus ... His research in the early 1970s was in the field of plant viruses, including tobacco rattle virus and tobacco necrosis virus, ... Minson's group called the resulting virus a "disabled infectious single cycle" (DISC) virus; similarly disabled viruses are ... Such replication-impaired viruses unite many of the advantages of both live and killed virus vaccines, and are much less likely ...
*  Helper dependent virus
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B ... A helper dependent virus also termed a gutless virus is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper virus ... Gonçalves, Manuel AFV (2005). "Adeno-associated virus: From defective virus to effective vector". Virology Journal. 2: 43. doi: ... The term satellite virus has been given to a large group of viruses that all require the presence of another virus to replicate ...
*  Dependoparvovirus
"Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector". Virology Journal. 2 (1): 43-60. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-43. ... They are only limited by the virus they must infect with, also known as the helper virus. These helper viruses are necessary ... Another reason these viruses are reliable vectors is the known insertion point for the genome. This virus always inserts its ... 2009). "Directed evolution of adeno-associated virus to an infectious respiratory virus". Proceedings on the National Academy ...
*  Hepatitis
... D is a defective virus that requires hepatitis B to replicate and is only found with hepatitis B co-infection. In ... The hepatitis D virus causes chronic and fulminant hepatitis in the context of co-infection with the hepatitis B virus. It is ... The hepatitis D virus requires that a person first be infected with hepatitis B virus, so prevention efforts should focus on ... The pathway by which hepatic viruses cause viral hepatitis is best understood in the case of hepatitis B and C. The viruses do ...
*  Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA
"Utilizing fowlpox virus recombinants to generate defective RNAs of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus". The Journal of ... "Presence of an encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site sequence in avian infectious bronchitis virus defective ... The Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA is an RNA element known as defective RNA or D-RNA. This element is thought to be ... Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 Dalton, K; Casais R; Shaw K; Stirrups K; Evans S; Britton P; Brown TD; ...
*  ADAR
Cattaneo (21 October 1988). "Biased hypermutation and other genetic changes in defective measles viruses in human brain ... influenza virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, polyomavirus, hepatitis delta virus, and hepatitis C virus. Although ADAR1 ... ADAR1's A to I editing has been found in many viruses including measles virus, ... ADAR1 is an interferon ( IFN )-inducible protein (one released by a cell in response to a pathogen or virus), so it would make ...
*  Neuraminidase
"Characterization of temperature sensitive influenza virus mutants defective in neuraminidase". Virology. 61 (2): 397-410. doi: ... Liu C, Eichelberger MC, Compans RW, Air GM (February 1995). "Influenza type A virus neuraminidase does not play a role in viral ... The enzymatic mechanism of influenza virus sialidase has been studied by Taylor et al., shown in Figure 1. The enzyme catalysis ... There are two major proteins on the surface of influenza virus particles. One is the lectin haemagglutinin protein with three ...
*  Woolly monkey sarcoma virus
... specific regions of the simian sarcoma-associated virus genome are found in defective viruses and in the simian sarcoma virus, ... For its reproduction the virus needs a helper or associated virus which is called Simian sarcoma associated virus (SSAV). ... Woolly monkey sarcoma virus (WMSV), with synonym Simian sarcoma virus (often abbreviated by SSV, but this may also stand for ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses NCBI Taxonomy Browser Zoologix Simian sarcoma virus (SSV) and simian sarcoma ...
*  David M. Knipe
His work has shown that replication-defective viruses can serve as a genital herpes vaccine and as a vaccine vector-one of ... Da Costa, X. J.; Jones, C. A.; Knipe, D. M. (1999). "Immunization against genital herpes with a vaccine virus that has defects ... Quinlan, Margaret P.; Chen, Lan Bo; Knipe, David M. (1984). "The intranuclear location of a herpes simplex virus DNA-binding ... Cliffe, A. R.; Knipe, D. M. (2008). "Herpes Simplex Virus ICP0 Promotes both Histone Removal and Acetylation on Viral DNA ...
*  Viral transformation
Winship, Timothy R (11 Dec 1979). "A Sensitive Method for Quantification of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Defective Interfering ... and T-cell Leukemia virus type I. As many as 20% of human tumors are caused by viruses. Some such viruses that are commonly ... Depending on the virus, a variety of genetic changes can occur in the host cell. In the case of a lytic cycle virus, the cell ... acute transforming viruses and non-acute transforming viruses. Acute transforming viruses induce a rapid tumor growth since ...
*  Abelson murine leukemia virus
... non-productive cells and cells which produced defective virus particles which are not infective. Abelson HT, Rabstein LS (1970 ... A highly efficient helper virus commonly used when growing A-MuLV in vitro is Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). It causes ... Shields A, Rosenberg N, Baltimore D (1979). "Virus production by Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed lymphoid cells". J. ... However, this is only possible when the host cell is co-infected with a helper virus which provides functions it needs to be ...
*  Adeno-associated virus
The virus is a small (20 nm) replication-defective, nonenveloped virus. The adeno-associated virus (AAV), previously thought to ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus which infects humans and some other primate species. AAV is not currently known ... "Common virus 'kills cancer'". CNN. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2009. Penn State (23 June 2005). "Harmless Virus Kills Some ... By contrast, more aggressive viruses produce innate responses lasting 24 hours or longer. The virus is known to instigate ...
*  Von Magnus phenomenon
The von Magnus phenomenon describes the generation of defective interfering particles (DIPs) by viruses. It was first observed ... Kristen Ann Stauffer Thompson (2008). Quantitative Effects of Defective Interfering Virus-like Particles on the Growth and ... Gard, S. "Studies on the sedimentation of influenza virus". Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung. 4: 591-611. doi:10.1007/ ... by Preben von Magnus in influenza viruses, after the serial passage of undiluted allantoic fluid in eggs. ...
*  Defective interfering particle
In other words, defective and non-defective viruses replicate simultaneously, but when defective particles increase, the amount ... In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated ... Pathak KB, Nagy PD (2009). "Defective Interfering RNAs: Foes of Viruses and Friends of Virologists". Viruses. 1 (3): 895-919. ... "Defective interfering L RNA segments of tomato spotted wilt virus retain both virus genome termini and have extensive internal ...
*  Immanuel Bomze
Natural selection and dynamical coexistence of defective and complementing virus segments. Journal of theoretical biology 157, ...
*  Viroid
The human pathogen hepatitis D virus is a "defective" RNA virus similar to a viroid. Family Pospiviroidae Genus Pospiviroid; ... Virus Virus classification Virusoid Diener TO (August 1971). "Potato spindle tuber "virus". IV. A replicating, low molecular ... Virus Taxonomy. Ninth Report of the International Committee for Virus Taxonomy. Burlington, MA, USA: Elsevier Academic Press; ... Over thirty plant diseases have since been identified as viroid-, not virus-caused, as had been assumed. Viruses portal ...
*  Eugene O. Major
Major, E. O.; Matsumura, P. (1984). "Human embryonic kidney cells: stable transformation with an origin-defective simian virus ... Throughout his career, Major has conducted research on viruses including BK virus, adenoviruses, JC virus, simian virus 40 ( ... Olive, DM; Lampert, M; Major, EO (1980). "Comparison of wild-type BK virus DNA and BK virion DNA rescued from virus-transformed ... Major, E. O. (1983). "JC virus T protein expression in owl monkey tumor cell lines". Progress in clinical and biological ...
*  George Siber bibliography
"Th1-associated immune responses to beta-galactosidase expressed by a replication-defective herpes simplex virus". Journal of ... The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin Study Group". The New England Journal of Medicine. 329 (21): 1524-30. doi: ... Aerosolized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody delivered to the lungs of cotton rats. Infectious Diseases Society of ... Aerosolized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody treatment of RSV infected cotton rats. 36th ICAAC, New Orleans, LA, ...
*  Long-term nonprogressor
"Characterization of three nef-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains associated with long-term nonprogression. ... In a small number of people infected with HIV, the virus is naturally suppressed without medical treatment. These people may ... This process involves the virus transcribing its singe-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA that is incorporated into ... All individuals with HIV make antibodies against the virus. In most patients, broadly neutralizing antibodies do not emerge ...
*  Vaccine trial
The famous Cutter Incident resulted in many recipients of the defective polio virus from the Cutter company contracting a ... was not always as pure as possible or done correctly to prevent adverse effects associated with inserting an attenuated virus ...
*  Sociology of health and illness
They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ... Agents of this virus resemble that of plant viroids. It is still hard to tell how many stereotypes exist because HDV is under ... Flu viruses can be directly transmitted (via droplets from sneezing or coughing) from pigs to people, and vice versa. These ... Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can cause AIDS which is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a ...
*  Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
1977). "Detection and enumeration of transformation-defective strains of avian sarcoma virus with molecular hybridization". ... This gene is similar to the v-Src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of ... It is believed that at one point an ancestral virus mistakenly incorporated the c-Src gene of its cellular host. Eventually ... "Uninfected vertebrate cells contain a protein that is closely related to the product of the avian sarcoma virus transforming ...
*  Herpes simplex research
"Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ... "A Replication-Defective Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-2 Vaccine, HSV529, is Safe and Well-Tolerated in Adults with or without HSV ... "Live Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Glycoprotein E Deletion Mutant as a Vaccine Candidate Defective in Neuronal Spread". ... Halford, William P.; Püschel, Ringo; Rakowski, Brandon (17 August 2010). "Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0 − Mutant Viruses Are ...