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*  CpG island hypermethylation
A CpG island is a Cytosine and Guanine linked by a phosphate in a repeated sequence. These are genetic hotspots as they are ... of CpG pairs in mammals are chemically modified by the covalent attachment of a methyl group to the C5 position of the cytosine ...
*  Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing
The methylated adapter oligonucleotides have all cytosines replaced with 5'methyl-cytosines, in order to prevent the ... which is a process that deaminates unmethylated cytosine into a uracil. The methylated cytosines remain unchanged, due to the ... Using MspI to digest genomic DNA results in fragments that always start with a C (if the cytosine is methylated) or a T (if a ... When an unconverted cytosine is observed, it is challenging to differentiate between lack of methylation and an artifact. The ...
*  Bisulfite sequencing
... the subsequent analysis will incorrectly interpret the unconverted unmethylated cytosines as methylated cytosines, resulting in ... Only cytosines in single-stranded DNA are susceptible to attack by bisulfite, therefore denaturation of the DNA undergoing ... Primers are designed to be strand-specific as well as bisulfite-specific (i.e., primers containing non-CpG cytosines such that ... In animals it predominantly involves the addition of a methyl group to the carbon-5 position of cytosine residues of the ...
*  Cytosine
... MS Spectrum EINECS number 200-749-5 Shapiro R (1999). "Prebiotic cytosine synthesis: a critical analysis and ... "Cytosine". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. "Cytosine". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. A. Kossel and Albert Neumann (1894 ... Active enzymatic deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine by the APOBEC family of cytosine deaminases could have both ... The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine. In Watson-Crick base pairing, it forms three(3) hydrogen bonds with guanine. Cytosine ...
*  Cytosine deaminase
In enzymology, a cytosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cytosine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... Kream J; Chargaff E (1952). "On the cytosine deaminase of yeast". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74 (20): 5157-5160. doi:10.1021/ja01140a050 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is cytosine aminohydrolase. This enzyme is also called isocytosine deaminase. This ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } uracil + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cytosine and H2O, whereas its two ...
*  Cytosine glycol
... s are intermediate unstable products of cytosine oxidation. These, in turn, are thought to undergo deamination ... The lifetime of cytosine glycols are enhanced in double-stranded DNA compared to the free nucleoside. Sébastien Tremblay; J. ... Richard Wagner (2008). "Dehydration, deamination and enzymatic repair of cytosine glycols from oxidized poly(dG-dC) and poly(dI ...
*  TRNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase
Other names in common use include transfer ribonucleate cytosine 5-methyltransferase, and transfer RNA cytosine 5- ... In enzymology, a tRNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.29) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... Keith JM, Winters EM, Moss B (1980). "Purification and characterization of a HeLa cell transfer RNA(cytosine-5-)- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase. ...
*  DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A
... is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups to specific CpG structures in ... Pradhan S, Bacolla A, Wells RD, Roberts RJ (November 1999). "Recombinant human DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase. I. ... cytosine-5) methyltransferases". Nat. Genet. 19 (3): 219-20. doi:10.1038/890. PMID 9662389. Xie S, Wang Z, Okano M, Nogami M, ... cytosine-5) methyltransferases". The EMBO Journal. 21 (15): 4183-95. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf401. PMC 126147 . PMID 12145218. Ling ...
*  Multisite-specific tRNA:(cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase
... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Multisite-specific tRNA:(cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.202, multisite-specific tRNA:m5C-methyltransferase, TRM4 ( ... gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses ...
*  Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (cytosine-N4-specific)
... cytosine-N4]methyltransferase, m4C-forming MTase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:DNA-cytosine 4-N-methyltransferase) is an enzyme with ... cytosine-N4]methyltransferases: similarity to adenine and cytosine-C5 DNA-methylases". Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 9823-9832. doi: ... "A complete listing of all of these enzymes". Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (cytosine-N4-specific) at the US National ... Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (cytosine-N4-specific) (EC 2.1.1.113, modification methylase, restriction-modification ...
*  Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
DNA methylation occurs on the cytosine of CpG dinucleotides in the genomic sequence, and protein methylation occurs on the ... "Eukaryotic cytosine methyltransferases." Annu. Rev. Biochem. 74 (2005): 481-514. Bernstein, Bradley E., Alexander Meissner, and ... CpG refers to a dinucleotide composed of a cytosine deoxynucleotide immediately adjacent to a guanine deoxynucleotide. A ...
*  DNA methyltransferase
Like other DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferases the human enzyme recognizes flipped out cytosines in double stranded DNA and ... C-5 cytosine-specific DNA methylase) (C5 Mtase) are enzymes that specifically methylate the C-5 carbon of cytosines in DNA to ... Such enzymes recognise a specific sequence in DNA and methylate a cytosine in that sequence. By this action they protect DNA ... In mammalian cells, cytosine-specific methyltransferases methylate certain CpG sequences, which are believed to modulate gene ...
*  Epigenetics
Methylation of cytosines can also persist from the germ line of one of the parents into the zygote, marking the chromosome as ... The second way is the addition of methyl groups to the DNA, mostly at CpG sites, to convert cytosine to 5-methylcytosine. 5- ... Chuang LS, Ian HI, Koh TW, Ng HH, Xu G, Li BF (September 1997). "Human DNA-(cytosine-5) methyltransferase-PCNA complex as a ... Covalent modifications of either DNA (e.g. cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation) or of histone proteins (e.g. lysine ...
*  Glossary of genetics
genotyping germ line guanine One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA; pairs with cytosine. Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F ... copy number variation (CNV) CRISPR cytogenetics cytosine One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA; pairs with guanine. ... The nucleotides relevant to biology include adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U). nucleus (pl. ...
*  Herpes simplex
March 1973). "Cytosine Arabinoside Therapy for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis - Clinical Experience with Six Patients". Antimicrob ... McKelvey EM, Kwaan HC (November 1969). "Cytosine arabinoside therapy for disseminated herpes zoster in a patient with IgG ... Juel-Jensen BE (March 1970). "Varicella and cytosine arabinoside". Lancet. 1 (7646): 572. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(70)90815-9. ... Fiala M, Chow A, Guze LB (April 1972). "Susceptibility of Herpesviruses to Cytosine Arabinoside: Standardization of ...
*  DNA
The four bases found in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). These four bases are attached to the ... Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. It was represented by A-T base pairs and G-C base pairs. The ... Biochem J 55: 774-782 Kuo T-T, Huang T-C, Teng M-H (1968) 5-Methylcytosine replacing cytosine in the deoxyribonucleic acid of a ... For one example, cytosine methylation produces 5-methylcytosine, which is important for X-inactivation of chromosomes. The ...
*  Nucleic acid structure
Cytosine, thymine and uracil are pyrimidines, hence the glycosidic bonds forms between their 1 nitrogen and the 1' -OH of the ... The pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine. It has a single ringed structure, a six membered ring containing nitrogen. A purine ... Nucleotides consist of 3 components: Nitrogenous base Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine (present in DNA only) Uracil (present in ... base always pairs with a pyrimidine base (guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C) and adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) or uracil ...
*  Podoviridae
The guanine + cytosine content is ~50%. It has terminally redundant sequences and is nonpermuted. By weight, the genome ...
*  Tymoviridae
The genome is relatively cytosine rich. Viral replication is cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is ...
*  Asfarviridae
Its guanine + cytosine content is 39%. The virus can be grown in cell culture but cytopathic effects may be absent. Acidophilic ...
*  Nitrogenous base
Pyrimidines include thymine, cytosine, and uracil. They have a single ring structure. Purines include adenine and guanine. They ... Adenine is always paired with thymine, and guanine is always paired with cytosine. These are known as base pairs. Uracil is ... These nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). These nitrogenous bases ...
*  Activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Cytosines located within hotspot motifs are preferentially deaminated (WRCY motifs W=adenine or thymine, R=purine, C=cytosine, ... It creates mutations in DNA by deamination of cytosine base, which turns it into uracil (which is recognized as a thymine). In ... AICDA can deaminate 5-methylcytosine, which can then be replaced with cytosine by base excision repair. AID is believed to ... AID deaminates cytosine in the target DNA. ...
*  Nucleobase
Similarly, the simple-ring structure of cytosine, uracil, and thymine is derived of pyrimidine, so those three bases are called ... These are examples of modified cytosine, thymine or uridine. A vast number of nucleobase analogues exist. The most common ... cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U)-are called primary or canonical. They function as the fundamental units ... and uracil results from deamination of cytosine. These are examples of modified adenosine or guanosine. ...
*  Guanine
It binds to cytosine through three hydrogen bonds. In cytosine, the amino group acts as the hydrogen bond donor and the C-2 ... cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA). In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine. ... Cytosine Guanine deaminase Dawson, R.M.C., et al., Data for Biochemical Research, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1959. Angstadt. " ... Guanine, along with adenine and cytosine, is present in both DNA and RNA, whereas thymine is usually seen only in DNA, and ...
*  Nucleic acid sequence
An inosine (created from adenosine during RNA editing) is read as a G, and 5-methyl-cytosine (created from cytosine by DNA ... Similarly, deamination of cytosine results in uracil. In biological systems, nucleic acids contain information which is used by ... The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide bases of a DNA strand - adenine, cytosine, guanine, ... The rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are as follows: A = adenine C = cytosine G = guanine ...