Loading...
*  Hepatotoxicity
Activation of some enzymes in the cytochrome P-450 system such as CYP2E1 also lead to oxidative stress. Injury to hepatocyte ... CIOMS/RUCAM scale involves a scoring system that categorizes the suspicion into "definite or highly probable" (score > 8), " ... A group of enzymes located in the endoplasmic reticulum, known as cytochrome P-450, is the most important family of ... Drugs interact with the enzyme family in several ways. Drugs that modify cytochrome P-450 enzyme are referred to as either ...
*  Allyl cyanide
Studies performed on rats showed that allyl cyanide cause loss of hair cells in the auditory system and troubling of the cornea ... Allyl cyanide is known to be metabolized in the liver by the Cytochrome P-450 enzyme system to cyanide. The absorption and ... Allyl cyanide is produced in cruciferous vegetables by myrosinase, an enzyme which hydrolyses glucosinolates to form nitriles ... The serotonin and dopamine systems are thought to be involved in the behavioral abnormalities caused by allyl cyanide. ...
*  Berberine
The alkaloid berberine has a tetracyclic skeleton derived from a benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline system with the incorporation of ... and cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme, giving (S)-canadine 8. (S)-canadine is then oxidized to give the quaternary ... only the phenylethylamine fragment of the tetrahydroisoquinoline ring system is formed via DOPA, the remaining carbon atoms ... isoquinolinium system of berberine. This happens in two separate oxidation steps, both requiring molecular oxygen, with H2O2 ...
*  Drug metabolism
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system enzymes can also vary across individuals, with deficiencies occurring in 1 - 30% of people ... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system Flavin-containing monooxygenase system Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase ... and FMN-containing enzyme NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase The general scheme of electron flow in the POR/P450 system is: NADPH ... The Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system is the most important pathway in this regard. In general, anything that increases the ...
*  Unspecific monooxygenase
Lu AY, Kuntzman R, West S, Jacobson M, Conney AH (1972). "Reconstituted liver microsomal enzyme system that hydroxylates drugs ... Role of the cytochrome P-450 and P-448 fractions in drug and steroid hydroxylations". J. Biol. Chem. 247 (6): 1727-34. PMID ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and ... Thomas PE, Lu AY, Ryan D, West SB, Kawalek J, Levin W (1976). "Immunochemical evidence for six forms of rat liver cytochrome ...
*  Hydroxycarbamide
CYP2D6 a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed oxidase system. "Hydroxyurea". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ... Enzyme Inhibitors - Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme ... Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors - Acts as an inhibitor to one of the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of ... In addition, renal function, uric acid and electrolytes, as well as liver enzymes, are commonly checked. Moreover, because of ...
*  Methyltetrahydroprotoberberine 14-monooxygenase
This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and ... Rueffer M; Zenk MH (1987). "Enzymatic formation of protopines by a microsomal cytochrome-P-450 system of Corydalis vaginans". ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-N-methylcanadine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (14-hydroxylating). Other names in ... This enzyme participates in alkaloid biosynthesis i. It employs one cofactor, heme. ...
*  Chloroform
... is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P-450 enzymes, by oxidation to chloromethanol and by reduction to the ... Chloroform causes depression of the central nervous system (CNS), ultimately producing deep coma and respiratory center ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... glycogen debranching enzyme system MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.460.375 --- glycogen synthase MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.460.400 --- ... cytochromes c1 MeSH D08.244.286.300 --- cytochromes c2 MeSH D08.244.286.600 --- cytochromes c6 MeSH D08.244.453.040 --- aryl ... cytochrome b6f complex MeSH D08.811.600.710.374.500 --- cytochromes b6 MeSH D08.811.600.710.374.750 --- cytochromes f MeSH ... cytochromes a MeSH D08.244.175.500 --- cytochromes a1 MeSH D08.244.175.600 --- cytochromes a3 MeSH D08.244.187.249 --- ...
*  Cunninghamella
... because these species metabolize a wide range of drugs in manners similar to mammalian enzyme systems. Many species are also ... The presence of a cytochrome P-450 has been demonstrated in C. bainieri. Fungi portal "Synonymy: Cunninghamella Matr". Species ... Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in the fungus Cunninghamella bainieri: Evidence for the presence of cytochrome P-450. J.P ...
*  Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme
"Mechanism of corticotropin and cAMP induction of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 system enzymes in adrenal cortex cells" (PDF). ... "Induction and mitochondrial localization of cytochrome P450scc system enzymes in normal and transformed ovarian granulosa cells ... P450scc is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes (family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1). The gene name is ... During pregnancy, the placenta also expresses significant levels of this enzyme system. P450scc is also present at much lower ...
*  Epidemic dropsy
There is an extensive damage to the anti-oxidant defense system (anti-oxidant enzymes and anti-oxidants) of blood. Prior, in ... The damage in hepatic microsomal membrane causes loss of activity of cytochrome P-450 and other membrane bound enzymes ... I. Effect on hepatic cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes". J Appl Toxicol. 11 (3): 203-9. doi:10.1002/jat. ... Reddy, N. P.; Das, M. (2008). "Interaction of Sanguinarine Alkaloid, Isolated from Argemone Oil, with Hepatic Cytochrome p450 ...
*  Methacrylonitrile
... a Cytochrome-P450 enzyme). This is the most important enzyme for the oxidative metabolism, but also other cytochrome P-450 ... The main cause of toxic effects at lethal (and threshold) levels of MeAN is damage to the central nervous system. This, along ... The oxidative reaction by Cytochrome-P450 enzymes will lead to the formation of an epoxide intermediate, which shows reactivity ... Inversely, reactions that form a positive charge on said carbon (i.g. Cytochrome-P450 oxidation of the double bond), are faster ...
*  Adrenodoxin reductase
"Induction and mitochondrial localization of cytochrome P450scc system enzymes in normal and transformed ovarian granulosa cells ... The enzyme functions as the first electron transfer protein of mitochondrial P450 systems such as P450scc. The FAD coenzyme ... Hanukoglu I (1996). "Electron transfer proteins of cytochrome P450 systems" (PDF). Adv. Mol. Cell Biol. 14: 29-55. doi:10.1016/ ... The FAD and NADP binding sites of the enzyme were predicted by sequence analysis of the enzyme. While the FAD-binding site has ...
*  Ethanol metabolism
In fetuses, ethanol is instead metabolized at much slower rates by different enzymes from the cytochrome P-450 superfamily (CYP ... As is a basic organizing theme in biological systems, greater complexity of a body system, such as tissues and organs allows ... The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a ... Thanks to enzymes in their gut, and particularly one called ADH4, they can make use of the calories in alcohol. The average ...
*  Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase
It is a cytochrome P450 enzyme, which belongs to the oxidoreductase class, and converts cholesterol to 7-alpha- ... However, the membrane-associated and hydrophobic nature of the enzyme system impeded purification, and the number of proteins ... Many cytochrome P450 enzymes can metabolise various exogenous compounds including drugs, environmental chemicals and pollutants ... Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme ...
*  Cunninghamella elegans
The phase I cytochrome P450 enzyme systems of C. elegans has been implicated in the neutralization of numerous polycyclic ... C. elegans also possesses a lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, another enzyme in the cytochrome P450 family. C. elegans also ... It has a variety of enzymes of phases I (modification enzymes acting to introduce reactive and polar groups into their ... Cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome P-450 reductase in C. elegans are part of the phase I enzymes. They are induced by the ...
*  Salutaridinol
"Cytochrome P450 3A enzymes catalyze the O6-demethylation of thebaine, a key step in endogenous mammalian morphine biosynthesis ... The second step is a ring closure achieved by a nucleophilic attack of the phenol group on the dienol system to generate an ... Salutaridinol is a product of the enzyme salutaridine: NADPH 7-oxidoreductase and the substrate for the enzyme salutaridinol 7- ... Salutaridinol's unique position adjacent to two of the four enzymes in the morphine biosynthesis pathway gives it an important ...
*  Cytochrome P450
They are, in general, the terminal oxidase enzymes in electron transfer chains, broadly categorized as P450-containing systems ... CYB5R/cyb5/P450 systems, in which both electrons required by the CYP come from cytochrome b5. FMN/Fd/P450 systems, originally ... Cytochrome b5 (cyb5) can also contribute reducing power to this system after being reduced by cytochrome b5 reductase (CYB5R). ... use CYP enzymes. Genes encoding CYP enzymes, and the enzymes themselves, are designated with the root symbol CYP for the ...
*  Flavin adenine dinucleotide
The reductase of the microsomal P450 systems, Cytochrome P-450 reductase (CPR) contains both an FMN and FAD. Electrons are ... The enzyme binds NADPH in the NADP-binding domain. The structure of this enzyme is highly conserved apparently to maintain ... Hanukoglu I (1996). "Electron transfer proteins of cytochrome P450 systems" (PDF). Adv. Mol. Cell Biol. 14: 29-55. doi:10.1016/ ... Their colleague Hugo Theorell separated this yellow enzyme into apoenzyme and yellow pigment and showed that neither the enzyme ...
*  Club cell
... s accomplish this with cytochrome P450 enzymes found in their smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Club cells also act as a ... Histology image: 13805loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University UIUC Histology Subject 1385 Histology at ucsf.edu. ... Some of them may contain lysosomal enzymes, which carry out a digestive role, either in defense: Club cells engulf airborne ... toxins and break them down via their cytochrome P-450 enzymes (particularly CYP4B1, which is only present in the club cells) ...
*  Hydrocodone
The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6 converts hydrocodone into hydromorphone, a more potent opioid (5-fold higher binding ... in the central nervous system. It acts primarily on MORs, with about six times lesser affinity to the δ-opioid receptor (DOR). ... Approximately 40% of hydrocodone metabolism is attributed to non-cytochrome-catalyzed reactions. Most hydrocodone is formulated ... 322-. ISBN 978-1-284-05748-5. Shufeng Zhou (6 April 2016). Cytochrome P450 2D6: Structure, Function, Regulation and ...
*  FNR regulon
... a combination of an FNR-like system and a system responding to nitrate/ nitrite. The oxygen responsive transcriptional ... It also represses the aerobic genes, cytochrome d and o oxidase, and NADH dehydrogenase II. It acts as a positive regulator of ... Only if neither O2 nor nitrate are available, fumarate reductase and the fermentative enzymes are synthesized. The switch from ... In Fusarium oxysporum, a member of the fungi family, contains a unique cytochrome P-450, whose genes when sequenced, exhibited ...
*  Safrole
"Human cytochrome p450 enzyme specificity for bioactivation of safrole to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxysafrole". Chemical ... while the methylenedioxy group is associated with changes in the cytochrome P450 system and epigenetic aspects of ... An epoxide hydratase enzyme will act on the epoxide to form dihydrodiol, which can be secreted in urine. The metabolism of ... The formation of this complex leads to lower amounts of available free cytochrome P450. Safrole can also directly bind to ...
*  Clopidogrel
... is activated in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes, including CYP2C19. Due to opening of the thiophene ring, the ... "Clopidogrel Bisulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. ... As clopidogrel inhibits the liver enzyme CYP2C9 in cellular models, it has been theorized that it might increase blood plasma ... Clopidogrel is one of the drugs metabolized by this enzyme. Several recent landmark studies have proven the importance of 2C19 ...
*  Aflatoxin B1
These enzymes use both molecular oxygen and two NADPH's to dehydrate one of the hydroxyl groups on the anthraquinone and open ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolitzed into its reactive electriphilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ... forming the six-member ether ring system seen in demethylsterigmatocystin. The next two steps in the biosynthetic pathway is ... Most of the enzymes have not been characterized and there may be several more intermediates that are still unknown. However, ...