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*  Cystinosis
But if there is a defect in the carrier protein, cystine is accumulated in lysosomes. As cystine is highly insoluble, when its ... The accumulation is caused by abnormal transport of cystine from lysosomes, resulting in a massive intra-lysosomal cystine ... the lysosomal membrane-specific transporter for cystine. Intracellular metabolism of cystine, as it happens with all amino ... Cystine crystals are hexagonal in shape and are colorless. They are not found often in alkaline urine due to their high ...
*  Cystine
... serves as a substrate for the cystine-glutamate antiporter. This transport system, which is highly specific for cystine ... In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ... Cysteine is more easily absorbed by the body than cystine, so most supplements contain cysteine rather than cystine. N-acetyl- ... 27 July 2007 www.britannica.com/eb/article-9028437/cystine Gortner, R. A.; W. F. Hoffman, W. F. (1941). "l-Cystine". Organic ...
*  Cystine knot
The Growth Factor Cystine Knot (GFCK) Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) common in spider and snail toxins Cyclic Cystine Knot, or ... A cystine knot is a protein structural motif containing three disulfide bridges (formed from pairs of cysteine residues). The ... There are three types of cystine knot, which differ in the topology of the disulfide bonds: ... cyclotide The growth factor cystine knot (GFCK) was first observed in the structure of Nerve Growth Factor, solved by X-ray ...
*  Cystine reductase
Other names in common use include cystine reductase (NADH), NADH-dependent cystine reductase, cystine reductase (NADH2), and ... L-cystine + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-cysteine and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are L-cystine, ... In enzymology, a cystine reductase (EC 1.8.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2 L-cysteine + NAD+ ⇌ {\ ... ROMANO AH, NICKERSON WJ (1954). "Cystine reductase of pea seeds and yeasts". J. Biol. Chem. 208 (1): 409-16. PMID 13174550. ...
*  Inhibitor cystine knot
Three types of knots are Growth Factor Cystine Knot (GFCK), Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK), Cyclic Cystine Knot (CCK). http://www ... The growth factor cystine knot (GFCK) shares the motif but its topology is such that it is the bond between the first and ... An inhibitor cystine knot (aka ICK or Knottin) is a protein structural motif containing three disulfide bridges. ... "Novel Inhibitor Cystine Knot Peptides from Momordica charantia". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e75334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075334. ...
*  Cystine tryptic agar
... (CTA), also known as cystine trypticase agar, is a growth medium used for the identification of ... Cystine tryptic agar typically contains (w/v): 2.0 % casein 0.05 % L-cystine 0.5 % sodium chloride 0.05% sodium sulfite 0.25% ...
*  Glutathione-cystine transhydrogenase
The systematic name of this enzyme class is glutathione:cystine oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include GSH-cystine ... In enzymology, a glutathione-cystine transhydrogenase (EC 1.8.4.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2 ... the two substrates of this enzyme are glutathione and cystine, whereas its two products are glutathione disulfide and cysteine ... transhydrogenase, and NADPH-dependent GSH-cystine transhydrogenase. This enzyme participates in cysteine metabolism and ...
*  Lysosomal cystine transporter family
The reaction believed to be catalyzed by cystinosin is: Cystine (intralysosomal space) + H+ (intralysosomal space) → Cystine ( ... The lysosomal cystine transporter (LCT) family (TC# 2.A.43) is part of the TOG Superfamily and includes secondary transport ... The few that have been characterized transport Cystine (TC# 2.A.43.1.1), basic amino acids such as L-lysine and L-arginine (TC# ... The cells then take up cystine in a pmf-dependent process. Distant homologues include the Lec15/Lec35 suppressor, SL15, of ...
*  Cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar
Cystine promotes the formation of cystine-dependent dwarf colonies. Bromothymol blue is the indicator used in the agar, it ... "55420 CLED Agar (Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient Agar; Bromothymol-blue Lactose Cystine Agar)" (PDF). Fluka Analytical. ... CLED agar (cystine lactose electrolyte deficient medium) is a valuable non-inhibitory growth medium used in the isolation and ... Bacteria which decarboxylate L-Cystine cause an alkaline reaction and build deep blue colonies Analytical, Fluka. " ...
*  Maned wolf
Cystine). The maned wolf participates in symbiotic relationships. It contributes to the propagation and dissemination of the ...
*  TSI slant
Cystine tryptic agar "TSI Reactions". Retrieved 2008-11-17. "TSI". Retrieved 2008-11-17. "Triple Sugar Iron Interpretation". ...
*  J chain
It has 8 cystine residues. Two of these residues link the α chains of IgA or the μ chains of IgM via disulfide bridges, ...
*  Cystinuria
People with cystine stones should consume 5 to 7 liters a day. The rationale behind alkalizing the urine is that cystine tends ... The goal is to increase the urine volume because the concentration of cystine in the urine is reduced which prevents cystine ... Penicillamine is a drug that acts to form a complex with cystine that is 50 times more soluble than cystine itself. ... Cystine stones are often not visible on most x-rays, CT's, and ultrasounds. This does not mean the cystinuric doesn't have a ...
*  Cysteamine
People with cystinosis lack functioning enzymes in lysosomes, and this leads to buildup of cystine in lysosomes, where it ... Cysteamine enters lysosomes and converts cystine into cysteine and cysteine-cysteamine mixed disulfide, both of which can exit ... Singer, Thomas P (1975). "Oxidative Metabolism of Cysteine and Cystine". In Greenberg, David M. Metabolic pathways Vol. 7. ... Shams, F; Livingstone, I; Oladiwura, D; Ramaesh, K (10 October 2014). "Treatment of corneal cystine crystal accumulation in ...
*  Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor
a Sun PD, Davies DR (1995). "The cystine-knot growth-factor superfamily". Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 24: 269-91. doi: ... "A structural superfamily of growth factors containing a cystine knot motif". Cell. 73 (3): 421-4. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93) ...
*  Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Two crosslinked cysteines form a cystine molecule. Cysteine and methionine are generally produced by direct sulfurylation, but ... cystine cystathionine lanthionine Djenkolic acid Diaminopimelic acid In meteorites and in prebiotic experiments (e.g. Miller- ...
*  Casamino acid
It contains a small amount of cystine. Tryptophan and vitamins are destroyed by the acid treatment. The remaining amino acids ( ...
*  Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium
... cystine, leucine, and isoleucine; 40mg lysine hydrochloride; 30mg serine; 20mg each aspartic acid, glutamic acid, ...
*  Bone morphogenetic protein 4
This conformation is called a "cystine knot". BMP4 can form homodimers or heterodimers with similar BMPS. One example of this ...
*  TCEP
Ruegg, U.T & Rudinger, J. (1977). "Reductive cleavage of cystine disulfides with tributylphosphine". Methods Enzymol. Methods ...
*  APC Family
"Redox imbalance in cystine/glutamate transporter-deficient mice". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (45): 37423-9. doi: ... The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate antiporter (2.A.3.8.5), which maintains cellular redox ...
*  Sulfasalazine
Bridges, Richard J; Natale, Nicholas R; Patel, Sarjubhai A (2012-01-01). "System xc- cystine/glutamate antiporter: an update on ... It also appears to inhibit the cystine-glutamate antiporter. Sulfasalazine has been studied in cirrhosis and idiopathic ... "Pharmacological inhibition of cystine-glutamate exchange induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and ferroptosis". eLife. 3. doi: ...
*  Agouti signalling peptide
... adopts an inhibitor cystine knot motif. Along with the homologous Agouti-related peptide, these are ...
*  Tiopronin
... (trade name Thiola) is a prescription thiol drug used to control the rate of cystine precipitation and excretion in ... Lindell, Å.; Denneberg, T.; Hellgren, E.; Jeppsson, J. -O.; Tiselius, H. -G. (1995). "Clinical course and cystine stone ...
*  Kidney stone disease
For example, those with cystinuria, cystinosis, and Fanconi syndrome may form stones composed of cystine. Cystine stone ... Cystine calculi are only faintly radiodense, while uric acid stones are usually entirely radiolucent. Where a CT scan is ... Other forms that can possibly grow to become staghorn stones are those composed of cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate, and ... Supersaturation is likely the underlying cause of uric acid and cystine stones, but calcium-based stones (especially calcium ...