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*  PDE4B
The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thereby play a ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers that regulate and mediate ... cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4B gene. This gene is a member ...
*  Cyclic nucleotide
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... is regulated not only by hormones and neurotransmitters, but also by phosphorylation, calcium, forskolin, and guanine ... nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP ( ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...
*  Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein
"Protein phosphorylation regulated by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cell extracts and in intact human ... VASP is regulated by the cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases PKA and PKG. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein has been shown ... "The vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein is regulated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase during neutrophil spreading". J. ... 2000). "Fyn-binding protein (Fyb)/SLP-76-associated protein (SLAP), Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins ...
*  RAPGEF3
While protein kinase A (PKA) or cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cyclic nucleotide regulated ion channel (CNG and HCN) were ... opposing effects of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase on protein kinase B ... or cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (cAMP-GEFI) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPGEF3 gene. ... "The protein kinase A anchoring protein mAKAP coordinates two integrated cAMP effector pathways". Nature. 437 (7058): 574-8. doi ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.644)
... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.200.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases MeSH D12.644. ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.400.200 --- map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.400.300 --- map kinase ... kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.400.400 --- map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.400.500 --- map kinase kinase kinase 5 ... map kinase kinase 6 MeSH D12.644.360.440.700 --- map kinase kinase 7 MeSH D12.644.360.450 --- mitogen-activated protein kinases ...
*  Biological functions of nitric oxide
The soluble cGMP activates cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase G (PKG or cGKI). PKG is a kinase that phosphorylates a ... number of proteins that regulate calcium concentrations and calcium sensitization, hyperpolarizes cell through potassium ... It is induced by several factors, and once synthesized by eNOS it results in phosphorylation of several proteins that cause ... Nitric oxide stimulates the soluble guanylate cyclase to generate the second messenger, 3',5' guanosine monophosphate (cyclic ...
*  Adenylyl cyclase
... acts as a second messenger by interacting with and regulating other proteins such as protein kinase A and cyclic nucleotide- ... Soluble AC (sAC) is not a transmembrane form and is not regulated by G proteins or forskolin, instead acts as a bicarbonate/pH ... Beta adrenergic receptor kinase pathway G Proteins. PDB-101. Reece J, Campbell N (2002). Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin ... Adenylyl cyclase is dually regulated by G proteins (Gs stimulating activity and Gi inhibiting it), and by forskolin, as well as ...
*  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
... binds to and regulates the function of ion channels such as the HCN channels and a few other cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ...
*  2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase
Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... It is named for its ability to catalyze the phosphodiester hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, though a ... Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin". ... Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin". ...
*  PDE4D
"Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... "Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". The Journal ... Hoffmann R, Baillie GS, MacKenzie SJ, Yarwood SJ, Houslay MD (Feb 1999). "The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 --- cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 --- map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.300 --- map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ... map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.500 --- map kinase kinase kinase 5 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
*  Second messenger system
These small molecules bind and activate protein kinases, ion channels, and other proteins, thus continuing the signaling ... the cyclases that synthesize cyclic nucleotides, or by opening of ion channels to allow influx of metal ions, for example Ca2+ ... from the plasma membrane into the intermembrane space where they can reach and regulate membrane-associated effector proteins ... In the case of G protein-coupled receptors, the conformation change exposes a binding site for a G-protein. The G-protein ( ...
*  Neuronal calcium sensor-1
G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) D2 dopamine receptor IL1RAPL1 (interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 protein) ... cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases ARF1 (ADP Ribosylation factor 1) A type (Kv4.3; Shal-related subfamily, member 3) voltage- ... NCS-1 regulates synaptic transmission, helps control the dynamics of nerve terminal growth, is critical for some forms of ... It is the Ca2+-sensing subunit of the yeast phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-4-OH kinase, PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in ...
*  Nucleotide exchange factor
... and are often specific to a single protein or class of proteins with which they interact. Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase Guanine ... "Epidermal growth factor regulates p21ras through the formation of a complex of receptor, Grb2 adapter protein, and Sos ... nucleotide-exchange factor directly activated by cyclic AMP" (PDF). Nature. 396 (6710): 474-477. doi:10.1038/24884. PMID ... Play media Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates ...
*  Crosstalk (biology)
Cell Biol., 1: 305-311., doi:10.1038/13024, PMID 10559944 Scott, J. D. (1991), "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases", ... "PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ... 1993), "Protein kinase A antagonizes platelet-derived growth factor-induced signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase in ... 1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RI╬▒2C2) with the antigen ...
*  PDE1C
... calmodulin-regulated, 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". J Biol Chem. 271 (2): 796-806. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.796. ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... 2007). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1C1 in human cardiac myocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (45): 32749-57. doi:10.1074/ ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C ...
*  PDE7A
Glavas NA, Ostenson C, Schaefer JB, Vasta V, Beavo JA (2001). "T cell activation up-regulates cyclic nucleotide ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... Mammals possess 21 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) genes that are pharmacologically grouped into 11 families. PDE7A ... Wang H, Liu Y, Chen Y, Robinson H, Ke H (2005). "Multiple elements jointly determine inhibitor selectivity of cyclic nucleotide ...
*  PDE4A
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, and PDE4 subfamily. This PDE ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... Thus, by regulating the cellular concentration of cAMP, this protein plays a key role in many important physiological processes ... Zhou L, Thompson WJ, Potter DE (Jul 1999). "Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in human trabecular meshwork cells" ( ...
*  PDE1B
Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1B ... 1992). "A polymerase chain reaction strategy to identify and clone cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase cDNAs. Molecular cloning ... Bender AT, Beavo JA (2006). "PDE1B2 regulates cGMP and a subset of the phenotypic characteristics acquired upon macrophage ...
*  Apical dendrite
... which resultes in the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and is known to activate CREB by the mitogen-activated protein ... It has been shown in studies that transport of HCN (hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide) gated channel isoforms to ... Among the signals studied in this system is CaMKII a calcium/calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase which is required for ... However, in all areas, dendritic synthesis of proteins is necessary for late long-term potentials in the hippocampal neurons. ...
*  CAMP-dependent pathway
... concentration of the second messenger cAMP may lead to the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels exchange proteins ... In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases ... This pathway can activate enzymes and regulate gene expression. The activation of preexisting enzymes is a much faster process ... Walsh DA, Van Patten SM (December 1994). "Multiple pathway signal transduction by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase". FASEB J. ...
*  Phosphodiesterase 3
PDE3A and PDE3B activity is regulated by several phosphorylation pathways. Protein kinase A and Protein kinase B both activate ... Aggregation of platelets is highly regulated by cyclic nucleotides. PDE3A is a regulator of this process, and PDE3 inhibitors ... Activation of PDE3B decreases concentrations of cAMP, which in turn reduces Protein kinase A activity. Protein kinase A is ... The proposed molecular mechanism of cyclic nucleotide specificity of PDEs is the so-called glutamine switch mechanism. In the ...
*  POPDC2
CRP proteins function as cyclic nucleotide-regulated transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes encoding ... Significant structural similarity is evident between the Popeye domain and cAMP binding domains of eukaryotic protein kinase A ... The cyclic AMP-binding domains of these proteins display approximately 25% identity and 60% similarity to the Popeye domain. ... The Popeye domain binds cyclic nucleotides and has a binding affinity (IC50) for cAMP of 120 nM, which is comparable to the ...
*  Leucine-rich repeat receptor like protein kinase PEPR1
This activity is dependent on AtPEPR 1 and cyclic nucleotide gated channel 2 (CNGC2) . Activation of CNGC2 occurs through cGMP ... AtPEP 1 interaction with PEPR 1 activates the defense genes that regulates jasmonate/ethylene and salicylate defense hormones ... Plant membrane PRR mainly consist of receptor like kinases and receptor like proteins. They sense PAMPs such as chitin from ... Separation of this labeled protein using SDS- PAGE led to the identification of the 170 kDa PEPR 1 protein. Further, ...
*  PDE10A
Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... 1999). "Isolation and characterization of PDE10A, a novel human 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". Gene. 234 (1): 109 ... and cGMP-mediated intracellular signaling by hydrolyzing the cyclic nucleotide to the corresponding nucleoside 5-prime ... cAMP and cAMP-inhibited cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 10A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE10A gene. ...
*  Metabolism
Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ... Munekage Y, Hashimoto M, Miyake C, Tomizawa K, Endo T, Tasaka M, Shikanai T (2004). "Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I ... This is important as it allows the formation and breakdown of glucose to be regulated separately, and prevents both pathways ...
*  HCN4
Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of cyclic nucleotide-regulated channels". Pharmacological Reviews. 57 (4): ... "Phosphorylation and modulation of hyperpolarization-activated HCN4 channels by protein kinase A in the mouse sinoatrial node". ... Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel Funny current GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138622 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...