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*  Folliculogenesis
... and excrete the oocyte with a complement of cumulus cells in a process called ovulation. The oocyte is technically still a ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.031. PMID 16051153. Johnson J, Canning J, Kaneko T, Pru J, Tilly J (2004). "Germline stem cells and ... Each type of cell behaves differently in response to FSH. Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). ... In addition, as more estrogen is secreted, more LH receptors are made by the theca cells, inciting theca cells to create more ...
*  Ovarian follicle
Cumulus oophorus is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ... It contains numerous granulosa cells. Granulosa cells or follicular cells are cells that surround the oocyte within the ... The granulosa cells, in turn, are enclosed in a thin layer of extracellular matrix - the follicular basement membrane or basal ... They also consist of granulosa cells and theca of follicle. Once a month, one of the ovaries releases a mature egg (ovum), ...
*  NLRP5
2009). "MATER protein as substrate of PKCepsilon in human cumulus cells". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 15 (8): 499-506. doi:10.1093/molehr ... 2009). "Human MATER localization in specific cell domains of oocytes and follicular cells". Reprod. Biomed. Online. 18 (2): 226 ... Cell Biol. 4 (2): 95-104. doi:10.1038/nrm1019. PMID 12563287. Maraldi T, Riccio M, Sena P, et al. ( ... gene and protein in pig somatic tissues and germ cells". J. Reprod. Dev. 56 (1): 41-8. doi:10.1262/jrd.09-098a. PMID 19815987 ...
*  CTNNBIP1
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2008). "Relation between cell-to-cell adhesion and angiogenesis and clinico-morphological prognostic factors in patients with ... "Ph+/VE-cadherin+ identifies a stem cell like population of acute lymphoblastic leukemia sustained by bone marrow niche cells". ... Cell. Biol. 28 (24): 7368-79. doi:10.1128/MCB.00744-08. PMC 2593444 . PMID 18852287. Sharma M, Henderson BR (2007). "IQ-domain ...
*  WNT2
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2007). "Regulation of norrin receptor frizzled-4 by Wnt2 in colon-derived cells". BMC Cell Biol. 8: 12. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-8 ... 2009). "Downregulation of Wnt2 and beta-catenin by siRNA suppresses malignant glioma cell growth". Cancer Gene Ther. 16 (4): ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ...
*  Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4
Pangas SA, Li X, Robertson EJ, Matzuk MM (Jun 2006). "Premature luteinization and cumulus cell defects in ovarian-specific ... If the SMAD 4 mutation is acquired, it will only exist in certain somatic cells. Indeed, SMAD 4 is not synthesized by all cells ... expression of the genes involved in cell growth is no longer regulated and cell proliferation can go on without any inhibition ... PP2A-dependent apoptotic effect of exogenous transforming growth factor beta 1 in lymphoma cells". Experimental Cell Research. ...
*  In vitro maturation
Oocytes are classified depending on their condition, such as number of cumulus cells. The best oocytes are chosen to be matured ... Ouandaogo, Z.G.; Assou, S.; Haouzi, D.; Anahory, T.; Dechaud, H.; Hamamah, S. "Gene expression profile in human cumulus cells ... This results in an expanding or dispersed pattern of the cumulus oophorus around the egg cell, facilitating its identification ... develop into primary follicle containing cuboidal granulosa cells. A secondary follicle is formed with a few granulosa cell ...
*  PAEP
... cumulus cell, immune cell and clinical associations". Human Reproduction Update. 13 (3): 275-87. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmm004. ... DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (6): 401-13. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.401. PMID 2206398. Check JH, Nowroozi K, Chase JS, Vaze M, Joshi S ... a major lipocalin protein of the reproductive axis with diverse actions in cell recognition and differentiation". Endocrine ...
*  Sperm chemotaxis
Progesterone from the cumulus cells is the sperm chemoattractant secreted by the rabbit oocyte cumulus complex. PLoS ONE 3, ... One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... Cell Biol. 7, 276-285. Alvarez, L., Friedrich, B.M., Gompper, G., Kaupp. U.B. (2013). "The computational sperm cell". Trends in ...
*  Sperm guidance
One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... A key feature of sperm chemotaxis in humans is that this process is restricted to capacitated cells - the only cells that ... and sperm chemoattractants secreted from the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells, respectively - strongly suggest the ...
*  Growth differentiation factor-9
Typical of later stages of follicle development is the appearance of cumulus cells. GDF9 causes the expansion of cumulus cells ... allowing the expansion of cumulus cells. Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this ... Single-cell expression analysis of BMP15 and GDF9 in mature oocytes and BMPR2 in cumulus cells of women with polycystic ovary ... cumulus and theca cells. Paracrine interactions between the developing oocyte and its surrounding follicular cells is essential ...
*  Ryuzo Yanagimachi
... after the cumulus cells whose nuclei were used to clone her. At the time of the publication of this work over fifty mice ... the genomic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei as well as the production of pluripotent stem cells from adult somatic cells ... The first male animal cloned from adult cells was announced in 1999. In 2004 the laboratory participated in the cloning of an ... The first one was a female named Cumulina from the cells that surround the developing ovarian follicle in mice. Yanagimachi was ...
*  Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Because of the molecular interactions between cumulus cells and the oocyte, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be ... Sampling of cumulus cells can be performed in addition to a sampling of polar bodies or cells from the embryo. ... Oocytes are carefully denudated from the cumulus cells, as these cells can be a source of contamination during the PGD if PCR- ... By relying on the result of one cell from the multi-cell embryo, PGD operates under the assumption that this cell is ...
*  Cortical granule
... and finally cumulus cells. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that the released contents of the cortical granules modify ... This space is called the cortical granule free domain (CGFD) and has been observed in both the cell's meiotic spindle regions ... The oocyte has been shown to obtain maximum proficiency for releasing calcium at this same cell stage, between metaphase I and ... Within the oocyte, cortical granules are located along the cortex, the region furthest from the cell's center. Following ...
*  NRIP1
... nuclear receptor cofactor receptor-interacting protein 140 is a positive regulator of amphiregulin expression and cumulus cell- ... Cell. Biol. 18 (11): 6745-55. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.11.6745. PMC 109258 . PMID 9774688. Miyata KS, McCaw SE, Meertens LM, et al. ( ... Cell. 29 (6): 755-66. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2008.01.020. PMC 2364611 . PMID 18374649. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane- ... Cell. Biol. 16 (11): 6029-36. PMC 231605 . PMID 8887632. Yan ZH, Karam WG, Staudinger JL, et al. (1998). "Regulation of ...
*  SPAM1
1994). "A hyaluronidase activity of the sperm plasma membrane protein PH-20 enables sperm to penetrate the cumulus cell layer ... This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell ... Cell Biol. 111 (6 Pt 2): 2939-49. doi:10.1083/jcb.111.6.2939. PMC 2116349 . PMID 2269661. Lin Y, Mahan K, Lathrop WF, et al. ( ... Cells Tissues Organs (Print). 168 (1-2): 82-92. doi:10.1159/000016809. PMID 11114590. Csoka AB, Frost GI, Stern R (2002). "The ...
*  Kevin Eggan
"Abnormal gene expression in cloned mice derived from embryonic stem cell and cumulus cell nuclei." Proceedings of the National ... Understanding what happens when the cell is reprogrammed is one of the main goals of studying embryonic stem cells. But right ... Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major ... "Approval granted for Harvard Stem Cell Institute researchers to attempt creation of disease-specific embryonic stem cell lines ...
*  Cumulus oophorus
... is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. In the ... This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa in order for fertilization to occur. Functions of the cumulus oophorus ... Also used in cloning procedures As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells ... In gene expression profiling of cumulus cells, genes where increased expression is correlated with higher oocyte competence or ...
*  Ovulation
An increase in cumulus cell number causes a concomitant increase in antrum fluid volume that can swell the follicle to over 20 ... For ovulation to be successful, the ovum must be supported by the corona radiata and cumulus oophorous granulosa cells. The ... Mucification is the secretion of a hyaluronic acid-rich cocktail that disperses and gathers the cumulus cell network in a ... By this time, the oocyte has completed meiosis I, yielding two cells: the larger secondary oocyte that contains all of the ...
*  Basic fibroblast growth factor
... polymerase chain reaction shows expression of basic fibroblast growth factor transcripts in human granulosa and cumulus cells ... It is necessary in mouse-feeder cell dependent culture systems, as well as in feeder and serum-free culture systems. FGF2, in ... Additionally, bFGF is a critical component of human embryonic stem cell culture medium; the growth factor is necessary for the ... After differentiation, BMP4 and FGF2 treated cells generally produces higher amounts of osteogenic and chondrogenic ...
*  Hyperactivation
Sperm activation has been shown to be caused by calcium ionophores in vitro, progesterone released by nearby cumulus cells and ... Mammalian sperm cells become more active when they approach an egg cell in a process called sperm activation. ... Hyperactivation could then be followed by the acrosome reaction where the cap-like structure on the head of the cell releases ... Before reaching the egg, the sperm are often trapped in epithelial cells in a Fallopian tube, meaning they are rendered inert ...
*  Embryo quality
Gene expression profiling of cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte and early embryo, or on granulosa cells, provides an ... Profiling of cumulus cells can give valuable information regarding the efficiency of an ovarian hyperstimulation protocol, and ... Molecular analysis can be performed by taking one of the cells from an embryo. The analys can vary in extent from a single ... A major drawback of genomic profiling for embryo quality is that the results generally rely on the assessment of a single cell ...
*  Spermatozoon
... progesterone released by nearby cumulus cells and binding to ZP3 of the zona pellucida. The cumulus cells are embedded in a gel ... Sperm cells were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1677. The human sperm cell is the reproductive cell in males and ... Sperm cells come in two types, "female" and "male". Sperm cells that give rise to female (XX) offspring after fertilization ... Mammalian sperm cells become even more active when they approach an egg cell in a process called sperm activation. Sperm ...
*  Acrosome reaction
The cumulus cells are embedded in a gel-like substance made primarily of hyaluronic acid, and developed in the ovary with the ... The first stage is the penetration of corona radiata, by releasing hyaluronidase from the acrosome to digest cumulus cells ... Those cells are not able to fertilise the egg, even if they do reach it later. Other cells will spontaneously shed their ... Part of the sperm's cell membrane then fuses with the egg cell's membrane, and the contents of the head sink into the egg. In ...
*  BMPR2
"Single-cell expression analysis of BMP15 and GDF9 in mature oocytes and BMPR2 in cumulus cells of women with polycystic ovary ... BMPs are involved in a host of cellular functions including osteogenesis, cell growth and cell differentiation. Signaling in ... Cell. 11 (3): 1023-35. doi:10.1091/mbc.11.3.1023. PMC 14828 . PMID 10712517. Kirsch T, Nickel J, Sebald W (July 2000). "BMP-2 ... BMPR2 is expressed on both human and animal granulosa cells, and is a crucial receptor for bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 ...
*  Maximum parcel level
Dynamic processes within and between convective cells, such as updraft merging and cloud base areal size, factor into the ... "Entrainment and Detrainment in Numerically Simulated Cumulus Congestus Clouds. Part I: General Results". J. Atmos. Sci. 55 (23 ... "Entrainment and Detrainment in Numerically Simulated Cumulus Congestus Clouds. Part III: Parcel Analysis". J. Atmos. Sci. 55 ( ...