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*  Inbreeding depression
In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from ... Different populations of the same species have different deleterious traits, and therefore their cross breeding will not result ... Bernstein, H; Byerly, HC; Hopf, FA; Michod, RE (1985). "Genetic damage, mutation, and the evolution of sex". Science. 229 (4719 ... Genetic Effects of Straying of Non-Native Hatchery Fish into Natural Populations. ...
*  Genetic purging
Darwin, C. R. (1876). The effects of cross and selffertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. London: John Murray. Crnokrak, P.; ... Genetic purging is the reduction of the frequency of a deleterious allele occurred by an increased efficiency of natural ... As an example of genetic purging, consider a large population where there are recessive lethal alleles segregating at very low ... Nevertheless, in practical situations, the genetic change in fitness also depends on many other factors, besides inbreeding and ...
*  Genetic recombination
For instance, an inter-strand cross-link (caused by exposure to a cross-linking agent such as mitomycin C) can be repaired by ... In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from ... The shuffling of genes brought about by genetic recombination produces increased genetic variation. It also allows sexually ... During meiosis, synapsis (the pairing of homologous chromosomes) ordinarily precedes genetic recombination. Genetic ...
*  Mosquito-borne disease
Dengue virus has four different serotypes, each of which are antigenically related but have limited cross-immunity to ... the virus's genetic coding, rendering it inert. Human infection with a mosquito-borne virus occurs when a female mosquito bites ... Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis, La Crosse encephalitis and several other encephalitic ... La Crosse encephalitis, and Zika fever.[better source needed] The female mosquito of the genus Anopheles carries the malaria ...
*  Homologous recombination
This changes the D-loop to a cross-shaped structure known as a Holliday junction. Following this, more DNA synthesis occurs on ... Lobo I, Shaw K (2008). "Thomas Hunt Morgan, genetic recombination, and gene mapping". Nature Education. 1 (1). Coe E, Kass LB ( ... If the D-loop is cut, another swapping of strands forms a cross-shaped structure called a Holliday junction. Resolution of the ... These new combinations of DNA represent genetic variation in offspring, which in turn enables populations to adapt during the ...
*  Transgressive segregation
These 31 crosses indicate a higher resistance to STB. The crosses used were from other commercial wheat's that were high ... Environmental Other than the genetic factors solely causing transgressive segregation, environmental factors can cause genetic ... Genetic There are many causes for transgressive segregation in hybrids. One cause can be due to recombination of additive ... Transgressive segregation can be seen as genetic engineering in the way that the goal for each of these events is to create an ...
*  Live foal guarantee
There are certain genetic crosses that are lethal to the foal.) There is no point to re-breeding in such cases, so the stallion ... This is to ensure that the mare is healthy & able to carry a foal, and to check for genetic incompatibilities. ( ...
*  Papilio dardanus
Genetic crosses of individuals found a general dominance hierarchy within the alleles. Allele combinations also determine not ... In other words, alleles did not enter into the genome from genetic transfer from other species. Different combinations of the ...
*  Betula oycoviensis
B. oycoviensis is a genetic cross of two other species of Betula; B. pendula and B. szaferi, the latter having specimens in a ...
*  Experimental evolution
More recent experiments are following up E&R predictions with RNAseq and genetic crosses. Such efforts in combining E&R with ... The other is from allele frequency change in standing genetic variation already present in a population of organisms. Other ... Elena, S. F.; Lenski, R. E. (2003). "Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation". ... Elena SF, Lenski RE (June 2003). "Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation". Nat ...
*  Neurospora crassa
... consider genetic crosses of two N. crassa mutant strains defective in gene pan-2. This gene is necessary for the synthesis of ... The two pan-2 mutations B5 and B3 are located at different sites in the pan-2 gene, so that a cross of B5 ´ B3 yields wild-type ... N. crassa is used as a model organism because it is easy to grow and has a haploid life cycle that makes genetic analysis ... Analysis of genetic recombination is facilitated by the ordered arrangement of the products of meiosis in Neurospora ascospores ...
*  Michigan State University academics
In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to ...
*  Michigan State University
In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to ... Erickson, C. (2007). 2007-2008 Michigan State Cross Country and Track and Field Media Guide. East Lansing: MSU Sports ... Michigan State hosted the inaugural NCAA cross country championships in 1938 and every year thereafter through 1964 (there was ...
*  Salmo trutta fario
The tiger trout (Salmo trutta fario × Salvelinus fontinalis) is a genetic cross between a riverine brown trout and a brook ...
*  T4 rII system
The experimental system is based on genetic crosses of different mutant strains of bacteriophage T4, a virus that infects the ... Through genetic mapping, the researchers had identified specific regions in the T4 chromosome, called the rI, rII, and rIII ... By various crosses of the many different strains exhibited deletions and point mutations, Benzer located each point mutation ... The recombination frequency from a cross of two rII mutants (a x d) is usually less than the sum of recombination frequencies ...
*  ERCC1
Reflecting this cross-species genetic complementation method, the gene was called "Excision repair cross-complementing 1". ... Kuraoka I, Kobertz WR, Ariza RR, Biggerstaff M, Essigmann JM, Wood RD (Aug 2000). "Repair of an interstrand DNA cross-link ... Homologous integration of DNA, an important technique for genetic manipulation, is dependent on the function of ERCC1-XPF in ... Bohanes P, Labonte MJ, Lenz HJ (Sep 2011). "A review of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 in colorectal cancer". ...
*  Broghol
Modern Europeans carrying the M45 genetic marker crossed Broghol and then turned west; M45 further mutated to become M173 and ... 3798 m./12,460 ft), is a high mountain pass along the Durand Line border that crosses the Hindu Kush mountain range and ... It is possible that Marco Polo crossed the Broghol Pass to reach China. The 1985 comedy movie Spies Like Us depicts Dan Aykroyd ... after crossing Broghol they would have had to walk more than 200 miles down to Jalalabad or else would have had to cross ...
*  Domestication of animals
Cross-breed animals Genetic hybrids of wild and domestic parents. They may be forms intermediate between both parents, forms ... The Single Genetic Regulatory Network Hypothesis claims that genetic changes in upstream regulators affect downstream systems. ... There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations. There is also such a difference between the domestication ... The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks - including ...
*  Tropic cues involved in growth cone guidance
Tear, G; Seeger, M; Goodman, CS (1993). "To cross or not to cross: a genetic analysis of guidance at the midline". Perspectives ... Comm expression turns off after the growth cone has crossed the midline; this permits Robo/Slit repulsion and prevents the ... Robo receptors were initially identified in Drosophila melanogaster using a forward genetic screen to search for molecules ... Before crossing the midline Robo3.1 inhibits Slit/Robo repulsive signaling, allowing the commissural axon to cross; after ...
*  Phycomyces
Eslava AP, Alvarez MI, Burke PV, Delbrück M (July 1975). "Genetic recombination in sexual crosses of phycomyces". Genetics. 80 ...
*  P element
Grow flies and cross to remove genetic variation between the cells of the organism. (Only some of the cells of the organism ... Grow flies and cross to remove genetic variation between the cells of the organism (see above). Look for flies expressing the ... The reverse cross, with M father and P mother, produces normal offspring, as it crosses P x P or M x M manner. P male ... Thus, in a cross of a P or M male with a P female, the female cytoplasm contains the suppressor, which binds to any P elements ...
*  Transposons as a genetic tool
Grow flies and cross to remove genetic variation between the cells of the organism. (Only some of the cells of the organism ... Grow flies and cross to remove genetic variation between the cells of the organism (see above). Look for flies expressing the ... that can be used as a process for genetic research. To use this process as a useful and controllable genetic tool, the two ... Currently transposons can be used in genetic research and recombinant genetic engineering for insertional mutagenesis. ...
*  Non-Mendelian inheritance
If the genotypes of both parents in a genetic cross are known, Mendel's laws can be used to determine the distribution of ... Individuals who possess cells with genetic differences from the other cells in their body are termed mosaics. These differences ... each still possesses genetic material in the form of double stranded DNA. It is the transmission of this organellar DNA that is ... in fungal crosses. Another form of non-Mendelian inheritance is known as infectious heredity. Infectious particles such as ...
*  Ac/Ds Activator/Dissociation Transposable Element
... and by subsequent genetic crosses, remove the Ac that causes new mutants and instability of a Ds mutant. Collections of Ac/Ds ... Its discovery was based on studying its genetic behavior, i.e., "jumping genes" in maize and published by Barbara McClintock, ...
*  Renaissance Computing Institute
... a software algorithm that allows for the identification of moderately penetrant genomic variants using cross-population genetic ... Webb, A. E. (2011). Linkage, Association, And Haplotype Analysis: A Spectrum Of Approaches To Elucidate The Genetic Influences ... Genetic Medical Workflow) Engine, which was funded in part by the NIH and provides end-to-end capture, analysis, validation, ... A Genetic Medical Workflow Engine. RENCI, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. doi:10.7921.G0KW5CXC. Available at: http ...
*  Phage display
Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... evolution of a neutralizing human antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to enhance affinity and broaden strain cross- ... The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence within the phage. This phage-display library is added to the dish and ... Danner S, Belasco JG (November 2001). "T7 phage display: a novel genetic selection system for cloning RNA-binding proteins from ...
*  Zhiwulin Black
Y.H. Ma, Y. Jiang (1992). The effects of improvement and genetic analyses on crosses of Zhiwulin Black with Liaoning Cashmere ... Cross-breeding with the Liaoning Cashmere breed has been found to improve cashmere yields. Cashmere goat Breed data sheet: ...