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*  CpG island hypermethylation
... called CpG island methylator prototype, or CIMP. Higher levels of CpG island hypermethylation are found in CIMP. The frequent ... the CpG island is hypomethylated, and the rest of the genome is methylated. It is evident that the hypomethylation of the CpG ... A CpG island is a Cytosine and Guanine linked by a phosphate in a repeated sequence. These are genetic hotspots as they are ... Hypermethylated CpG islands also act as biomarkers, as they can help distinguish cancer from normal cells in the same sample. ...
*  Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing
... but RRBS has a greater coverage on CpG islands. One of the other most commonly used techniques for profling methylation is ... Some CpG's will be missed. Missing CpG's can also occur since this protocol is only a representative sampling of the genome. ... DNA fragments of 40-220 base pair are representative of the majority of promoter sequences and CpG islands Bisulfite conversion ... This approach enriches for CpG regions of the genome, so it can decrease the amount of sequencing required as well as decrease ...
*  Regulation of transcription in cancer
... contain a CpG island. CpG islands are generally 200 to 2000 base pairs long, have a C:G base pair content >50%, and have ... and these frequently contain CpG islands as well. An example is the promoter of the DNA repair gene ERCC1, where the CpG island ... there are about 600 to 800 heavily methylated CpG islands in promoters of genes in the tumors while these CpG islands are not ... The presence of multiple methylated CpG sites in CpG islands of promoters causes stable inhibition (silencing) of genes. ...
*  Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation
... which in turn tend to cluster in regions called CpG islands. There is a small fraction of CpG islands that can overlap or be in ... February 2000). "Aberrant CpG-island methylation has non-random and tumour-type-specific patterns". Nat. Genet. 24 (2): 132-8. ... Gardiner-Garden M, Frommer M (July 1987). "CpG islands in vertebrate genomes". J. Mol. Biol. 196 (2): 261-82. doi:10.1016/0022- ... October 2002). "An AscI Boundary Library for the Studies of Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in CpG Islands". Genome Res. 12 ...
*  Promoter (genetics)
Distal promoters also frequently contain CpG islands, such as the promoter of the DNA repair gene ERCC1, where the CpG island- ... The presence of multiple methylated CpG sites in CpG islands of promoters causes stable silencing of genes. Silencing of a gene ... but this is often followed by methylation of CpG sites in the promoter CpG island to cause the stable silencing of the gene. ... DNA methylation causing silencing in cancer typically occurs at multiple CpG sites in the CpG islands that are present in the ...
*  CG suppression
CpG island Law J, Jacobsen SE (2010). "Establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation patterns in plants and animals ... In adult somatic tissues, cytosine residues may be methylated, and this occurs almost exclusively within a symmetric CpG ... Methylated C residues spontaneously deaminate to form T residues; hence CpG dinucleotides steadily mutate to TpG dinucleotides ... which gives rise to the under-representation of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome (they occur at only 21% of the expected ...
*  Nita Ahuja
Her work initially as a postdoctoral research fellow twenty years ago identified the concept of CpG island methylator phenotype ... or CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. This concept of CIMP now is known to have implications for prognosis as ... "CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 8681-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.15.8681. ...
*  KDM2A
Blackledge NP, Zhou JC, Tolstorukov MY, Farcas AM, Park PJ, Klose RJ (Apr 2010). "CpG islands recruit a histone H3 lysine 36 ... This mechanism acts to create a chromatin environment at CpG islands that highlights these regulatory elements and ... within FBXL11/KDM2A has the capacity to interact with non-methylated DNA and this domain targets FBXL11/KDM2A to CpG island ...
*  DNA methyltransferase
Jair KW, Bachman KE, Suzuki H, Ting AH, Rhee I, Yen RW, Baylin SB, Schuebel KE (2006). "De novo CpG Island Methylation in Human ... DNMT3a prefers CpG methylation to CpA, CpT, and CpC methylation, though there appears to be some sequence preference of ... DNMT3a methylates CpG sites at a rate much slower than DNMT1, but greater than DNMT3b. DNMT3L contains DNA methyltransferase ... The recognition motif for the human enzyme involves only three of the bases in the CpG dinucleotide pair: a C on one strand and ...
*  Epigenetics of human development
Regions in which cytosines prior to guanines are clustered and highly unmethylated are called CpG islands, and often serve as ... PRC2 is rectruited by many elements, including CpG islands. PRC1, meanwhile, ubiquitinates H2AK119 using Ring1A/B's E3 ligase ... DNA methylation in humans and most other mammals refers to the methylation of a CpG. Methylation of these cytosines are common ...
*  Rob Klose
Klose, Rob (2010). "CpG islands recruit a histone H3 lysine 36 demethylase". Mol Cell. 38 (2): 179-90. doi:10.1016/j.molcel. ... In particular, he has focused on understanding how DNA encoded regulatory elements in vertebrates, called CpG islands, help to ... Klose, Rob (2013). "ZF-CxxC domain-containing proteins, CpG islands and the chromatin connection". Biochem Soc Trans. 41 (3): ... Klose, Rob (2005). "DNA binding selectivity of MeCP2 due to a requirement for A/T sequences adjacent to methyl-CpG". Mol Cell. ...
*  Demethylase
Blackledge NP, Zhou JC, Tolstorukov MY, Farcas AM, Park PJ, Klose RJ (Apr 2010). "CpG islands recruit a histone H3 lysine 36 ... In many eukaryotes, the KDM2A protein contains a CXXC zinc finger domain capable of binding unmethylated CpG islands. It is ...
*  SLC10A3
This gene maps to a GC-rich region of the X chromosome and was identified by its proximity to a CpG island. It is thought to be ... Alcalay M, Toniolo D (1988). "CpG islands of the X chromosome are gene associated". Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (20): 9527-43. doi: ...
*  DNMT1
Jair KW, Bachman KE, Suzuki H, Ting AH, Rhee I, Yen RW, Baylin SB, Schuebel KE (January 2006). "De novo CpG island methylation ... DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups to specific CpG structures in ...
*  Marianne Frommer
"CpG islands. They showed that CpG islands are a distinct feature of vertebrate genomes and that CpG islands are associated with ... that the majority of neural and neuroendocrine genes were associated with CpG islands and therefore proposed that CpG islands ... CpG-rich DNA. Cell 40: 91-99. Gardiner-Garden, M. and Frommer, M. (1987). CpG islands in vertebrate genomes. J. Mol. Biol. 196 ... Gardiner-Garden, M. and Frommer, M. (1994). Transcripts and CpG islands associated with the pro-opiomelanocortin gene and other ...
*  60S ribosomal protein L24
Cross SH, Charlton JA, Nan X, Bird AP (1994). "Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column". Nat. Genet. ...
*  FKBP3
Cross SH, Charlton JA, Nan X, Bird AP (1994). "Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column". Nat. Genet. ...
*  GRIN2D
"Isolation of estrogen-responsive genes with a CpG island library". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (1): 442-9. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.1.442. ...
*  GC-content
Aïssani B, Bernardi G (October 1991). "CpG islands, genes and isochores in the genomes of vertebrates". Gene. 106 (2): 185-95. ...
*  PAX7
Cross SH, Charlton JA, Nan X, Bird AP (March 1994). "Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column". Nature ...
*  Vasopressin receptor 1A
Cross SH, Charlton JA, Nan X, Bird AP (Mar 1994). "Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column". Nature ...
*  Epigenetics
CpG sites are frequently mutated and become rare in the genome, except at CpG islands where they remain unmethylated. ... Transcription from methylated CpG islands is strongly and heritably repressed. Other miRNAs are epigenetically regulated by ... About 50% of miRNA genes are associated with CpG islands, that may be repressed by epigenetic methylation. ... "Role of nucleosomal occupancy in the epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 CpG island". Cancer Cell. 12 (5): 432-44. doi:10.1016/j. ...
*  Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide
Cross SH, Charlton JA, Nan X, Bird AP (1994). "Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column". Nat. Genet. ...
*  Toll-like receptor
... or the unmethylated CpG islands of bacterial and viral DNA; and also of the CpG islands found in the promoters of eukaryotic ... TLR 9: CpG DNA TLR 10: unknown TLR 11: profilin from Toxoplasma gondii, also possibly uropathogenic bacteria TLR 12: profilin ...
*  Ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1
Cross SH, Charlton JA, Nan X, Bird AP (1994). "Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column". Nat. Genet. ...
*  TENM3
"A Genome-Wide Screen for Normally Methylated Human CpG Islands That Can Identify Novel Imprinted Genes". Genome Research. 12 (4 ...
*  Molecular pathological epidemiology
October 2013). "The CpG island methylator phenotype: what's in a name?". review. Cancer Research. 73 (19): 5858-68. doi:10.1158 ... Curtin K, Slattery ML, Samowitz WS (April 2011). "CpG island methylation in colorectal cancer: past, present and future". ...