Cooperative behavior[edit]. Some evidence indicates the existence of cooperative behavior among three-spined sticklebacks, ... Stickleback behavior is often cited as an archetypal example of cooperative behavior during predator inspection. Fish from ... Both examples of stickleback behavior demonstrate the elements of a strategy of cooperation that may resemble tit-for-tat.[26] ... It displays elaborate breeding behavior (defending a territory, building a nest, taking care of the eggs and fry) and it can be ...
This might take on a form like VISA or Mastercard, co-operatives that are mostly owned by banks but run as separate entities. ... Cheap oil drives bad behavior. The U.S. consumes energy resources disproportionally to its population and is among the largest ... Condition aid to both parties on good behavior (e.g., remove settlements) and progress in negotiations. Set up milestones and ...
van den Assem; van Dolder; Thaler (2012). "Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior when the Stakes are Large". SSRN 1592456.. Cite ... Situations in nature that are subject to the same dynamics (rewards and penalties) as the PDG define cooperative behavior: it ... There are striking parallels between cooperative behavior and exaggerated sexual ornaments displayed by some animals, ... some species have been found to perform cooperative behaviors that may at first sight seem detrimental to their own ...
"Heritability of Cooperative Behavior in the Trust Game" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (10): 3721- ... "Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (12): 5334-5338. ... Centola, Damon (2010). "The Spread of Behavior in an Online Social Network Experiment". Science. 329 (5995): 1194-1197. Bibcode ... the study of the genetic basis of political behavior). He is currently Professor of Medical Genetics in the School of Medicine ...
Cooperative evaluation of French centers of pharmacovigilance]". Thérapie (in French). 43 (4): 307-11. PMID 2903572.. ... Franzoni E, Masoni P, Mambelli M, Marzano P, Donati C (1987). "[Niaprazine in behavior disorders in children. Double-blind ...
Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top ... organizational behavior, organizational theory, strategic management,[28] accounting, corporate finance, entertainment, global ...
BehaviorEdit. Cooperative huntingEdit. Reef-associated roving coralgroupers (Plectropomus pessuliferus) have been observed to ... This is the only known instance of interspecies cooperative hunting among fish. Cooperation on other levels, such as at ... a team of biologists announced the discovery of interspecies cooperative hunting involving morays. The biologists, who were ...
Social behavior in passalid beetles (Coleoptera: Passalidae): cooperative broode care. Florida Entomologist 68: 266-272. ... Pupal cell-building behavior in passalid beetles (Coleoptera: Passalidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 6: 33-41 ... the significance of living in tunnels for the evolution of social behavior [pp. 181-215]. In: The Evolution of Social Behavior ... The ecology and behavior of a subsocial pentatomid bug and two scelionid wasps: strategy and counter-strategy in a host and its ...
"Neuronal Prediction of Opponent's Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates". Cell. 160 (6): 1233-1245. doi: ... Theory of mind is a theory insofar as the behavior of the other person, such as their statements and expressions, is the only ... For instance, 9-month-old infants prefer looking at behaviors performed by a human hand over those made by an inanimate hand- ... Very early setbacks can alter proper advancement of joint-attention behaviors, which may lead to a failure to form a full ...
Cooperative breeding behavior has been observed in captivity in this species. The female lays two eggs in a flimsy tree ... Behavior[edit]. Turacos are social birds, travelling in flocks of around ten to twelve individuals. They are not strong fliers ...
While that does not necessitate co-operative behavior, it does help.[citation needed] ... Consequently, if survival requires competitive behaviors, the individual will compete, and if survival requires co-operative ... In non-cooperative games, the most famous of these is the Nash equilibrium. A set of strategies is a Nash equilibrium if each ... Noam Nisan and Amir Ronen (2001). "Algorithmic Mechanism Design," Games and Economic Behavior, 35(1-2), pp. 166-96.. • Noam ...
Submissive, co-operative behavior. Equivalent to the 'bottom dog' position in the model of Fritz Perls, to 'I'm not OK' in the ... The imprint on this circuit will trigger one of two states: Dominant, aggressive behavior. This imprint creates an 'alpha' ...
Harems also facilitate socialized behavior such as grooming and cooperative defense of territory.[1][14] ... "Mating Behavior Of The Male Greater Rhea." The Wilson Bulletin 113.1 (2001): 85-89. Print. ... predator avoidance and cooperative defense of territory. The disadvantages for the male are the energetic costs of gaining or ...
Oxford University Press, (1996). Nielsen, Richard P. "Cooperative strategy." Strategic Management Journal, (1988): 475-492. ... Nielsen, Richard P. "Changing unethical organizational behavior." Academy of Management Perspectives, (1989): 123-130. Nielsen ...
Jones, Garett (2008). "Are smarter groups more cooperative? Evidence from prisoner's dilemma experiments, 1959-2003". Journal ... Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 85: 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2012.10.014. ISSN 0167-2681. Jones, Garett (2008). " ... of Economic Behavior & Organization. 68 (3-4): 489-497. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2008.06.010. ISSN 0167-2681. Al-Ubaydli, Omar; Jones ...
Duplaix, Nicole (1980). "Observations on the ecology and behavior of the giant river otter Pteronura brasiliensis in Suriname ... The groups are centered on a dominant breeding pair and are extremely cohesive and cooperative. Although generally peaceful, ... Defence against intruding animals appears to be cooperative: while adult males typically lead in aggressive encounters, cases ... "active avoidance behavior with visible panic" when boats appeared. Logging, hunting, and pup seizure may have led groups to be ...
Begging behavior in mongooses is unusual in that it is cooperative. Escorts are influenced by the total signal emanating from ... Begging behavior in mongooses is cooperative. Adults are influenced by the total signal emanating from the litter, so that pups ... In this swaying behavior, larvae raise their head and neck, and gently reach and wave towards workers or food items. Hungry ... Begging behavior in some penguins is unusual among birds in that under some circumstances, it involves the chick chasing the ...
"Axiology as the Science of Preferential Behavior." In Value: A Cooperative Inquiry, ed. R. Lepley (New York: 1951), pp. 211-222 ... "Toward a Unified Theory of Human Behavior." In Toward a Unified Theory of Human Behavior, ed. R.R. Grinker (New York: 1956), pp ... Charles W. Morris (1946). Signs, Language and Behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1946. Reprinted, New York: George Braziller, ... "Similarity of Constitutional Factors in Psychotic Behavior in India, China and the United States." American Journal of ...
... and social behavior. Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates, 318-337. Rood, J.P. (1983). Banded mongoose rescues pack member from ... Mitani J.C., Sanders W.J., Lwanga J.S., Windfelder T.L. (2001). "Predatory behavior of crowned hawk-eagles (Stephanoaetus ... van Niekerk, J.H. (2015). Vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) based on visual and sound playback surveys in ... Estes, R. (1991). The behavior guide to African mammals (Vol. 64). Berkeley: University of California Press. http://bigcats3. ...
Cooperative and competitive behavior of hypercycles". Journal of Differential Equations. 32 (3): 357-368. Bibcode:1979JDE....32 ... In separation, the selfish subsystem grew faster than the cooperative one. After mixing selfish ribozymes with cooperative ones ... In 2012, the first experimental proof for the emergence of a cooperative network among fragments of self-assembling ribozymes ... Studies of the mathematical model describing replicating molecules revealed that to observe a cooperative behaviour among self- ...
Much of this behavior occurs due to kin selection. Kin selection allows cooperative behavior to evolve where the actor receives ... Stable cooperative behavior requires that it provide a benefit to both the actor and recipient, though the benefit to the actor ... Cooperative behavior may also be enforced, where their failure to cooperate results in negative consequences. One of the best ... This includes reciprocity, where the recipient of the cooperative behavior repays the actor at a later time. This may occur in ...
"Cooperative Behavior Cascades in Human Social Networks" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (12): 5334- ... "Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (12): 5334-5338. ... "Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (12): 5334-5338. ... that cooperative behavior could spread to three degrees of separation.[26] In a TED talk, Christakis summarizes the broader ...
Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. University of Arizona. 2001 [16 September 2015].. ... Traniello, J.F.A.; Leuthold, R.H. Behavior and Ecology of Foraging in Termites. Springer Netherlands. 2000: 141-168. ISBN 978- ... Choe, J.C.; Crespi, B.J. The evolution of social behavior in insects and arachnids 1st. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. ... Cornelius, M.L.; Osbrink, W.L. Effect of soil type and moisture availability on the foraging behavior of the Formosan ...
Moulin, Hervé (1992). "Welfare bounds in the cooperative production problem". Games and Economic Behavior. 4 (3): 373-401. doi: ...
van den Assem; van Dolder; Thaler (2012). "Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large". Management Science ... such as decision making under risk and cooperative behavior. In Helena, Montana a smoking ban was in effect in all public ... Game shows have been used to study a wide range of different types of economic behavior, ...
Clarke, Michael F. (1984). "Co-operative Breeding by the Australian Bell Miner Manorina melanophrys Latham: A Test of Kin ... doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00083-4. Clarke, MF (1988). "The Reproductive Behavior of the Bell Miner". Emu. 88 (2): 88-100. doi: ... Swainson, G.W. (1970). "Co-operative rearing in the Bell Miner". Emu. 70 (4): 183-188. doi:10.1071/MU970183. Clarke, MF; ... "Brood sex ratio does not affect helper effort in a cooperative bird, despite extreme sex-biased dispersal". Animal Behaviour. ...
Intraspecies cooperative foraging has also been observed. These behaviors may also be transmitted via teaching. Controversially ... The dolphins were not trained for this behavior; the collaboration began before 1847. Similar cooperative fisheries also exist ... A 2005 study showed mothers most likely teach the behavior to their offspring, evincing culture (behavior learned from other ... The behavior involves creation of a U-shaped plume of mud in the water column and then rushing through the plume to capture ...
Cooperative behavior of many animals can be understood as an example of the prisoner's dilemma. Often animals engage in long- ... Sometimes cooperative behaviors do emerge in business situations. For instance, cigarette manufacturers endorsed the making of ... In reality, humans display a systemic bias towards cooperative behavior in this and similar games despite what is predicted by ... The prisoner's dilemma game can be used as a model for many real world situations involving cooperative behavior. In casual ...
Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2010). "Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks". Proceedings of the ... Or, it might be much more effective to motivate clusters of people to avoid criminal behavior than to act upon individuals or ... These studies employ emblematic models used to study the diffusion of information, opinions, ideas and behaviors on a wide ... Christakis and Fowler explored the influence of social connections on behavior. They described how social influence does not ...
M.J. van den Assem, D. van Dolder and R.H. Thaler (2010). "Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes are Large" ... van den Assem, van Dolder, and Thaler (2012). "Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior when the Stakes are Large". SSRN 1592456. ... promotes cooperative behavior in situations where direct reciprocity is unlikely. This implies that in situations where ... The cooperative pulling paradigm is an experimental design used to assess if and under which conditions animals cooperate. It ...
For example, tit-for-tat is suggested to be the mechanism of cooperative predator inspection behavior in guppies. ... If the opponent previously was cooperative, the agent is cooperative. If not, the agent is not. This is similar to reciprocal ... If the opponent previously was cooperative, the agent is cooperative. If not, the agent is not. ... This behavior allows searching for more cooperating peers and gives a second chance to previously non-cooperating peers. The ...
"The Predatory Behavior and Ecology of Wild Chimpanzees".. *^ Milton, Katharine (1999). "A hypothesis to explain the role of ... cooperative relationships between groups such as reciprocal exchange of commodities and collaboration on hunting expeditions, ... "When Did "Modern" Behavior Emerge in Humans?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2008-02-05.. ... Lower Paleolithic Acheulean tool users, according to Robert G. Bednarik, began to engage in symbolic behavior such as art ...
JEL: K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior JEL: K40 - Geral. JEL: K41 - Litigation Process. JEL: K42 - ... JEL: J54 - Producer cooperatives; Labor managed firms. JEL: J58 - Políticas Públicas. JEL: J59 - Outros. JEL: J6 - Mobility, ... JEL: H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents JEL: H30 - Geral. JEL: H31 - Eletrodomésticos. JEL: H32 - Empresa. ... JEL: L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior JEL: L20 - Geral. JEL: L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm. JEL: L22 - ...
Behavior *Killer ape. *Cooperative eye. *Life history *Grandmother. *Patriarch. Topics. *Bipedalism. *Skeleton ...
Panic attacks and anxiety can occur; also, delusional behavior may be seen, including somatoform delusions, sometimes ... Rutgers Cooperative Research & Extension, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Deborah Smith-Fiola, Former Ocean County ...
Such behavior can also suggest deep learning algorithms, in particular when mapping of such swarms to neural circuits is ... Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization, Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 129, Springer, Berlin, ... Czirók, A.; Vicsek, T. (2006). "Collective behavior of interacting self-propelled particles". Physica A. 281: 17-29. arXiv:cond ... Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept ...
In his essay "Paris under the Occupation", Sartre wrote that the "correct" behavior of the Germans had entrapped too many ... behavior of the Germans as an excuse for passivity, and the very act of simply trying to live one's day-to-day existence ... This forms the basis for his assertion that because one cannot explain one's own actions and behavior by referring to any ...
Marchi, D.; Harper, C. M.; Chirchir, H.; Ruff, C. B. (2019). "Relative fibular strength and locomotor behavior in KNM-WT 15000 ... "Mating Behavior in Australopithecus and Early Homo: A Review of the Diagnostic Potential of Dental Dimorphism". University of ...
The field dates from the 1944 classic Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern. It has ... and cooperative preferences.[164] These techniques have led some to argue that economics is a "genuine science".[165] ... Becker, Gary S. (1976). The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. University of Chicago Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-226-04112-4. .. ... "Economics is the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative ...
Cooperative breeding, where birds other than the breeding pair help raise the young and is common in some bird families, is ... as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors". PLoS ONE. 10 (6): e0126170. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126170. PMC ... Péron, F.; Rat-Fischer, L.; Lalot, M.; Nagle, L.; Bovet, D. (2011). "Cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots ( ... "Evolution of nest-building behavior in Agapornis parrots" (PDF). Auk. 115 (2): 455-464. doi:10.2307/4089204. JSTOR 4089204 ...
The co-operative states must have adopted the same legislation in order to enter into reciprocal agreements for the attendance ... had been attached to writs used by the government to induce behavior as early as 1232. By 1350, the writ certis de causis (the ...
Cooperative organization of bacterial colonies: from genotype to morphotype. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1998;52:779-806. ... The term was used in 1999 to describe the behavior of an intelligent business ecosystem[2] where Collaborative Intelligence, or ... Ben-Jacob E, Cohen I. Cooperative formation of bacterial patterns. In: Shapiro JA, Dworkin M, eds. Bacteria as Multicellular ... Natural ecosystems, where each organism's unique signature is derived from its genetics, circumstances, behavior and position ...
... s will store extra seeds in seed caches.[8] This caching behavior affects the range-land and croplands where the ... New Mexico, (Cooperative Extension Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska- Lincoln, ... Schroder, G. D. (August 1979). "Foraging Behavior and Home Range Utilization of the Bannertail Kangaroo Rat". Ecology. ... Newmark, J. E.; Jenkins, S. H. (April 2000). "Sex Differences in Agonistic Behavior of Merriam's Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys ...
Such cooperative behaviors have sometimes been seen as arguments for left-wing politics such by the Russian zoologist and ... Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group. Using kinship terms in ... may reduce cooperative behaviors in the group.[6]. * *Indirect reciprocity.[10] The avoidance of poor reciprocators and ... Every single instance of altruistic behavior need not always increase inclusive fitness; altruistic behaviors would have been ...
Cooperative Extension, Kansas State University. 2004. *^ Huang, Yu; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu (2005). " ... Stefanie Schwartz (9 January 2008). Psychoactive Herbs in Veterinary Behavior Medicine. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 139-. ISBN 978-0 ... "Oroxylin A improves attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and inhibits ...
Institute for Sex Research (Kinsey, et al.) (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Saunders. ... a b Rust, Paula C. (November 1992). "The Politics of Sexual Identity: Sexual Attraction and Behavior Among Lesbian and Bisexual ... Female homosexual behavior may be present in every culture, although the concept of a lesbian as a woman who pairs exclusively ... In categorizing behavior that indicated what was referred to as "inversion" by German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, researchers ...
Tamarins in captivity have shown the ability to distinguish other individuals based on cooperative tendencies and past behavior ... thus adding to its range of cooperative behaviors. It is issued in the presence of kin when a threatening llamas predator is ... and in turn naturally embrace patterns of prosocial behavior.[20] These monkeys engage in such behavior by acting ... This suppresses sexual behavior and delays puberty.[22][23] Unrelated males that join the group can release the females from ...
The practice of shunning may also serve to deter other members from dissident behavior.[249] Members who disassociate (formally ... Jehovah's Witnesses have established Hospital Liaison Committees as a cooperative arrangement between individual Jehovah's ...
... behavior, and products of behavior.. pheromone. A secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in ... The degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups and form cooperative societies.. ... The study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.. bile. A dark green to yellowish-brown ... A branch of biology that is based on the hypothesis that social behavior has resulted from evolution and which attempts to ...
United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative. Gonzales v. Raich. McFadden v. United States. ... It implies an overwhelming indictment of the behavior which we believe is not appropriate. The actual and potential harm of use ... of the drug is not great enough to justify intrusion by the criminal law into private behavior, a step which our society takes ...
Negative reinforcement is the removal of an aversive stimulus after a behavior that increases the frequency of that behavior. ... A cooperative goal structure is one in which an individual must work alongside a group to reach a common goal, whereas a ... Positive reinforcement is any stimulus that is presented after a behavior and increases the frequency of that behavior. ... a reward is given as a consequence of a desired behavior and often motivates an individual to perform that behavior again in ...
Culture', in this context is defined as 'socially learned behavior', and 'social learning' is defined as copying behaviors ... argues that improving cooperative abilities and a varying of diet to more meat and seeds improved foraging and hunting ... Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 483-508. Efferson, C., R. Lalive, P. J. Richerson, R. McElreath, and M. Lubell (2008). " ... The patterns of this selective process depend on transmission biases and can result in behavior that is more adaptive to a ...
Evolution & Human Behavior 24: 99-112. Full text. *Knight, C. 2008. Early human kinship was matrilineal. In N. J. Allen, H. ... Burkart, J. M.; Hrdy, S. B.; van Schaik, C. P. (2009). "Cooperative breeding and human cognitive evolution". Evolutionary ... "co-operative conflict" between women and these laws.[70] (Clearly "female-heads have no legal recourse" from these laws which ... Biological anthropologists are now widely agreed that cooperative childcare was a development crucial in making possible the ...
Ecology and behavior[edit]. Diet[edit]. Prairie dogs are chiefly herbivorous, though they eat some insects. They feed primarily ... By five months, they are fully grown.[10] The subject of cooperative breeding in prairie dogs has been debated among biologists ... Behaviors that signal that a female is in estrus include underground consorting, self-licking of genitals, dust-bathing, and ... Alarm response behavior varies according to the type of predator announced. If the alarm indicates a hawk diving toward the ...
Cooperative rational interactions are required to both develop and exercise our ability to live in a world with others. ... Level 3: Postconventional Morality/Self-Accepted Moral Principles: Standards of moral behavior are internalized. Morals are ... and not so much in the behavior or its consequences. Through interviews with adolescent and teenage boys, who were to try and ...
Cooperative education - Cooperative learning - Core curriculum - Corporal punishment - Council for the Indian School ... Applied Behavior Analysis - Apprenticeship - Art education - Articulation (education) - Assertive discipline - Assistive ... Computer Supported Cooperative Learning - Computer-adaptive test - Computer-based training - Concept map - Conceptual blending ... Experimental analysis of behavior - Expulsion (academia) - Extinction (psychology) - Extracurricular Activity ...
Advances in information technology over the years, have changed business processes within and between business enterprises. In the 1960s, operating systems had limited functionality, and any workflow management systems that were in use were tailor-made for the specific organization. The 1970s-1980s saw the development of data-driven approaches, as data storage and retrieval technologies improved. Data modeling rather than process modeling was the starting point for building an information system. Business processes had to adapt to information technology because process modeling was neglected. The shift towards process-oriented management occurred in the 1990s. Enterprise resource planning software with workflow management components such as SAP, Baan, PeopleSoft, Oracle and JD Edwards emerged, as did business process management systems (BPMS) later.[22] The world of e-business created a need to automate business processes across organizations, which in turn raised the need for standardized ...
Feldman, Ofer; Valenty, Linda O. (2001). Profiling Political Leaders: Cross-cultural Studies of Personality and Behavior. ... Khrushchev's proposal to expand cooperative ownership ran contrary to the Marxist theory as interpreted by Stalin. Suslov, who ... In Marxist-Leninist doctrine, cooperative ownership of property was considered a "lower" form of public ownership than state ...
König, B. (1997). "Cooperative care of young in mammals". Die Naturwissenschaften. 84 (3): 95-104. Bibcode:1997NW.....84...95K ... demonstrating parental care behavior". Proteomics. 6 (7): 2251-2258. doi:10.1002/pmic.200500591. PMID 16385477. Khong, H. K.; ... "Regulation of Pigeon Cropmilk Secretion and Parental Behaviors by Prolactin". Annual Review of Nutrition. 15: 213-238. doi: ...